I C MacDougall

Summary

Affiliation: University Hospital Aintree
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Optimizing the use of erythropoietic agents-- pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:66-70. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Hyporesponsiveness to anemia therapy--what are we doing wrong?
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Perit Dial Int 21:S225-30. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint CREATE: new strategies for early anaemia management in renal insufficiency
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:ii13-6. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Correction of anaemia with darbepoetin alfa in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:576-81. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin resistance: the role of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines
    Iain C Macdougall
    Departments of Renal Medicine and Immunology, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:39-43. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Pure red cell aplasia with anti-erythropoietin antibodies occurs more commonly with one formulation of epoetin alfa than another
    Iain C Macdougall
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8PT, UK
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:83-6. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint The inflammatory response and epoetin sensitivity
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:48-52. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Role of uremic toxins in exacerbating anemia in renal failure
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, England, United Kingdom
    Kidney Int Suppl 78:S67-72. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Metabolic adjuvants to erythropoietin therapy
    I Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Miner Electrolyte Metab 25:357-64. 1999
  10. ncbi request reprint How to improve survival in pre-dialysis patients
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephron 85:15-22. 2000

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. ncbi request reprint Optimizing the use of erythropoietic agents-- pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:66-70. 2002
    ..A small number of studies have supported the once-weekly use of rHuEPO. All clinical trials so far conducted on darbepoetin alfa have demonstrated success with once-weekly and once every other week dosing...
  2. ncbi request reprint Hyporesponsiveness to anemia therapy--what are we doing wrong?
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Perit Dial Int 21:S225-30. 2001
    ..Some causes of hyporesponsiveness to erythropoietin, such as iron deficiency and underdialysis, are easily corrected; but others, such as primary bone marrow disorders and hemoglobinopathies, are not possible to overcome...
  3. ncbi request reprint CREATE: new strategies for early anaemia management in renal insufficiency
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:ii13-6. 2003
    ..The CREATE trial is anticipated to provide important new data that could have an impact on new strategies for management of patients with moderate anaemia and CKD not yet requiring renal replacement therapy...
  4. ncbi request reprint Correction of anaemia with darbepoetin alfa in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:576-81. 2003
    ..The optimal starting dose and frequency of administration of darbepoetin alfa were investigated for treating renal anaemia in dialysis patients...
  5. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin resistance: the role of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines
    Iain C Macdougall
    Departments of Renal Medicine and Immunology, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:39-43. 2002
    ..Strategies utilizing anti-cytokine therapy may prove to be a useful adjuvant in optimizing the response to rHuEPO therapy...
  6. ncbi request reprint Pure red cell aplasia with anti-erythropoietin antibodies occurs more commonly with one formulation of epoetin alfa than another
    Iain C Macdougall
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8PT, UK
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:83-6. 2004
    ..To compare rates of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) over time in patients with chronic renal failure treated with subcutaneous injections of two brands of epoetin alfa (either Eprex or Epogen) or epoetin beta (NeoRecormon)...
  7. ncbi request reprint The inflammatory response and epoetin sensitivity
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:48-52. 2002
    ..05). Further work in this area is required to confirm or contest the hypothesis that epoetin resistance is due to enhanced levels of immune activation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Role of uremic toxins in exacerbating anemia in renal failure
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, England, United Kingdom
    Kidney Int Suppl 78:S67-72. 2001
    ..The potential role of each of these inhibitory substances is discussed in this article...
  9. ncbi request reprint Metabolic adjuvants to erythropoietin therapy
    I Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Miner Electrolyte Metab 25:357-64. 1999
    ..As long as the cost of epoietin therapy remains fairly high, the challenge will continue as to the best way of optimizing its effect, and we can look forward to new developments in this expanding area of research...
  10. ncbi request reprint How to improve survival in pre-dialysis patients
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephron 85:15-22. 2000
    ..This survey was performed to determine how anaemia in pre-dialysis patients is currently managed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Semin Nephrol 20:375-81. 2000
    ..NESP therefore represents a triumph for drug synthesis by recombinant DNA technology, and we can look to the future of this new therapeutic agent with much hope and expectation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein compared with epoetin alfa in dialysis patients
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Am Soc Nephrol 10:2392-5. 1999
    ..The longer half-life of NESP is likely to confer a clinical advantage over Epoetin by allowing less frequent dosing in patients treated for anemia...
  13. ncbi request reprint Beneficial effects of adopting an aggressive intravenous iron policy in a hemodialysis unit
    I C MacDougall
    Departments of Renal Medicine and Pharmacy, King s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Kidney Dis 34:S40-6. 1999
    ..This simple, practical IV iron dosing policy resulted in dramatic savings in epoetin dosage and cost with no significant adverse effects...
  14. ncbi request reprint Anemia with erythropoietin deficiency occurs early in diabetic nephropathy
    D R Bosman
    King's Diabetes Centre, King's College Hospital, London, UK
    Diabetes Care 24:495-9. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Anemia associated with EPO deficiency can occur early in DN before the onset of advanced renal failure, but does not normally occur in nondiabetic renal disease of similar severity. The pathogenesis requires elucidation...
  15. ncbi request reprint Present and future strategies in the treatment of renal anaemia
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 16:50-5. 2001
    ..Other potential erythropoietic substances are still at the laboratory stage of development, but may be available for therapeutic use in the next decade or so...
  16. ncbi request reprint Hyporesponsiveness to erythropoietic therapy due to chronic inflammation
    I C MacDougall
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Invest 35:32-5. 2005
    ..Chronic renal failure is also associated with increased hepcidin production which may also exacerbate the anaemia by inducing a functional iron deficiency in such patients...
  17. ncbi request reprint An overview of the efficacy and safety of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP)
    I C MacDougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 16:14-21. 2001
    ..e. either once weekly or once every other week). NESP is well tolerated, adverse effects are similar to those seen with rHuEPO, and no antibodies have been detected in >1500 patients exposed to NESP thus far...
  18. ncbi request reprint Intravenous iron sucrose: establishing a safe dose
    G Chandler
    Departments of Renal Medicine and Pharmacy, King's College Hospital, London, UK
    Am J Kidney Dis 38:988-91. 2001
    ..The incidence of adverse events with the 400- and 500-mg doses administered as a 2-hour infusion seems too high to recommend their routine use, although it may be possible to administer these doses over a longer period...
  19. ncbi request reprint Individualizing target haemoglobin concentrations--tailoring treatment for renal anaemia
    I C MacDougall
    Renal Unit, King's College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8PT, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 16:9-14. 2001
    ..It is important that renal anaemia patients are considered as individuals, and their treatment tailored accordingly. It is time to establish evidence-based criteria for individualizing renal anaemia treatment...
  20. ncbi request reprint Acute intermittent porphyria and chronic renal failure
    J T Marsden
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Clin Nephrol 69:339-46. 2008
    ..Hypertension and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use were present in about a half of the patients. It is postulated that the nephrotoxic effects of porphyrin precursors may contribute to the etiology of this clinical syndrome...
  21. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin response to hypoxia in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and non-diabetic chronic renal failure
    D R Bosman
    King s Diabetes Centre, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Diabet Med 19:65-9. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the EPO response to hypoxia was deficient in order to clarify the mechanisms involved in this process...
  22. ncbi request reprint Posttransplantation anemia in adult renal allograft recipients: prevalence and predictors
    Nilesh Shah
    Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 81:1112-8. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate a large posttransplant population from 3 centres in the UK to elucidate the point prevalence of PTA, its determinants and the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) in these patients...
  23. ncbi request reprint How to optimise anaemia therapy in peritoneal dialysis patients
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Contrib Nephrol 150:202-13. 2006
    ..This article aims to explore some of these issues in greater detail so that patients on peritoneal dialysis can derive the greatest benefits from correction of anaemia and maintenance of an adequate haemoglobin...
  24. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in erythropoietic agents in renal anemia
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Semin Nephrol 26:313-8. 2006
    ..Other strategies for stimulating erythropoiesis, briefly described in this review, are at an earlier stage of development. This is an exciting and rapidly developing area of scientific and translational research...
  25. ncbi request reprint CERA (Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator): a new erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for the treatment of anemia
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Curr Hematol Rep 4:436-40. 2005
    ..CERA may also have different receptor binding characteristics and pharmacology from other erythropoietic agents; these characteristics are the subject of ongoing investigation. CERA is currently in phase III clinical trials...
  26. ncbi request reprint Novel strategies for stimulating erythropoiesis and potential new treatments for anaemia
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Lancet 368:947-53. 2006
    ..We review these new therapeutic strategies, and discuss at what stage some of the newer products are in relation to their clinical development programme...
  27. ncbi request reprint Is early treatment of anaemia with epoetin-alpha beneficial to pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients? Results of a multicentre, open-label, prospective, randomized, comparative group trial
    Iain C Macdougall
    The Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:784-93. 2007
    ..This multicentre, open-label prospective, randomized, comparative-group study evaluated the effects of maintaining haemoglobin (Hb) in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
  28. ncbi request reprint Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia
    Tilman B Drueke
    Inserm Unité 507 and Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Necker Hospital, Division of Nephrology, Paris, France
    N Engl J Med 355:2071-84. 2006
    ..Whether correction of anemia in patients with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease improves cardiovascular outcomes is not established...
  29. ncbi request reprint Pharmacology of darbepoetin alfa
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:iv2-iv9. 2007
    ..More rigorous studies will be needed to confirm these findings...
  30. ncbi request reprint Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent hyporesponsiveness
    David W Johnson
    Department of Renal Medicine, University of Queensland at Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Nephrology (Carlton) 12:321-30. 2007
    ..A practical algorithm for approaching the investigation and management of patients with ESA hyporesponsiveness is also provided...
  31. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and subcutaneous continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) in patients with chronic kidney disease
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:1211-5. 2006
    ..C.E.R.A. has a prolonged and comparable half-life after intravenous or subcutaneous injection, suggesting that extended administration intervals may be feasible in patients with CKD...
  32. ncbi request reprint Dialysis facility ownership and epoetin dosing in hemodialysis patients: a view from Europe
    Iain C Macdougall
    King s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Kidney Dis 50:358-61. 2007
  33. ncbi request reprint Novel erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: a new era in anemia management
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:200-7. 2008
    ..This article reviews the latest progress with these novel erythropoietic agents in this new era in anemia management...
  34. pmc C.E.R.A. corrects anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: results of a randomized clinical trial
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, Bessemer Road, London, SE5 9RS, UK
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:337-47. 2008
    ..This study examined the efficacy of C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, for correcting anemia in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and were not on dialysis...
  35. ncbi request reprint ORAMA: a study to investigate EBPG impact on renal anaemia - design and baseline data
    F Locatelli
    Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, A Manzoni Hospital, Lecco Italy
    J Nephrol 21:592-603. 2008
    ..The Optimal Renal Anaemia Management Assessment (ORAMA) is the first European study investigating the impact of adherence to the 2004 revised European Best Practice Guidelines (EBPG) and its impact on patient outcomes...
  36. ncbi request reprint Adverse event issue management: what have we learnt from pure red cell aplasia (PRCA)?
    Iain C Macdougall
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8PT, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:viii18-21. 2005
    ..This article provides an overview of the recent history and growing understanding of ESA-associated PRCA together with current approaches to the management of this rare side effect of an otherwise valuable therapy...
  37. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin and renal failure
    Iain C Macdougall
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8PT, UK
    Curr Hematol Rep 2:459-64. 2003
    ..This review addresses these topics and focuses largely on the publications relevant to these areas of clinical anemia management...
  38. ncbi request reprint Predialysis Survey on Anemia Management: patient referral
    Walter H Horl
    Klinische Abteilung für Nephrologie und Dialyse, Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin III, Wien, Austria
    Am J Kidney Dis 41:49-61. 2003
    ..In this presentation, we focus on demographic data and patient referral practices of patients who enter kidney centers...
  39. ncbi request reprint Increased expression of erythropoiesis inhibiting cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-13) by T cells in patients exhibiting a poor response to erythropoietin therapy
    Angela C Cooper
    Department of Renal Medicine, GKT School of Medicine, King s College Hospital, Bessemer Road, London SE5 9PJ, UK
    J Am Soc Nephrol 14:1776-84. 2003
    ..In the absence of any other cause (such as iron deficiency), the overproduction of cytokines may account for hyporesponsiveness to erythropoietic therapy in patients with renal failure...
  40. ncbi request reprint PRE-dialysis survey on anaemia management
    Fernando Valderrabano
    Servicio Nefrologia, Hospital Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:89-100. 2003
    ..The PRE-dialysis survey on anaemia management (PRESAM) was designed to assess the care given to pre-dialysis patients in the 12 months before haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, with emphasis on anaemia management...
  41. ncbi request reprint Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and antibody-mediated pure red-cell aplasia: here are we now and where do we go from here?
    Francesco Locatelli
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:288-93. 2004
  42. ncbi request reprint Over 5 years of darbepoetin alfa: two case histories
    Alison J Roche
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital Dulwich, East Dulwich Grove, London, UK
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 5:951-4. 2004
    ..Clinical trials with darbepoetin alfa began in 1997 and this brief article reports on two patients whose long-term anaemia management has been simplified by its use...
  43. ncbi request reprint Treatment of erythropoietin-induced pure red cell aplasia: a retrospective study
    David Verhelst
    Department of Nephrology, Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, and Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France
    Lancet 363:1768-71. 2004
    ..We aimed to collate clinical and pathological features in patients unequivocally shown to have erythropoietin-induced pure red cell aplasia...
  44. ncbi request reprint Administration of intravenous iron sucrose as a 2-minute push to CKD patients: a prospective evaluation of 2,297 injections
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Am J Kidney Dis 46:283-9. 2005
    ..Traditionally, this has been administered as an infusion over 1 or more hours, which requires the use of intravenous fluids and administration tubing, along with extra demands on patient and nursing time...
  45. ncbi request reprint Pentoxifylline improves hemoglobin levels in patients with erythropoietin-resistant anemia in renal failure
    Angela Cooper
    Department of Renal Medicine, GKT School of Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Am Soc Nephrol 15:1877-82. 2004
    ..This may occur due to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production, which could interfere with the effectiveness of rh-Epo...
  46. ncbi request reprint Could anti-inflammatory cytokine therapy improve poor treatment outcomes in dialysis patients?
    Iain C Macdougall
    Renal Unit, King s College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8PT, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:V73-78. 2004
    ..Ongoing studies will investigate further the use of pentoxifylline in erythropoietin resistance...
  47. ncbi request reprint Re-challenging patients who developed pure red cell aplasia with epoetin: can it be done?
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:2901-5. 2004
  48. ncbi request reprint Once-weekly erythropoietic therapy: is there a difference between the available preparations?
    Iain C Macdougall
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:2047-51. 2002
  49. ncbi request reprint Poor response to recombinant erythropoietin is associated with loss of T-lymphocyte CD28 expression and altered interleukin-10 production
    Angela C Cooper
    Department of Immunology, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:133-40. 2003
    ..However, 5-10% of such patients do not respond adequately and an important contributory factor to this is chronic inflammation...
  50. doi request reprint Renal anemia: comparing current Eastern and Western European management practice (ORAMA)
    Andrzej Wiecek
    Department of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Francuska, Poland
    Ren Fail 30:267-76. 2008
    ..Anemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease shows considerable regional differences across Europe, and target attainment remains suboptimal in many European nephrology centers after the revised 2004 guidelines...
  51. ncbi request reprint Epoetin-induced pure red cell aplasia: diagnosis and treatment
    Iain C Macdougall
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 16:585-8. 2007
    ..The incidence of this adverse effect peaked in 2002, but new cases still appear sporadically. The aim of this review is to discuss the latest opinions regarding the detection and management of this condition...
  52. ncbi request reprint Serum erythropoietin levels may be inappropriately low in the acute neuropsychiatric porphyrias
    Andrea S Winkler
    Department of Medicine, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London, UK
    Clin Chim Acta 317:93-100. 2002
    ..Renal damage and sympathetic failure may both cause erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. In this study, we have investigated serum erythropoietin levels and autonomic function in patients with acute porphyria in clinical remission...
  53. ncbi request reprint A structured weight management programme can achieve improved functional ability and significant weight loss in obese patients with chronic kidney disease
    Sharlene A Cook
    Department of Physiotherapy, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 23:263-8. 2008
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Latest US KDOQI Anaemia Guidelines update--what are the implications for Europe?
    Iain C Macdougall
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:2738-42. 2007
  55. ncbi request reprint Antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA): epidemiology, immunogenicity and risks
    Iain C Macdougall
    King s College Hospital, Renal Unit, East Dulwich Grove, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:iv9-15. 2005
    ..However, therapeutic approaches for this serious immunological reaction to recombinant ESAs remain investigative...
  56. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin treatment in the neuropsychiatric porphyrias
    Andrea S Winkler
    Department of Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Clin Chim Acta 338:61-6. 2003
    ..We were also able to demonstrate that treatment with erythropoietin in non-porphyric patients (mainly diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy) significantly reduced urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid levels...
  57. ncbi request reprint Rapidly progressive renal failure associated with successful pharmacotherapy for obesity
    Helen MacLaughlin
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:2403-5; author reply 2405. 2007
  58. ncbi request reprint The efficacy of sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in male peritoneal dialysis patients
    Althea Mahon
    Department of Renal Medicine, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    Am J Kidney Dis 45:381-7. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of sildenafil in male peritoneal dialysis patients with erectile dysfunction...
  59. ncbi request reprint Once-weekly erythropoietic therapy: is there a difference between the available preparations?
    Iain C Macdougall
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:1940. 2004
  60. ncbi request reprint Hematide, a novel peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for the treatment of anemia
    Iain C Macdougall
    King s College Hospital, Renal Unit, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 9:1034-47. 2008
    ..Hematide is a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that is being developed by Affymax Inc and Takeda Pharmaceutical Co Ltd. Hematide is undergoing phase III clinical trials for anemia...