T J Little

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Parasite-host specificity: experimental studies on the basis of parasite adaptation
    Tom J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Evolution 60:31-8. 2006
  2. pmc Immune genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes in Daphnia pulex
    Seanna J McTaggart
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Ashworth Laboratories University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 12:63. 2012
  3. pmc Alternative splicing of the Anopheles gambiae Dscam gene in diverse Plasmodium falciparum infections
    Paul H Smith
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, EH93JT Edinburgh, UK
    Malar J 10:156. 2011
  4. pmc Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Malar J 8:117. 2009
  5. pmc An ancient immunity gene duplication in Daphnia magna: RNA expression and sequence analysis of two nitric oxide synthase genes
    Pierrick Labbé
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Ashworth Laboratory, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    Dev Comp Immunol 33:1000-10. 2009
  6. pmc The components of the Daphnia pulex immune system as revealed by complete genome sequencing
    Seanna J McTaggart
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Genomics 10:175. 2009
  7. pmc The separate and combined effects of MHC genotype, parasite clone, and host gender on the course of malaria in mice
    Claus Wedekind
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Biophore, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    BMC Genet 7:55. 2006
  8. pmc Successfully resisting a pathogen is rarely costly in Daphnia magna
    Pierrick Labbé
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 10:355. 2010
  9. pmc The evolution of TEP1, an exceptionally polymorphic immunity gene in Anopheles gambiae
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 8:274. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Ecological and evolutionary implications of immunological priming in invertebrates
    Tom J Little
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 19:58-60. 2004

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi request reprint Parasite-host specificity: experimental studies on the basis of parasite adaptation
    Tom J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    Evolution 60:31-8. 2006
    ..ramosa specificity is a stably inherited trait, it can evolve rapidly, and it is controlled by few genes in the host. These findings are consistent with the idea of a rapid, ongoing arms race between the bacterium and its host...
  2. pmc Immune genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes in Daphnia pulex
    Seanna J McTaggart
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Ashworth Laboratories University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 12:63. 2012
    ..In this study, we used a population genetic approach to test this hypothesis by comparing DNA sequences of 30 putative immune system genes in the crustacean Daphnia pulex with 24 non-immune system genes...
  3. pmc Alternative splicing of the Anopheles gambiae Dscam gene in diverse Plasmodium falciparum infections
    Paul H Smith
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, EH93JT Edinburgh, UK
    Malar J 10:156. 2011
    ..g. between bacteria and Plasmodium or between Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum). Here, data are presented from the first study of Dscam expression in response to genetic diversity within a parasite species...
  4. pmc Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Malar J 8:117. 2009
    ..However, there is little conclusive evidence that any of these mosquito genes evolve rapidly, or show other signatures of adaptive evolution...
  5. pmc An ancient immunity gene duplication in Daphnia magna: RNA expression and sequence analysis of two nitric oxide synthase genes
    Pierrick Labbé
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Ashworth Laboratory, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    Dev Comp Immunol 33:1000-10. 2009
    ..Thus, the function of NOS in Daphnia immunity remains uncertain, but the pattern of gene duplication and subsequent divergence suggests evolution via neo- or subfunctionalization...
  6. pmc The components of the Daphnia pulex immune system as revealed by complete genome sequencing
    Seanna J McTaggart
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    BMC Genomics 10:175. 2009
    ..For each candidate, the gene model was refined, and we conducted an analysis of sequence divergence from homologues from other taxa...
  7. pmc The separate and combined effects of MHC genotype, parasite clone, and host gender on the course of malaria in mice
    Claus Wedekind
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Biophore, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    BMC Genet 7:55. 2006
    ..We experimentally infected MHC-congenic mice (F2 segregants, homo- and heterozygotes, males and females) with one of two clones of Plasmodium chabaudi and recorded disease progression...
  8. pmc Successfully resisting a pathogen is rarely costly in Daphnia magna
    Pierrick Labbé
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 10:355. 2010
    ..We sought to study inducible costs in depth using the crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa...
  9. pmc The evolution of TEP1, an exceptionally polymorphic immunity gene in Anopheles gambiae
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 8:274. 2008
    ..We studied whether TEP1 is a case of an ancient balanced polymorphism in an animal immune system...
  10. ncbi request reprint Ecological and evolutionary implications of immunological priming in invertebrates
    Tom J Little
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 19:58-60. 2004
    ..This newfound complexity of invertebrate immunity begs investigation into the conditions under which immunological priming should evolve, and its consequences for population dynamics...
  11. ncbi request reprint Parasite variation and the evolution of virulence in a Daphnia-microparasite system
    T J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Parasitology 135:303-8. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Evidence for a cost of immunity when the crustacean Daphnia magna is exposed to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa
    Tom J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    J Anim Ecol 76:1202-7. 2007
    ..Indeed, in terms of survival, resisting parasites can be more harmful than infection...
  13. pmc The coevolution of virulence: tolerance in perspective
    Tom J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001006. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Sex, linkage disequilibrium and patterns of parasitism in three species of cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia (Cladocera: Crustacea)
    T J Little
    Institut fur Zoologie, Universitat Basel, CH 4051 Basel, Switzerland
    Heredity (Edinb) 85:257-65. 2000
    ..magna), because most of the populations analysed appeared to have high levels of sexual recruitment and therefore lacked the linkage disequilibrium that underlies associations between allozymes and susceptibility...
  15. pmc The cause of parasitic infection in natural populations of Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera): the role of host genetics
    T J Little
    Institut fur Zoologie, Universitat Basel, Rheinsprung 9, CH 4051 Basel, Switzerland
    Proc Biol Sci 267:2037-42. 2000
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Maternal transfer of strain-specific immunity in an invertebrate
    Tom J Little
    Institute for Cell, Animal, and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 13:489-92. 2003
    ..Specifically, the fitness of hosts was enhanced when challenged with a bacterial strain their mother had experienced relative to cases when mother and offspring were challenged with different strains...
  17. ncbi request reprint Invertebrate immunity and the limits of mechanistic immunology
    Tom J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nat Immunol 6:651-4. 2005
    ..Without analogous experiments, mechanism-driven work may not demonstrate the full richness of invertebrate immunity...
  18. ncbi request reprint Molecular evolution of daphnia immunity genes: polymorphism in a gram-negative binding protein gene and an alpha-2-macroglobulin gene
    Tom J Little
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Mol Evol 59:498-506. 2004
    ..We discuss the assumed function of these genes and offer speculation regarding which components of the arthropod immune system might experience diversifying adaptive evolution...
  19. ncbi request reprint The evolution of immune-related genes from disease carrying mosquitoes: diversity in a peptidoglycan- and a thioester-recognizing protein
    T J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Insect Mol Biol 14:599-605. 2005
    ....
  20. doi request reprint The Dscam homologue of the crustacean Daphnia is diversified by alternative splicing like in insects
    Daniela Brites
    Zoologisches Institut, Evolutionsbiologie, Universitat Basel, Vesalgasse 1, Switzerland
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1429-39. 2008
    ..The genealogy of the Dscam gene family from vertebrates and invertebrates confirmed that the highly diversified form of the gene evolved from a nondiversified form before the split of insects and crustaceans...
  21. doi request reprint Genetic variation for maternal effects on parasite susceptibility
    M Stjernman
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 24:2357-63. 2011
    ..These effects indicate that food stress in the maternal generation can greatly influence parasite susceptibility and thus perhaps the evolution and coevolution of host-parasite interactions...
  22. ncbi request reprint Identifying energy constraints to parasite resistance
    D E Allen
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 24:224-9. 2011
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Genetic variation in a host-parasite association: potential for coevolution and frequency-dependent selection
    H J Carius
    Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Basel, Switzerland
    Evolution 55:1136-45. 2001
    ..In addition, correspondence analysis revealed that some host clones, although distinguishable with neutral genetic markers, were susceptible to the same set of parasite isolates and thus probably shared resistance genes...
  24. ncbi request reprint Testing the pluralist approach to sex: the influence of environment on synergistic interactions between mutation load and parasitism in Daphnia magna
    S C Killick
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Evol Biol 19:1603-11. 2006
    ..We found that although parasites were capable of causing synergistic epistasis between mutations in their hosts, these effects were dependent upon an interaction between parasite genotype and temperature...
  25. doi request reprint Temperature-dependent costs of parasitism and maintenance of polymorphism under genotype-by-environment interactions
    P F Vale
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Ashworth Labs, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 21:1418-27. 2008
    ..Finally, we tested for temperature-dependent relationships between host and parasite fitness traits that form a key component of models of virulence evolution, and we found them to be stable across temperatures...
  26. ncbi request reprint Temporal patterns of genetic variation for resistance and infectivity in a Daphnia-microparasite system
    T J Little
    Institut fur Zoologie, Universitat Basel, Switzerland
    Evolution 55:1146-52. 2001
    ....
  27. pmc Nucleotide polymorphism and within-gene recombination in Daphnia magna and D. pulex, two cyclical parthenogens
    Christoph R Haag
    University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Edinburgh, UK
    Genetics 182:313-23. 2009
    ....
  28. doi request reprint ProPhenolOxidase in Daphnia magna: cDNA sequencing and expression in relation to resistance to pathogens
    Pierrick Labbé
    University of Edinburgh, IEB, Ashworth Laboratory, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    Dev Comp Immunol 33:674-80. 2009
    ..This is the first evidence of a Daphnia immune response, and our observations raise the possibility that the PhenolOxidase (PO) cascade is involved in the defence against pathogenic gram-positive bacteria...
  29. ncbi request reprint Testing small clutch size models with Daphnia
    Meghan A Guinnee
    Institute of Cell, Animal, and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Am Nat 163:880-7. 2004
    ..Consistent with this, we found that mean egg volume decreased with increasing clutch size...
  30. pmc Genetic variation in the cellular response of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to its bacterial parasite
    Stuart K J R Auld
    School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Labs, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 277:3291-7. 2010
    ..Thus, D. magna may have a two-stage defence--a genetically determined barrier to parasite establishment and a cellular response once establishment has begun...
  31. ncbi request reprint Host-parasite and genotype-by-environment interactions: temperature modifies potential for selection by a sterilizing pathogen
    Suzanne E Mitchell
    University of Edinburgh, School of Biological Sciences, Ashworth Laboratories, The King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 59:70-80. 2005
    ..Our results clearly show that the outcome of parasite-mediated selection in this system is strongly context dependent...
  32. pmc An animal model to evaluate the function and regulation of the adaptively evolving stress protein SEP53 in oesophageal bile damage responses
    Lenny Nelson
    CRUK p53 Signal Transduction Group, University of Edinburgh, South Crewe Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Cell Stress Chaperones 13:375-85. 2008
    ..These results suggest that porcine squamous epithelium would be a robust physiological model to examine the evolution and function of the SEP53 stress pathway in modulating stress-induced responses in squamous tissue...
  33. pmc Adaptive evolution of a stress response protein
    Tom J Little
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e1003. 2007
    ..Some cancers are mediated by an interplay between tissue damage, pathogens and localised innate immune responses, but the mechanisms that underlie these linkages are only beginning to be unravelled...
  34. ncbi request reprint Natural selection drives extremely rapid evolution in antiviral RNAi genes
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 16:580-5. 2006
    ..This is a signature of host-pathogen arms races and implies that the ancient battle between RNA viruses and host antiviral RNAi genes is active and significant in shaping RNAi function...
  35. pmc Recent and recurrent selective sweeps of the antiviral RNAi gene Argonaute-2 in three species of Drosophila
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 28:1043-56. 2011
    ..In summary, our results show that selection by parasites can consistently target the same genes in multiple species, resulting in areas of the genome that have markedly reduced genetic diversity...
  36. doi request reprint Exploring the molecular landscape of host-parasite coevolution
    D E Allen
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74:169-76. 2009
    ..Now, with the recent completion of genome sequences for two Daphnia species, and a transcriptomics project under way, coevolution between these two enemies is being investigated directly at the level of interacting genes...
  37. ncbi request reprint The causes and consequences of variation in offspring size: a case study using Daphnia
    M A Guinnee
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 20:577-87. 2007
    ..Consequently, our results do not support the hypothesis that there is an advantage to producing larger eggs when food is limited. In contrast, data from the literature support the importance of a lower boundary on egg size...
  38. pmc A parasite-mediated life-history shift in Daphnia magna
    William Chadwick
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, The King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 272:505-9. 2005
    ..Our experiments included multiple host genotypes, and subtle differences among them indicated that fecundity compensation could be subject to parasite-mediated natural selection...
  39. doi request reprint Measuring parasite fitness under genetic and thermal variation
    P F Vale
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Labs, Scotland, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 103:102-9. 2009
    ..In addition, no G(H) x G(P) x E interactions were present, suggesting that the potential for genetic specificities to drive frequency-dependent coevolution in this system is robust to thermal variation...
  40. ncbi request reprint Population genetics of Plasmodium resistance genes in Anopheles gambiae: no evidence for strong selection
    D J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Ecol 16:3497-510. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Parasite-driven genetic change in a natural population of Daphnia
    Alison B Duncan
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 61:796-803. 2007
    ..Thus, this study provides an illustration of parasite-mediated selection in the wild...
  42. pmc Fecundity compensation and tolerance to a sterilizing pathogen in Daphnia
    P F Vale
    Centre d Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175, Montpellier, France
    J Evol Biol 25:1888-96. 2012
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Parasite-mediated selection and the role of sex and diapause in Daphnia
    A B Duncan
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 19:1183-9. 2006
    ..Sex could therefore inhibit the evolution of resistance because each spring new genotypes will hatch from resting eggs that are relatively susceptible as they were not exposed to the previous years bout of parasite-mediated selection...
  44. pmc CRISPR-mediated phage resistance and the ghost of coevolution past
    Pedro F Vale
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, The Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 277:2097-103. 2010
    ....
  45. doi request reprint Studying immunity at the whole organism level
    Tom J Little
    Bioessays 30:404-5; author reply 406. 2008
  46. pmc Deforestation and vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles mosquitoes in malaria transmission, Kenya
    Yaw A Afrane
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1533-8. 2008
    ..We showed that deforestation changes microclimates, leading to more rapid sporogonic development of P. falciparum and to a marked increase of malaria risk in the western Kenyan highland...
  47. pmc The course of malaria in mice: major histocompatibility complex (MHC) effects, but no general MHC heterozygote advantage in single-strain infections
    Claus Wedekind
    Zoological Institute, Division of Conservation Biology, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Genetics 170:1427-30. 2005
    ..However, the MHC heterozygotes did worse than expected from the average response of the homozygotes...