Martin Cj Maiden

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Molecular epidemiology of meningococcal disease in England and Wales 1975-1995, before the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccines
    Joanne E Russell
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Microbiology 154:1170-7. 2008
  2. pmc Extended sequence typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom
    Kate E Dingle
    John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1620-2. 2008
  3. pmc Genealogical typing of Neisseria meningitidis
    Xavier Didelot
    Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, UK
    Microbiology 155:3176-86. 2009
  4. pmc Changes in serogroup and genotype prevalence among carried meningococci in the United Kingdom during vaccine implementation
    Ana Belén Ibarz-Pavón
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 204:1046-53. 2011
  5. pmc Persistence of hyperinvasive meningococcal strain types during global spread as recorded in the PubMLST database
    Eleanor R Watkins
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e45349. 2012
  6. pmc Distribution and diversity of the haemoglobin-haptoglobin iron-acquisition systems in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Neisseria
    Odile B Harrison
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Microbiology 159:1920-30. 2013
  7. pmc Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages
    Helen M L Wimalarathna
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    BMC Microbiol 13:160. 2013
  8. pmc The impact of protein-conjugate polysaccharide vaccines: an endgame for meningitis?
    Martin C J Maiden
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20120147. 2013
  9. pmc Can we, should we, eradicate the meningococcus?
    Martin C J Maiden
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 30:B52-6. 2012
  10. pmc Meningococcal carriage and disease--population biology and evolution
    Dominique A Caugant
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Meningococci, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Vaccine 27:B64-70. 2009

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. pmc Molecular epidemiology of meningococcal disease in England and Wales 1975-1995, before the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccines
    Joanne E Russell
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Microbiology 154:1170-7. 2008
    ..If adequate immune responses can be generated, these results suggest that control of meningococcal disease with relatively simple protein component vaccines may be possible...
  2. pmc Extended sequence typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom
    Kate E Dingle
    John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1620-2. 2008
    ..975 to 0.992 among 620 clinical isolates from Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. This enhanced typing scheme enabled identification of clusters and retained data required for long-range epidemiologic comparisons of isolates...
  3. pmc Genealogical typing of Neisseria meningitidis
    Xavier Didelot
    Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, UK
    Microbiology 155:3176-86. 2009
    ..Analyses of the seven loci in the standard MLST scheme using the same methods reproduced this classification, but were unable to support finer inferences concerning the relationships between the members within each complex...
  4. pmc Changes in serogroup and genotype prevalence among carried meningococci in the United Kingdom during vaccine implementation
    Ana Belén Ibarz-Pavón
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 204:1046-53. 2011
    ..A large multicenter study investigated the effect of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine introduction on the meningococcal population...
  5. pmc Persistence of hyperinvasive meningococcal strain types during global spread as recorded in the PubMLST database
    Eleanor R Watkins
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e45349. 2012
    ..There was also substantial geographic and temporal heterogeneity in antigenic repertoires, providing both opportunities and challenges for the design of broad coverage protein-based meningococcal vaccines...
  6. pmc Distribution and diversity of the haemoglobin-haptoglobin iron-acquisition systems in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Neisseria
    Odile B Harrison
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Microbiology 159:1920-30. 2013
    ..These findings are consistent with HpuAB being subject to frequent genetic transfer potentially limiting the efficacy of this receptor as a vaccine candidate. ..
  7. pmc Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages
    Helen M L Wimalarathna
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    BMC Microbiol 13:160. 2013
    ..This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition...
  8. pmc The impact of protein-conjugate polysaccharide vaccines: an endgame for meningitis?
    Martin C J Maiden
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20120147. 2013
    ..To date there is little evidence for the spread of virulent vaccine escape variants of the meningococcus and H. influenzae, although this has been reported in pneumococci. ..
  9. pmc Can we, should we, eradicate the meningococcus?
    Martin C J Maiden
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 30:B52-6. 2012
    ..On balance, the control and possible elimination of disease caused by particular disease-associated meningococcal genotypes is a more achievable and worthwhile goal...
  10. pmc Meningococcal carriage and disease--population biology and evolution
    Dominique A Caugant
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Meningococci, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Vaccine 27:B64-70. 2009
    ....
  11. pmc Dam inactivation in Neisseria meningitidis: prevalence among diverse hyperinvasive lineages
    Keith A Jolley
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK
    BMC Microbiol 4:34. 2004
    ..Here, we report the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of drg in a globally representative panel of disease-associated meningococci...
  12. pmc Distribution of transferrin binding protein B gene (tbpB) variants among Neisseria species
    Odile B Harrison
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK
    BMC Microbiol 8:66. 2008
    ..As a result, the diversity of the tbpB gene was investigated in a defined collection of Neisseria species...
  13. pmc Independent evolution of the core and accessory gene sets in the genus Neisseria: insights gained from the genome of Neisseria lactamica isolate 020-06
    Julia S Bennett
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    BMC Genomics 11:652. 2010
    ..Genomic comparisons of these three bacteria will provide insights into the mechanisms and evolution of pathogenesis in this group of organisms, which are applicable to understanding these processes more generally...
  14. pmc Species status of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: evolutionary and epidemiological inferences from multilocus sequence typing
    Julia S Bennett
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK
    BMC Biol 5:35. 2007
    ..Here, the same seven locus Neisseria scheme was used to characterize a diverse collection of N. gonorrhoeae isolates to investigate whether this method would allow differentiation among isolates, and to distinguish these three species...
  15. pmc BIGSdb: Scalable analysis of bacterial genome variation at the population level
    Keith A Jolley
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:595. 2010
    ..These must be capable of the storage, retrieval, and analysis of linked phenotypic and genotypic information in an accessible, scalable and computationally efficient manner...
  16. pmc AgdbNet - antigen sequence database software for bacterial typing
    Keith A Jolley
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK
    BMC Bioinformatics 7:314. 2006
    ..Here we describe agdbNet, widely applicable web database software that facilitates simultaneous BLAST querying of multiple loci using either nucleotide or peptide sequences...
  17. pmc mlstdbNet - distributed multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) databases
    Keith A Jolley
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK
    BMC Bioinformatics 5:86. 2004
    ..The mlstdbNet software enables the implementation of distributed web-accessible MLST databases that can be linked widely over the Internet...
  18. doi request reprint Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunity
    Martin C J Maiden
    Dept of Zoology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 197:737-43. 2008
    ..The impact of this intervention on asymptomatic carriage of meningococci was investigated to establish whether serogroup replacement or protection by herd immunity occurred...
  19. ncbi request reprint Multilocus sequence typing of bacteria
    Martin C J Maiden
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Microbiol 60:561-88. 2006
    ..The increasing speed and reduced cost of nucleotide sequence determination, together with improved web-based databases and analysis tools, present the prospect of increasingly wide application of MLST...
  20. ncbi request reprint The influence of mutation, recombination, population history, and selection on patterns of genetic diversity in Neisseria meningitidis
    K A Jolley
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 22:562-9. 2005
    ..In combination, these results indicated the repeated action of natural selection on meningococcal populations, possibly arising from the coevolutionary dynamic of host-pathogen interactions...
  21. ncbi request reprint Molecular techniques for the investigation of meningococcal disease epidemiology
    M C Maiden
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3FY, UK
    Mol Biotechnol 18:119-34. 2001
    ..These data are of especial importance with the current, and ongoing, development and introduction of new meningococcal vaccines...
  22. ncbi request reprint High-throughput sequencing in the population analysis of bacterial pathogens of humans
    M C Maiden
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Med Microbiol 290:183-90. 2000
    ..The rapid development of nucleotide sequence determination and analysis techniques provides the tools necessary for the prosecution of population studies on an increasing number of bacterial pathogens...
  23. pmc Population genomics: diversity and virulence in the Neisseria
    Martin Cj Maiden
    Department of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 2PS, United Kingdom
    Curr Opin Microbiol 11:467-71. 2008
    ..These are generic approaches and their application to the Neisseria provides a foretaste for their application to the wider bacterial world...
  24. ncbi request reprint Carriage of serogroup C meningococci 1 year after meningococcal C conjugate polysaccharide vaccination
    Martin C J Maiden
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Lancet 359:1829-31. 2002
    ..Carriage of serogroup C meningococci was reduced by 66% (p=0.004). Our results show that MCC vaccines protect against carriage of meningococci that express serogroup C polysaccharide capsules...
  25. ncbi request reprint Campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in Scotland 2005/6
    Samuel K Sheppard
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    Int J Food Microbiol 134:96-103. 2009
    ..These results show robust associations of particular genotypes with potential infection sources supporting the contention that contaminated poultry is a major source of human disease...
  26. pmc Host association of Campylobacter genotypes transcends geographic variation
    Samuel K Sheppard
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:5269-77. 2010
    ..These findings are consistent with local and international transmission of host-associated lineages among food animal species and provide a foundation for further improvements in genetic attribution...
  27. ncbi request reprint Antigenic diversity of meningococcal enterobactin receptor FetA, a vaccine component
    Emily A L Thompson
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Microbiology 149:1849-58. 2003
    ..The diversity of this protein is likely to limit its effectiveness as a vaccine component...
  28. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic evidence for frequent positive selection and recombination in the meningococcal surface antigen PorB
    Rachel Urwin
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 19:1686-94. 2002
    ..These data show that phylogenetic inference can be used to complement immunological and biochemical data in the choice of vaccine candidates...
  29. ncbi request reprint Campylobacter genotyping to determine the source of human infection
    Samuel K Sheppard
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1072-8. 2009
    ....
  30. pmc Molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni clones: a basis for epidemiologic investigation
    Kate E Dingle
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:949-55. 2002
    ..These data demonstrate that the clonal complex, as defined by MLST, is an epidemiologically relevant unit for both long and short-term investigations of C. jejuni epidemiology...
  31. ncbi request reprint Multilocus sequence typing
    Ana Belén Ibarz Pavón
    Department of Zoology and Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 551:129-40. 2009
    ..Considerations pertinent to the implementation of high-capacity MLST projects (i.e., those involving thousands of isolates) are discussed...
  32. ncbi request reprint Molecular typing of meningococci: recommendations for target choice and nomenclature
    Keith A Jolley
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:89-96. 2007
    ..It is further recommended that a modified nomenclature be adopted of the form: serogroup: PorA type: FetA type: sequence type (clonal complex), thus: B: P1.19,15: F5-1: ST-33 (cc32)...
  33. ncbi request reprint Multilocus sequence typing for global surveillance of meningococcal disease
    Carina Brehony
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:15-26. 2007
    ..The project demonstrates how molecular typing can be combined with epidemiological data via the Internet for global disease surveillance...
  34. pmc Opacity-associated adhesin repertoire in hyperinvasive Neisseria meningitidis
    Martin J Callaghan
    Department of Zoology, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 74:5085-94. 2006
    ....
  35. pmc Epidemiological evidence for the role of the hemoglobin receptor, hmbR, in meningococcal virulence
    Odile B Harrison
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 200:94-8. 2009
    ..meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Neisseria lactamica sequence type-640. These data are consistent with a role for the hmbR gene in meningococcal disease...
  36. pmc Social behavior and meningococcal carriage in British teenagers
    Jenny MacLennan
    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:950-7. 2006
    ..Social behavior, rather than age or sex, can explain the higher frequency of meningococcal carriage among teenagers. A ban on smoking in public places may reduce risk for transmission...
  37. pmc Campylobacter infection of broiler chickens in a free-range environment
    Frances M Colles
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Environ Microbiol 10:2042-50. 2008
    ..jejuni populations from chickens and wild birds on the same farm than between the chicken samples, human disease isolates from the same region and national samples of C. jejuni from chicken meat...
  38. doi request reprint Convergence of Campylobacter species: implications for bacterial evolution
    Samuel K Sheppard
    Departments of Zoology and Statistics, University of Oxford, Peter Medawar Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Science 320:237-9. 2008
    ..Bacterial speciation can therefore occur by mechanisms analogous to those seen in metazoans, where genetic diversification and incipient speciation caused by ecological factors have been reported in several genera...
  39. pmc The effect of immune selection on the structure of the meningococcal opa protein repertoire
    Martin J Callaghan
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine CCVTM, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000020. 2008
    ..These data are consistent with the predictions of a mathematical model of strong immune selection upon a system where identical alleles may occupy different loci...
  40. ncbi request reprint A common gene pool for the Neisseria FetA antigen
    Julia S Bennett
    Department of Zoology, The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Int J Med Microbiol 299:133-9. 2009
    ..Carriage of commensal Neisseria species, such as N. lactamica, that express FetA may be involved in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease...
  41. pmc Opa protein repertoires of disease-causing and carried meningococci
    Martin J Callaghan
    Dept of Paediatrics, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 46:3033-41. 2008
    ..Meningococcal Opa repertoire is strongly linked to MLST genotype irrespective of epidemiological sampling and therefore correlates with invasiveness. It is not, however, strongly associated with severity of meningococcal disease...
  42. pmc Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB
    Julia S Bennett
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK
    Microbiology 154:1525-34. 2008
    ..This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component...
  43. pmc Sequence typing and comparison of population biology of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni
    Kate E Dingle
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Sciences, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:340-7. 2005
    ..The use of a common MLST scheme allows direct comparisons of the population biology and molecular epidemiology of these two closely related human pathogens...
  44. pmc Distribution of surface protein variants among hyperinvasive meningococci: implications for vaccine design
    Rachel Urwin
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:5955-62. 2004
    ..The patterns of antigenic variant combinations suggested that an OMP-based vaccine with as few as six PorA and five FetA variant sequences could generate homologous immune responses against all 78 isolates examined...
  45. pmc Variation of the factor H-binding protein of Neisseria meningitidis
    Carina Brehony
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
    Microbiology 155:4155-69. 2009
    ..The highest levels of selection were observed in regions corresponding to epitopes recognized by previously described bactericidal monoclonal antibodies...
  46. ncbi request reprint Comparison of Campylobacter populations isolated from a free-range broiler flock before and after slaughter
    Frances M Colles
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK
    Int J Food Microbiol 137:259-64. 2010
    ..This study demonstrated the utility of MLST in detecting genetic diversity before and after the slaughter process...
  47. pmc Long-term evolution of antigen repertoires among carried meningococci
    Caroline O Buckee
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 277:1635-41. 2010
    ..We contrast this antigenic structure with the overlapping but relatively stable combinations of the housekeeping genes observed among the same isolates, and use a novel network approach to visualize these relationships...
  48. pmc Host-associated genetic import in Campylobacter jejuni
    Noel D McCarthy
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:267-72. 2007
    ..Assignment using this signature enables improved prediction of source for pathogens that undergo frequent genetic recombination...
  49. pmc Evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing Campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in Scotland
    Samuel K Sheppard
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15708. 2010
    ..coli infection. Taken together these analyses are consistent with an evolutionary scenario describing the emergence of agriculture-associated C. coli lineage that is an important human pathogen...
  50. pmc Role of selection in the emergence of lineages and the evolution of virulence in Neisseria meningitidis
    Caroline O Buckee
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15082-7. 2008
    ..These findings have general implications for the emergence of lineage structure and virulence in recombining bacterial populations...
  51. pmc Genetic diversity and carriage dynamics of Neisseria lactamica in infants
    Julia S Bennett
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 73:2424-32. 2005
    ..Some participants shared identical isolates with siblings, but none shared identical isolates with their parents. These findings have implications for the design of vaccines based on this organism...
  52. ncbi request reprint Multi-locus sequence typing: a tool for global epidemiology
    Rachel Urwin
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3SY, Oxford, UK
    Trends Microbiol 11:479-87. 2003
    ..MLST schemes have been developed for a variety of procaryotic and eucaryotic pathogens and the data generated have contributed to both epidemiological surveillance and fundamental studies of pathogen biology...
  53. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of bacterial carriage and disease: lessons from the meningococcus
    Martin C J Maiden
    University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, United Kingdom
    Adv Exp Med Biol 549:23-9. 2004
  54. pmc PorA variable regions of Neisseria meningitidis
    Joanne E Russell
    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:674-8. 2004
    ..A Web-accessible database describing this nomenclature and its relationship to previous schemes was established (available from: http://neisseria.org/nm/typing/pora)...
  55. ncbi request reprint Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology
    Erko Stackebrandt
    DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1043-7. 2002
    ..The committee made various recommendations regarding the species definition in the light of developments in methodologies available to systematists...
  56. ncbi request reprint Many carried meningococci lack the genes required for capsule synthesis and transport
    Heike Claus
    Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Microbiology 148:1813-9. 2002
    ....
  57. pmc Molecular evidence for dissemination of unique Campylobacter jejuni clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles
    Birgitta Duim
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5593-7. 2003
    ..Furthermore, given the observation that C. jejuni-associated diseases appear to be more severe from November to February, it can be speculated that this may be due to the presence of virulent clones with a limited span of circulation...
  58. ncbi request reprint Epidemic meningococcal disease in sub-Saharan Africa--towards a sustainable solution?
    Andrew J Pollard
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:68-70. 2003
  59. ncbi request reprint Genetic evidence for recombination in Candida albicans based on haplotype analysis
    Arianna Tavanti
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Fungal Genet Biol 41:553-62. 2004
    ..albicans as an organism whose primary means of reproduction is clonal, but with a small but important contribution from sexual reproduction, occurring in nature but not under commonly used laboratory conditions...
  60. ncbi request reprint Collection and characterisation of bacterial membrane proteins
    Massoud Saidijam
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    FEBS Lett 555:170-5. 2003
    ..This strategy for overexpression and purification is extended to additional membrane proteins from H. pylori and from other bacteria...
  61. doi request reprint Development of an unambiguous and discriminatory multilocus sequence typing scheme for the Streptococcus zooepidemicus group
    Katy Webb
    Centre for Preventive Medicine, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, UK
    Microbiology 154:3016-24. 2008
    ..Our data provide strong evidence that S. equi evolved from an ancestral S. zooepidemicus strain and that certain related strains of S. zooepidemicus have a greater propensity to infect particular hosts and tissues...
  62. ncbi request reprint Genetic analysis of meningococci carried by children and young adults
    Heike Claus
    Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Infect Dis 191:1263-71. 2005
    ..The relationship between meningococcal genotype and capsular polysaccharide, the principal virulence factor and vaccine component, was investigated in carried meningococci isolated from 8000 children and young adults in Bavaria, Germany...
  63. pmc A chromosomally integrated bacteriophage in invasive meningococci
    Emmanuelle Bille
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale U570, Faculte de Medecine Necker, 75015 Paris, France
    J Exp Med 201:1905-13. 2005
    ..Therefore, this element, by spreading among the population, may promote the development of new epidemic clones of N. meningitidis that are capable of breaking the normal commensal relationship with humans and causing invasive disease...
  64. pmc Multilocus sequence typing scheme that provides both species and strain differentiation for the Burkholderia cepacia complex
    Adam Baldwin
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4665-73. 2005
    ..It is also the first MLST scheme designed at the outset to incorporate multiple species and should facilitate global epidemiological investigations of the BCC...
  65. pmc Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing
    Marcel A P Van Bergen
    Animal Sciences Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, P O Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5888-98. 2005
    ..Congruence was observed among C. fetus subspecies, sap type, and ST; therefore, MLST confirms that mammalian C. fetus is genetically stable, probably as result of the introduction of a single ancestral clone into a mammalian niche...
  66. ncbi request reprint Antigenic shift and increased incidence of meningococcal disease
    Lee H Harrison
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:1266-74. 2006
    ..The cyclical nature of endemic meningococcal disease remains unexplained. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms associated with the increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease...
  67. pmc Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspective
    Thierry Wirth
    Department of Molecular Biology, Schumannstrasse 21 22, Max Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 60:1136-51. 2006
    ..This long-term pattern of evolution was observed in genes distributed throughout the genome, and thereby is the likely result of episodic selection for strains that can escape the host immune response...
  68. ncbi request reprint Genetic mechanisms for loss of encapsulation in polysialyltransferase-gene-positive meningococci isolated from healthy carriers
    Martin V R Weber
    Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 296:475-84. 2006
    ..These observations are consistent with the postulate that particular meningococcal clonal complexes are associated with possession of a capsule and that this association is important for transmission success...
  69. pmc Distribution of serogroups and genotypes among disease-associated and carried isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from the Czech Republic, Greece, and Norway
    Siamak P Yazdankhah
    Department of Airborne Infections, Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P O Box 4404 Nydalen, NO 0403 Oslo, Norway
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5146-53. 2004
    ..Further, they indicated that differences in genotype diversity and pathogenicity exist between meningococcal clone complexes...
  70. pmc Multilocus sequence typing system for the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis
    Laura Baldo
    Department of Biology, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7098-110. 2006
    ..The central database for storing and organizing Wolbachia bacterial and host information can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/wolbachia/...
  71. ncbi request reprint A surveillance network for meningococcal disease in Europe
    Caroline L Trotter
    Immunization Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:27-36. 2007
    ..The importance of close collaboration between networks of epidemiologists, microbiologists, and the wider scientific and public health community is demonstrated...
  72. pmc Molecular phylogenetics of Candida albicans
    Frank C Odds
    Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Eukaryot Cell 6:1041-52. 2007
    ..Computational haplotype analysis showed a high frequency of recombination events, suggesting that isolates had mixed evolutionary histories resembling those of a sexually reproducing species...
  73. pmc Sequence variation of the SeM gene of Streptococcus equi allows discrimination of the source of strangles outbreaks
    Charlotte Kelly
    Centre for Preventive Medicine, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 44:480-6. 2006
    ..equi and not due to reversion of the vaccine strain...
  74. pmc Environmental Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates in human infections
    Adam Baldwin
    Warwick University, Coventry, Wales, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:458-61. 2007
    ..This finding links the natural environment with the emergence of many Bcc infections...
  75. pmc Optimization and validation of multilocus sequence typing for Candida albicans
    Arianna Tavanti
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3765-76. 2003
    ..Our data validate and extend previous MLST results for C. albicans, and we propose an optimized system based on sequencing eight gene fragments for routine MLST with this species...
  76. pmc Strain typing and determination of population structure of Candida krusei by multilocus sequence typing
    Mette D Jacobsen
    Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 45:317-23. 2007
    ..The C. krusei MLST database can be accessed online at http://pubmlst.org/ckrusei/...
  77. ncbi request reprint Invasion by Neisseria meningitidis varies widely between clones and among nasopharyngeal mucosae derived from adult human hosts
    Robert Townsend
    Division of Genomic Medicine, F Floor, Sheffield University Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
    Microbiology 148:1467-74. 2002
    ..This is consistent with the unpredictable epidemiology of meningococcal disease...
  78. pmc Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax
    Alex R Hoffmaster
    Epidemiologic Investigations Laboratory, Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS G34, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8449-54. 2004
    ..In this study, we combined a public health approach with genome analysis to provide insight into the correlation of phenotypic characteristics and their genetic basis...
  79. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for differentiation of strains of Candida tropicalis
    Arianna Tavanti
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5593-600. 2005
    ..tropicalis to Candida albicans and Candida glabrata as Candida species for which a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system has been set up. The C. tropicalis MLST database can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/ctropicalis/...
  80. ncbi request reprint Structural variation and immune recognition of the P1.2 subtype meningococcal antigen
    Christos Tzitzilonis
    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Proteins 62:947-55. 2006
    ..Single point mutations are sufficient to remove binding capability, providing a rationale for the manner in which different meningococcal PorA escape variants arise...
  81. pmc Population structure and properties of Candida albicans, as determined by multilocus sequence typing
    Arianna Tavanti
    Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5601-13. 2005
    ..The utility of MLST for determining clade assignments of clinical isolates will form the basis for strain selection for future research into C. albicans virulence...
  82. pmc Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III
    Arianna Tavanti
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:284-92. 2005
    ..parapsilosis and relatively high levels of sequence variability among isolates of C. orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter...
  83. pmc Population structure and evolution of the Bacillus cereus group
    Fergus G Priest
    School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
    J Bacteriol 186:7959-70. 2004
    ..We suggest a revision of the nomenclature in which the lineage and clone are recognized through name and ST designations in accordance with the clonal structure of the population...
  84. pmc Diversity in pathogenicity can cause outbreaks of meningococcal disease
    Nico Stollenwerk
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:10229-34. 2004
    ..This result lends support to the hypothesis that outbreaks of meningococcal disease are caused by diversity in the pathogenicity of meningococcal strains...