K R Lees

Summary

Affiliation: University of Glasgow
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Acute stroke and diabetes
    Kennedy R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit and Cerebrovascular Clinic, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 20:9-14. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke
    Kennedy R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit and Cerebrovascular Clinic, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 354:588-600. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Halving effort in acute stroke trials
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Clin Exp Hypertens 28:309-12. 2006
  4. pmc Thrombolysis in very elderly people: controlled comparison of SITS International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry and Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive
    Nishant K Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    BMJ 341:c6046. 2010
  5. pmc Comparison of outcomes following thrombolytic therapy among patients with prior stroke and diabetes in the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)
    Nishant Kumar Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Diabetes Care 33:2531-7. 2010
  6. doi request reprint Seven-day NIHSS is a sensitive outcome measure for exploratory clinical trials in acute stroke: evidence from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive
    Daniel M Kerr
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 43:1401-3. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Contemporary outcome measures in acute stroke research: choice of primary outcome measure
    Kennedy R Lees
    FRCP, FESO, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, 44 Church Street, Glasgow, UK G11 6NT
    Stroke 43:1163-70. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials
    Kennedy R Lees
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Lancet 375:1695-703. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Tolerability of NXY-059 at higher target concentrations in patients with acute stroke
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 34:482-7. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Stroke: trial by jury
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland, UK
    Eur Neurol 49:106-8. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications126 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Acute stroke and diabetes
    Kennedy R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit and Cerebrovascular Clinic, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 20:9-14. 2005
    ..Glucose-potassium-insulin infusion or adjusted insulin infusions each have their proponents: both are effective but both carry a small risk of hypoglycaemia. Use of a suitable locally approved regimen seems advisable...
  2. ncbi request reprint NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke
    Kennedy R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit and Cerebrovascular Clinic, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 354:588-600. 2006
    ..NXY-059 is a free-radical-trapping agent that is neuroprotective in animal models of stroke. We tested whether it would reduce disability in humans after acute ischemic stroke...
  3. ncbi request reprint Halving effort in acute stroke trials
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Clin Exp Hypertens 28:309-12. 2006
    ..The Rankin scale may have advantages over the Barthel index. By combining these various approaches, acute stroke trials can be much more efficient...
  4. pmc Thrombolysis in very elderly people: controlled comparison of SITS International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry and Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive
    Nishant K Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    BMJ 341:c6046. 2010
    ..To assess effect of age on response to alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke...
  5. pmc Comparison of outcomes following thrombolytic therapy among patients with prior stroke and diabetes in the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)
    Nishant Kumar Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Diabetes Care 33:2531-7. 2010
    ..To examine the influence of diabetes and prior stroke on outcomes, we compared data on thrombolysed patients with nonthrombolysed comparators...
  6. doi request reprint Seven-day NIHSS is a sensitive outcome measure for exploratory clinical trials in acute stroke: evidence from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive
    Daniel M Kerr
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 43:1401-3. 2012
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Contemporary outcome measures in acute stroke research: choice of primary outcome measure
    Kennedy R Lees
    FRCP, FESO, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, 44 Church Street, Glasgow, UK G11 6NT
    Stroke 43:1163-70. 2012
    ..The aim is to identify an approach that will be universally accepted and that should be included in most acute trials, without seeking to restrict options for special circumstances...
  8. doi request reprint Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials
    Kennedy R Lees
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Lancet 375:1695-703. 2010
    ..We re-examined the effect of time to treatment with intravenous rt-PA (alteplase) on therapeutic benefit and clinical risk by adding recent trial data to the analysis...
  9. ncbi request reprint Tolerability of NXY-059 at higher target concentrations in patients with acute stroke
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 34:482-7. 2003
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Stroke: trial by jury
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland, UK
    Eur Neurol 49:106-8. 2003
    ..This will lead to greater confidence in our ability to identify a successful treatment and to discount worthless approaches...
  11. ncbi request reprint Acute stroke: trial by jury. The toothless tiger (role of the principal investigator)
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland, UK
    Eur Neurol 49:120-4. 2003
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint UK-279,276, a neutrophil inhibitory glycoprotein, in acute stroke: tolerability and pharmacokinetics
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, G11 6NT, UK
    Stroke 34:1704-9. 2003
    ..The purposes of this study were to evaluate the safety and tolerability of UK-279,276 and to examine its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (binding to neutrophil CD11b) in patients with acute stroke...
  13. ncbi request reprint Design of future acute-stroke treatment trials
    Kennedy R Lees
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Lancet Neurol 2:54-61. 2003
    ..In this review, we look at the designs and results of all controlled trials of treatments for ischaemic stroke, and try to identify opportunities to improve future treatment assessment...
  14. ncbi request reprint Management of acute stroke
    Kennedy R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Lancet Neurol 1:41-50. 2002
    ..Early neurosurgery has a role limited to decompression of lesions in the posterior fossa but is under trial for large hemispheric infarcts and moderate intracerebral bleeds...
  15. ncbi request reprint Additional outcomes and subgroup analyses of NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke in the SAINT I trial
    Kennedy R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit and Cerebrovascular Clinic, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, 44 Church St, Glasgow, Scotland G11 6NT
    Stroke 37:2970-8. 2006
    ..NXY-059 is a free radical-trapping neuroprotectant demonstrated to reduce disability from ischemic stroke. We conducted analyses on additional end points and sensitivity analyses to confirm our findings...
  16. ncbi request reprint Stroke is best managed by a neurologist: battle of the titans
    Kennedy R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 34:2764-5. 2003
  17. doi request reprint Thrombolysis is associated with consistent functional improvement across baseline stroke severity: a comparison of outcomes in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)
    Nishant K Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 41:2612-7. 2010
    ..We report the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P values and estimated odds ratios (OR) for improved modified Rankin scale score distribution with treatment for patients within each baseline NIHSS category...
  18. ncbi request reprint Advances in neuroprotection trials
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Eur Neurol 45:6-10. 2001
    ..Confounding imbalance may also be limited by controlling or adjusting for concomitant conditions and their management. Recent trials have not yet identified a neuroprotectant, but have greatly assisted the prospects of success...
  19. ncbi request reprint Glycine antagonist (gavestinel) in neuroprotection (GAIN International) in patients with acute stroke: a randomised controlled trial. GAIN International Investigators
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Lancet 355:1949-54. 2000
    ..Early treatment may improve acute ischaemic stroke outcome. Gavestinel is a selective antagonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and is neuroprotective in animal models of ischaemic stroke...
  20. ncbi request reprint Tolerability of the low-affinity, use-dependent NMDA antagonist AR-R15896AR in stroke patients: a dose-ranging study
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Stroke 32:466-72. 2001
    ..This study aimed to establish the highest safe and tolerated loading and maintenance dosing regimen of AR-R15896AR in acute ischemic stroke patients and to determine the associated plasma concentrations of AR-R15896AR...
  21. ncbi request reprint Glycine antagonist (GV150526) in acute stroke: a multicentre, double-blind placebo-controlled phase II trial
    K R Lees
    Acute Stroke Unit, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 11:20-9. 2001
    ..GV150526 was generally well tolerated in patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke and formal efficacy studies were considered justified...
  22. doi request reprint Influence of age on outcome from thrombolysis in acute stroke: a controlled comparison in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)
    Nishant Kumar Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 41:2840-8. 2010
    ..We examined patients ≤ 80 and ≥ 81 years separately and then each age decile...
  23. ncbi request reprint Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the nitrone NXY-059 in patients with acute stroke
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 32:675-80. 2001
    ..Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated clearance to be 4.6 L/h. CONCLUSIONS: NXY-059 was well tolerated in patients with an acute stroke. The testing of higher doses in future trials may be justified...
  24. doi request reprint Primary end-point times, functional outcome and adverse event profile after acute ischaemic stroke
    M Ali
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Int J Stroke 4:432-42. 2009
    ..We examined whether the presence of complications 'unrelated' to index stroke at later time-points could confound outcome, and if this could be minimised through altering study end-points...
  25. doi request reprint Patient outcomes in historical comparators compared with randomised-controlled trials
    M Ali
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Int J Stroke 5:10-5. 2010
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Effect of perindopril on cerebral and renal perfusion in stroke patients with carotid disease
    M R Walters
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Stroke 32:473-8. 2001
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: preliminary experience with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in the UK
    M R Walters
    Acute Stroke Unit, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 20:438-42. 2005
    ..To present the preliminary experience of implementing intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischaemic stroke in three UK stroke centres...
  28. ncbi request reprint Dose optimization of intravenous magnesium sulfate after acute stroke
    K W Muir
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Stroke 29:918-23. 1998
    ..Previous small clinical trials in stroke patients have explored the safety and tolerability of different infusion regimens. This study was undertaken to optimize the regimen for a multicenter trial...
  29. ncbi request reprint Safety and tolerability of GV150526 (a glycine site antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) in patients with acute stroke
    A G Dyker
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Stroke 30:986-92. 1999
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of loading and maintenance infusions of GV150526 in patients with acute stroke...
  30. ncbi request reprint Statin administration prior to ischaemic stroke onset and survival: exploratory evidence from matched treatment-control study
    S Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Neurol 12:493-8. 2005
    ..09-0.67] and during the follow-up period (hazard ratio 0.57; 95% CI 0.35-0.93). The use of statins prior to stroke onset is associated with improved stroke survival within this cohort study with matched controls...
  31. ncbi request reprint Blunted response to systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the cerebral circulation of patients with Type 2 diabetes
    F S Nazir
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Diabet Med 23:398-402. 2006
    ..We sought to investigate the effect of diabetes on basal cerebrovascular endothelial function as assessed by response to the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA)...
  32. doi request reprint Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke in the United Kingdom: experience from the safe implementation of thrombolysis in stroke (SITS) register
    K R Lees
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK
    QJM 101:863-9. 2008
    ..To describe the United Kingdom (UK) experience with thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) for stroke, as captured by the Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke (SITS) project...
  33. ncbi request reprint The AMPA antagonist ZK 200775 in patients with acute ischaemic stroke: a double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled safety and tolerability study
    M R Walters
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 20:304-9. 2005
    ..It has demonstrated neuroprotective efficacy in experimental models of stroke and tolerability in healthy volunteers. We tested the safety and tolerability of ZK 200775 in patients with acute ischaemic stroke...
  34. doi request reprint Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus
    N K Mishra
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Neurology 77:1866-72. 2011
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint A randomised, controlled pilot study to investigate the potential benefit of intervention with insulin in hyperglycaemic acute ischaemic stroke patients
    M R Walters
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 22:116-22. 2006
    ..Hyperglycaemia on presentation with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is associated with poor outcome, but intervention is unproven. We investigated the safety and tolerability of one method of glycaemic control...
  36. ncbi request reprint Safety and tolerability study of aptiganel hydrochloride in patients with an acute ischemic stroke
    A G Dyker
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 30:2038-42. 1999
    ..This study assessed the safety and tolerability of non-weight-adjusted doses of aptiganel in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
  37. ncbi request reprint Low triglyceride, not low cholesterol concentration, independently predicts poor outcome following acute stroke
    Christopher J Weir
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 16:76-82. 2003
    ..Such information may yield further mechanistic information on the relationship between lipids and stroke outcome...
  38. ncbi request reprint Elevated serum urate concentration independently predicts poor outcome following stroke in patients with diabetes
    Edward J Newman
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 22:79-82. 2006
    ..We sought to investigate the prognostic significance of elevated serum urate concentration in diabetic subjects following stroke...
  39. doi request reprint Hyperglycaemia in acute stroke--to treat or not to treat
    T J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 27:148-55. 2009
    ..Until further trial data are available, consensus guidelines may be followed, which are generally conservative for blood glucose levels below 10 mM (180 mg/dl)...
  40. doi request reprint Natural history of complications after intracerebral haemorrhage
    M Ali
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Neurol 16:624-30. 2009
    ..Numerous trials of haemostatic and neuroprotective agents for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) have failed. We characterized the risk of complications after ICH in a trial-eligible patient population, to inform safety in future trials...
  41. ncbi request reprint Pneumonia and urinary tract infection after acute ischaemic stroke: a tertiary analysis of the GAIN International trial
    S Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Neurol 11:49-53. 2004
    ..9; 1.2-2.9), NIHSS (2.2; 1.2-4.0) and Rankin scale (3.1; 1.6-4.9). Pneumonia and UTI are independently associated with stroke poor outcome. Patients with identified risk factors must be closely monitored for infection...
  42. ncbi request reprint Phase II clinical trial of sipatrigine (619C89) by continuous infusion in acute stroke
    K W Muir
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 10:431-6. 2000
    ..Previous clinical experience found neuropsychiatric effects attributed to sipatrigine that may have been related to peak plasma concentrations of the drug...
  43. ncbi request reprint The association of post-stroke neurological improvement with risk of subsequent deterioration due to stroke events
    S Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Neurol 14:1-6. 2007
    ..This study confirms the association between recovery and subsequent neurological deterioration and is the first to indicate the greater importance of acute recovery at day 1 in comparison with later recovery...
  44. ncbi request reprint The effect of losartan on global and focal cerebral perfusion and on renal function in hypertensives in mild early ischaemic stroke
    Fozia S Nazir
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    J Hypertens 22:989-95. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Duration of neuroprotective treatment for ischemic stroke
    A G Dyker
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Stroke 29:535-42. 1998
    ..The duration of treatment in recent phase 3 trials ranges from a single bolus injection to 12 weeks of oral therapy...
  46. ncbi request reprint Effect of a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog on cerebral hemodynamics in premenopausal women
    C A L Bain
    Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, UK
    Climacteric 8:193-7. 2005
    ..We studied intracranial hemodynamics in a group of premenopausal women before and after induction of a temporary hypoestrogenic state...
  47. ncbi request reprint Exploring the reliability of the modified rankin scale
    Terence J Quinn
    Department Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 40:762-6. 2009
    ..Previous estimates of the properties of the mRS have used diverse methodologies and may not apply to contemporary trial populations. We used a mock clinical trial design to explore inter- and intraobserver variability of the mRS...
  48. doi request reprint Allopurinol use yields potentially beneficial effects on inflammatory indices in those with recent ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Scott W Muir
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Acute Stroke Unit, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 39:3303-7. 2008
    ..We sought to investigate whether allopurinol alters expression of inflammatory markers after acute ischemic stroke...
  49. ncbi request reprint Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial
    Stella Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 38:1269-73. 2007
    ..Post hoc analysis indicated that this effect was seen in lacunar clinical syndromes (LACS), interaction P=0.005. We have now examined whether this interaction could be explained by confounding baseline factors...
  50. pmc The response to the first dose of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in uncomplicated hypertension--a placebo controlled study utilising ambulatory blood pressure recording
    R J MacFadyen
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Stobhill General Hospital, Glasgow
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 32:393-8. 1991
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  51. doi request reprint Management of acute poststroke blood pressure and detection of atrial fibrillation: a postal questionnaire of UK stroke physicians' current clinical practice
    R E O'Brien
    Acute Stroke Unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Scott Med J 57:204-8. 2012
    ..Current practice of UK stroke physicians regarding acute BP intervention is diverse, reflecting conflicting evidence. There is interest in the stroke community for further research aiming to answer these important clinical questions...
  52. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of perindopril: therapeutic consequences
    K R Lees
    University Department of Materia Medica, Stobhill General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 82:31-4. 1989
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint The prognostic significance of visible infarction on computed tomography following lacunar stroke: results of a long-term follow-up study
    M R Walters
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Dumbarton Road, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland, UK
    J Neuroimaging 15:331-5. 2005
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint C-reactive protein and outcome after ischemic stroke
    K W Muir
    Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Glasgow, Scotland
    Stroke 30:981-5. 1999
    ..We examined the relationship between CRP and outcome after acute ischemic stroke...
  55. ncbi request reprint 21st century stroke--A medical emergency
    J Dawson
    Acute Stroke Unit, Department of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Western Infirmary, Dumbarton Road, Glasgow, G11 6NT
    Scott Med J 51:34-41. 2006
  56. pmc Early clinical experience with the novel proteasome inhibitor PS-519
    I M Shah
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 54:269-76. 2002
    ..An ex vivo assay of 20S proteasome activity allows monitoring of the drug effect in blood. PS-519 is protective in multiple animal models of cerebral ischaemia over a range of doses that achieve 20S inhibition of 40%-80%...
  57. doi request reprint A recognition tool for transient ischaemic attack
    J Dawson
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Western Infirmary Hospital, Dumbarton Road, Glasgow G116NT, UK
    QJM 102:43-9. 2009
    ..Scoring systems exist to assist rapid identification of acute stroke but not for the more challenging diagnosis of transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
  58. ncbi request reprint Strengthening acute stroke trials through optimal use of disability end points
    Fiona B Young
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland
    Stroke 34:2676-80. 2003
    ..The Barthel Index (BI) and Rankin Scale (RS) have been widely used and analyzed in various ways. We sought to investigate the most powerful end point for use in acute stroke trials...
  59. ncbi request reprint Effect of blood pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke on stroke outcome: a tertiary analysis of the GAIN International Trial
    Stella Aslanyan
    Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, Medical Sciences University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 34:2420-5. 2003
    ..We tested the hypotheses that baseline mean arterial BP [MAP=(2xdiastolic BP+systolic BP)/3], weighted average MAP, and an increase or decrease of >30% from baseline MAP are independently associated with stroke outcome...
  60. ncbi request reprint ABCD2 scores and prediction of noncerebrovascular diagnoses in an outpatient population: a case-control study
    Terence J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 40:749-53. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that patients with low ABCD2 score predominantly have noncerebrovascular diagnoses...
  61. ncbi request reprint Association between disability measures and healthcare costs after initial treatment for acute stroke
    Jesse Dawson
    Department of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 38:1893-8. 2007
    ....
  62. pmc Acute stroke: we have the treatments and we have the evidence--we need to use them
    Terence J Quinn
    Gardiner Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Western Infirmary, Dumbarton Road, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Crit Care 11:124. 2007
    ....
  63. pmc Allopurinol and nitric oxide activity in the cerebral circulation of those with diabetes: a randomized trial
    Jesse Dawson
    Acute Stroke Unit, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Diabetes Care 32:135-7. 2009
    ..Type 2 diabetes increases risk of stroke, perhaps because of impaired cerebrovascular basal nitric oxide (NO) activity. We investigated whether this activity is improved by a 2-week course of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol...
  64. doi request reprint Stroke outcome in clinical trial patients deriving from different countries
    Myzoon Ali
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, 44 Church St, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Stroke 40:35-40. 2009
    ..We examined whether differences in index stroke severity, stroke risk factors, mortality, and stroke outcome across geographical locations remain after adjusting for case mix...
  65. ncbi request reprint Initial experience of a digital training resource for modified Rankin scale assessment in clinical trials
    Terence J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 38:2257-61. 2007
    ..Video training has previously improved application of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in clinical research. We developed an mRS training resource in an attempt to minimize interobserver variability...
  66. ncbi request reprint Comparison of stratification and adaptive methods for treatment allocation in an acute stroke clinical trial
    Christopher J Weir
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Stat Med 22:705-26. 2003
    ..Finally, we considered the importance of the method of analysis in realizing the gain in power which may potentially be achieved by allocating treatments using stratified random blocks or adaptive stratification...
  67. doi request reprint Advances in emerging therapies 2007
    Terence J Quinn
    Department Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 39:255-7. 2008
  68. doi request reprint Past, present and future of alteplase for acute ischemic stroke
    Terence J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G116NT, UK
    Expert Rev Neurother 8:181-92. 2008
    ..Thus, while novel approaches to lysis administration are welcome, strategies to improve lay-public and medical awareness of acute stroke and potential treatments are also required...
  69. doi request reprint Variability in modified Rankin scoring across a large cohort of international observers
    Terence J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 39:2975-9. 2008
    ..We examined mRS variability across a large cohort of international observers using data from a video training resource...
  70. ncbi request reprint Effect of area-based deprivation on the severity, subtype, and outcome of ischemic stroke
    Stella Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Stroke 34:2623-8. 2003
    ..In the United Kingdom, area-based deprivation measures are available routinely through links with postal codes. We hypothesized that deprivation is associated with ischemic stroke risk factors, severity, subtype, and outcome...
  71. pmc The effect of allopurinol on the cerebral vasculature of patients with subcortical stroke; a randomized trial
    Jesse Dawson
    Acute Stroke Unit, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 68:662-8. 2009
    ..One promising strategy is uric acid reduction and xanthine oxidase inhibition with allopurinol. We sought to investigate whether allopurinol improves cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) following subcortical stroke...
  72. ncbi request reprint Improving trial power through use of prognosis-adjusted end points
    Fiona B Young
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Boyd Orr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G11 6NT, UK
    Stroke 36:597-601. 2005
    ..Instead, a variable end point that takes severity or likely prognosis into account may be more informative...
  73. ncbi request reprint Effect of perindopril on cerebral and renal perfusion on normotensives in mild early ischaemic stroke: a randomized controlled trial
    Fozia S Nazir
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 19:77-83. 2005
    ..We have investigated the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on blood pressure, global and focal cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a normotensive acute stroke population...
  74. ncbi request reprint Targeting neuroprotection clinical trials to ischemic stroke patients with potential to benefit from therapy
    Christopher J Weir
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Stroke 35:2111-6. 2004
    ..Clinical trials of neuroprotective drugs have had limited success. We investigated whether selecting patients according to prognostic features would improve the statistical power of a trial to identify an efficacious treatment...
  75. ncbi request reprint Poststroke neurological improvement within 7 days is associated with subsequent deterioration
    Stella Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, United Kingdom
    Stroke 35:2165-70. 2004
    ..We evaluated the degree of NIHSS improvement at 7 days (recovery) as a predictor of subsequent neurological deterioration from day 7 to day 90...
  76. ncbi request reprint Impact and influences on caregiver outcomes at one year post-stroke
    Lorraine N Smith
    Nursing and Midwifery School, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LW, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 18:145-53. 2004
    ..Four outcome measures of carer stress and coping at one year post-stroke were identified: carer general health, anxiety, depression and perception of stress...
  77. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale with disability outcome measures in acute stroke trials
    Fiona B Young
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 36:2187-92. 2005
    ..We aimed to compare a range of potential NIHSS end points with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI) end points...
  78. doi request reprint Deriving modified Rankin scores from medical case-records
    Terence J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 39:3421-3. 2008
    ..Certain stroke assessment scales can be derived from a review of a patient's case-record alone. We hypothesized that mRS could be successfully derived from the narrative within patient case-records...
  79. ncbi request reprint Informal carers' experience of caring for stroke survivors
    Lorraine N Smith
    Nursing and Midwifery School, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    J Adv Nurs 46:235-44. 2004
    ..However, the burden of caring for stroke survivors usually rests with family members who have neither chosen nor volunteered for the role of 'carer'...
  80. ncbi request reprint Serum urate as an independent predictor of poor outcome and future vascular events after acute stroke
    Christopher J Weir
    Acute Stroke Unit, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, G11 6NT, UK
    Stroke 34:1951-6. 2003
    ..We explored the association of admission urate level with mortality, placement, and risk of further vascular events after acute stroke...
  81. ncbi request reprint The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women
    C A L Bain
    Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Hum Reprod 19:2411-4. 2004
    ..Impaired CVR is associated with elevated risk of stroke. We performed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of two HRT preparations upon CVR...
  82. pmc Early clinical experience with the novel NMDA receptor antagonist CNS 5161
    M R Walters
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Dumbarton Road, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 53:305-11. 2002
    ..Its objectives were to investigate the haemodynamic effects of the compound, to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy male volunteers, and to provide some preliminary human pharmacokinetic data...
  83. doi request reprint Functional outcome measures in contemporary stroke trials
    T J Quinn
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Int J Stroke 4:200-5. 2009
    ..Trialists continue to use poorly validated approaches to outcome assessment. Given the potential effects on data quality, explicit description of methodology should be mandatory for all trials and rigour is desirable...
  84. ncbi request reprint Randomized trial of graded compression stockings for prevention of deep-vein thrombosis after acute stroke
    K W Muir
    Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK
    QJM 93:359-64. 2000
    ..There is greater doubt over efficacy in early prevention of proximal DVT...
  85. doi request reprint The ABCD and ABCD2 as predictors of stroke in transient ischemic attack clinic outpatients: a retrospective cohort study over 14 years
    J K Harrison
    Division of Community Based Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8RZ, UK
    QJM 103:679-85. 2010
    ..TIA outpatient clinics may see a selective group of patients who have not had an early stroke but may be at raised risk in the medium to long term and therefore benefit from preventive treatment...
  86. ncbi request reprint The prognostic value of the components of the Glasgow Coma Scale following acute stroke
    C J Weir
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, Scotland, UK
    QJM 96:67-74. 2003
    ..The GCS verbal component may be misleading in acute stroke: a focal neurological deficit leading to dysphasia could affect the score, independently of level of consciousness...
  87. ncbi request reprint Evidence-based stroke r-ehabilitation: an expanded guidance document from the european stroke organisation (ESO) guidelines for management of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack 2008
    Terence J Quinn
    Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT, United Kingdom
    J Rehabil Med 41:99-111. 2009
    ..Under the aegis of the European Stroke Organisation a select committee was assembled to collate and appraise the evidence base for rehabilitation interventions...
  88. ncbi request reprint Elevated pulse pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke is associated with poor stroke outcome
    Stella Aslanyan
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland
    Stroke 35:e153-5. 2004
    ..We hypothesized that elevated pulse pressure (PP), the difference between systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), is independently associated with poor stroke outcome at 3 months...
  89. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotein E genotype, coagulation, and survival following acute stroke
    C J Weir
    Acute Stroke Unit, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Scotland, UK
    Neurology 57:1097-100. 2001
    ..03) after adjusting for baseline NIH stroke scale (p = 0.00001) and partial thromboplastin time ratio (p = 0.01). Relative anticoagulation does not fully explain the survival advantage in epsilon4-carrying ischemic stroke patients...
  90. doi request reprint Use of paracetamol in ischaemic stroke patients: evidence from VISTA
    B Frank
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Acta Neurol Scand 128:172-7. 2013
    ..The aim was to investigate the safety and benefit of paracetamol administration in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke...
  91. doi request reprint Interdependence of stroke outcome scales: reliable estimates from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)
    F C Goldie
    Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Int J Stroke 9:328-32. 2014
    ..We aimed to clarify the interdependence of outcome scales by systematic review of published data and by novel analysis of data from completed acute trials...
  92. ncbi request reprint Allopurinol reduces brachial and central blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness progression after ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a randomised controlled trial
    P Higgins
    College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Heart 100:1085-92. 2014
    ..This study sought to ascertain whether allopurinol reduces CBP, arterial stiffness and CIMT progression in patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
  93. ncbi request reprint Interatrial septal abnormalities and stroke: a meta-analysis of case-control studies
    J R Overell
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Neurology 55:1172-9. 2000
    ..To examine the association between patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) and stroke...
  94. ncbi request reprint Clinical features associated with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms presenting to an acute stroke unit
    F S Nazir
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Eur J Neurol 12:81-5. 2005
    ..6% of all stroke presentations), they are most strongly predicted by the presence of other functional somatic syndromes, headache and the absence of symptoms of vertebrobasilar dysfunction...
  95. doi request reprint A survey of principal researchers who lead research into Adults with Incapacity in Scotland
    A C Cameron
    University of Glasgow, UK
    Scott Med J 58:30-3. 2013
    ..RECs 'recognised' by the UK Ethics Committee (3 in Scotland, several in England) can approve drug studies involving Adults with Incapacity in Scotland. Several English RECs can approve studies led from outside Scotland...
  96. ncbi request reprint Tissue angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Relevant to clinical practice?
    K R Lees
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Am J Hypertens 3:266S-272S. 1990
    ..Some experimental data indicate that the binding affinity and time course of ACE inhibition can vary from one tissue to another, and among individual agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  97. doi request reprint Effects of magnesium treatment in a model of internal capsule lesion in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Clotilde Lecrux
    7TMRI Facility, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
    Stroke 39:448-54. 2008
    ..The study aim was to assess the effects of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) administration on white matter damage in vivo in spontaneously hypertensive rats...
  98. ncbi request reprint Turbulence and circulating cerebral emboli detectable at Doppler ultrasonography: a differentiation study in a stenotic middle cerebral artery model
    Yi Yang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, England
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:1229-36. 2002
    ..The current study was designed to study the relationship between stenotic degree and TCD-detectable turbulent flow and its differentiation from cerebral emboli...
  99. ncbi request reprint The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive
    Myzoon Ali
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Stroke 38:1905-10. 2007
    ..The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive aims to aid the planning of clinical trials by collating and providing access to a rich resource of patient data to perform exploratory analyses...
  100. doi request reprint Mismatch-based delayed thrombolysis: a meta-analysis
    Nishant K Mishra
    University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G116NT, UK
    Stroke 41:e25-33. 2010
    ..We undertook a meta-analysis of relevant trials to examine whether present evidence supports delayed thrombolysis among patients selected according to mismatch criteria...