T J Key

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Recent Results Cancer Res 202:39-46. 2014
  2. pmc Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status: a large prospective cohort study
    Rebecca Ritte
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld TP4, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany
    Breast Cancer Res 14:R76. 2012
  3. pmc Meat consumption and mortality--results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Sabine Rohrmann
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland
    BMC Med 11:63. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in the United Kingdom Dietary Cohort Consortium
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 131:E320-5. 2012
  5. pmc Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study
    Paolo Vineis
    Imperial College London, London UK
    Environ Health 6:7. 2007
  6. pmc The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism is not associated with body mass index and breast cancer risk
    Daniele Campa
    German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:563. 2010
  7. doi request reprint Dietary fat and breast cancer: comparison of results from food diaries and food-frequency questionnaires in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:1043-52. 2011
  8. doi request reprint Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1620S-1626S. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Mortality in British vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1613S-1619S. 2009
  10. pmc Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk
    T J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Br J Cancer 104:6-11. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications134 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Recent Results Cancer Res 202:39-46. 2014
    ....
  2. pmc Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status: a large prospective cohort study
    Rebecca Ritte
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld TP4, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany
    Breast Cancer Res 14:R76. 2012
    ....
  3. pmc Meat consumption and mortality--results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Sabine Rohrmann
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland
    BMC Med 11:63. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)...
  4. doi request reprint Vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in the United Kingdom Dietary Cohort Consortium
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 131:E320-5. 2012
    ..There were no statistically significant associations between colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of any of the vitamins, minerals or essential fatty acids examined...
  5. pmc Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study
    Paolo Vineis
    Imperial College London, London UK
    Environ Health 6:7. 2007
    ..It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution...
  6. pmc The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism is not associated with body mass index and breast cancer risk
    Daniele Campa
    German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:563. 2010
    ..BMI is considered to be one of the measures of choice to evaluate body fatness and there is evidence that body fatness is related with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC)...
  7. doi request reprint Dietary fat and breast cancer: comparison of results from food diaries and food-frequency questionnaires in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:1043-52. 2011
    ..Epidemiologic studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk are inconsistent, and it has been suggested that a true relation may have been obscured by the imprecise measurement of fat intake...
  8. doi request reprint Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1620S-1626S. 2009
    ..Few prospective studies have examined cancer incidence among vegetarians...
  9. doi request reprint Mortality in British vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1613S-1619S. 2009
    ..Few prospective studies have examined the mortality of vegetarians...
  10. pmc Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk
    T J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Br J Cancer 104:6-11. 2011
    ....
  11. pmc Cancer incidence in British vegetarians
    T J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 101:192-7. 2009
    ..Few prospective studies have examined cancer incidence among vegetarians...
  12. doi request reprint Symposium 1: Overnutrition: consequences and solutions. Obesity and cancer risk
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 69:86-90. 2010
    ..Estimates of the percentage of cancers that can be attributed to excess body weight suggest that in the UK and similar countries approximately 5% of all cancers are attributable to overweight and obesity...
  13. ncbi request reprint Carbohydrates and cancer: an overview of the epidemiological evidence
    T J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 61:S112-21. 2007
    ..To assess the epidemiological evidence on dietary carbohydrates and the risk of developing cancer...
  14. ncbi request reprint Calcium, diet and fracture risk: a prospective study of 1898 incident fractures among 34 696 British women and men
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK
    Public Health Nutr 10:1314-20. 2007
    ..The risk factors for fractures are incompletely understood. An outstanding question concerns the optimal amount of dietary calcium needed to minimise the risk of fracture...
  15. ncbi request reprint Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building
    Proc Nutr Soc 65:35-41. 2006
    ..Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians...
  16. pmc Pooling biomarker data from different studies of disease risk, with a focus on endogenous hormones
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:960-5. 2010
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:672-81. 2007
    ..Previous studies suggest that high plasma concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, or tocopherols may reduce the risk of prostate cancer...
  18. ncbi request reprint Circulating levels of sex hormones and their relation to risk factors for breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in 1092 pre- and postmenopausal women (United Kingdom)
    P K Verkasalo
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK
    Cancer Causes Control 12:47-59. 2001
    ..To investigate the relationships between plasma concentrations of sex hormones and risk factors for breast cancer...
  19. ncbi request reprint Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, UK
    Public Health Nutr 1:33-41. 1998
    ..To compare the mortality rates of vegetarians and non-vegetarians...
  20. doi request reprint Dietary fibre intake and ischaemic heart disease mortality: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study
    F L Crowe
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 66:950-6. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the associations of total and food sources of dietary fibre with IHD mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study...
  21. ncbi request reprint Soy milk intake in relation to serum sex hormone levels in British men
    N E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Nutr Cancer 41:41-6. 2001
    ..These results suggest that soy milk intake, as a marker of isoflavone intake, is not associated with serum sex hormone concentrations among free-living Western men...
  22. pmc Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    N E Allen
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 98:1574-81. 2008
    ..The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer...
  23. ncbi request reprint Soy milk intake and plasma sex hormones: a cross-sectional study in pre- and postmenopausal women (EPIC-Oxford)
    P K Verkasalo
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Nutr Cancer 40:79-86. 2001
    ..We conclude that soy milk intake does not change plasma concentrations of sex hormones in pre- or postmenopausal British women who consume soy milk as a part of their regular diet...
  24. pmc Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    R C Travis
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Br J Cancer 100:1817-23. 2009
    ..These results suggest that higher concentrations of circulating genistein may reduce the risk of prostate cancer but do not support an association with plasma lignans...
  25. pmc Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-I but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men
    N E Allen
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 83:95-7. 2000
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Soya intake and plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein: validity of dietary assessment among eighty British women (Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)
    P K Verkasalo
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Br J Nutr 86:415-21. 2001
    ....
  27. pmc A prospective study of endogenous serum hormone concentrations and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women on the island of Guernsey
    H V Thomas
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 76:401-5. 1997
    ..These data provide evidence that serum oestradiol concentrations in post-menopausal women may have a substantial effect on breast cancer risk...
  28. pmc A prospective study of endogenous serum hormone concentrations and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women on the island of Guernsey
    H V Thomas
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 75:1075-9. 1997
    ..64; testosterone 4% higher, P = 0.57; SHBG 8% higher, P = 0.24. The small difference in oestradiol concentration could be aetiologically important, but larger prospective studies are needed...
  29. ncbi request reprint Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans
    E A Spencer
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:728-34. 2003
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview
    P N Appleby
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 70:525S-531S. 1999
    ..Thus, the health of vegetarians in this study is generally good and compares favorably with that of the nonvegetarian control subjects. Larger studies are needed to examine rates of specific cancers and other diseases among vegetarians...
  31. pmc A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 76:678-87. 1997
    ..This study does not support the hypothesis that fat increases risk and is equivocal in relation to carotene. The possible relationships of vitamin B6, garlic, beans and peas with risk for prostate cancer should be further investigated...
  32. pmc Nutrition, lifestyle and colorectal cancer incidence: a prospective investigation of 10998 vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the United Kingdom
    M A Sanjoaquin
    Cancer Research UK, Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Br J Cancer 90:118-21. 2004
    ..Risk increased in association with smoking, alcohol, and white bread consumption, and decreased with frequent consumption of fruit. The relative risk in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.55-1.32)...
  33. pmc A prospective study of urinary oestrogen excretion and breast cancer risk
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 73:1615-9. 1996
    ..016). We conclude that high levels of endogenous oestrogens in post-menopausal women are associated with increased breast cancer risk, but that the relationship of oestrogens in premenopausal women with risk is unclear...
  34. ncbi request reprint EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK
    Gwyneth K Davey
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Public Health Nutr 6:259-69. 2003
    ..To describe the lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes of the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)...
  35. ncbi request reprint Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 70:516S-524S. 1999
    ..There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or all other causes combined...
  36. pmc Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study
    A M J Gilsing
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 64:933-9. 2010
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Energy balance and cancer: the role of sex hormones
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 60:81-9. 2001
    ..In men, increasing BMI has little effect on bioavailable androgen levels, and any effect of obesity on prostate cancer risk is small...
  38. pmc Serum vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Ruth C Travis
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Am J Epidemiol 169:1223-32. 2009
    ..In summary, the results of this large nested case-control study provide no evidence in support of a protective effect of circulating concentrations of vitamin D on the risk of prostate cancer...
  39. ncbi request reprint Mortality and fresh fruit consumption
    P N Appleby
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, OX2 6HE, UK
    IARC Sci Publ 156:131-3. 2002
  40. pmc Cigarette smoking and urinary oestrogen excretion in premenopausal and post-menopausal women
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 74:1313-6. 1996
    ..This may partly explain the reduced risk for endometrial cancer among post-menopausal smokers...
  41. pmc Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    K K Tsilidis
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 105:1436-42. 2011
    ..It is well established that parity and use of oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the associations with other reproductive variables are less clear...
  42. pmc A prospective study of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-3 and breast cancer risk
    N E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Br J Cancer 92:1283-7. 2005
    ..These data are compatible with the hypothesis that premenopausal women with a relatively high circulating concentration of IGF-I and low IGFBP-3 are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer...
  43. ncbi request reprint The effect of diet on serum insulin-like growth-factor-I and its main binding proteins
    N E Allen
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, UK
    IARC Sci Publ 156:295-6. 2002
  44. doi request reprint Lifestyle factors and serum androgens among 636 middle aged men from seven countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Reiko Suzuki
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cancer Causes Control 20:811-21. 2009
    ..To evaluate the association between lifestyle and dietary factors and serum concentrations of androgens in middle-aged healthy men...
  45. ncbi request reprint Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford
    Paul N Appleby
    Cancer Research UK, Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, The Radcliffe Infirmary, UK
    Public Health Nutr 5:645-54. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6HE, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:1441-8. 2002
    ..0001) and explained most of the differences in IGF-I concentration between the diet groups. These data suggest that a plant-based diet is associated with lower circulating levels of total IGF-I and higher levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2...
  47. ncbi request reprint Validation study of soya intake and plasma isoflavone levels among British women
    P K Verkasalo
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, University of Oxford, UK
    IARC Sci Publ 156:135-6. 2002
  48. pmc Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies
    T J Key
    Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Br J Cancer 105:709-22. 2011
    ..Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood...
  49. ncbi request reprint Lifestyle determinants of serum insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I), C-peptide and hormone binding protein levels in British women
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, OX2 6HE, UK
    Cancer Causes Control 14:65-74. 2003
    ....
  50. pmc Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    K K Tsilidis
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, OX3 7LF Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 103:1755-9. 2010
    ..Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk...
  51. pmc Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 62:631-6. 1990
    ..002) lower in the British than in the Chinese women at ages 55-64. Prolactin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two countries in any age group...
  52. ncbi request reprint Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women
    T J Key
    Cancer Research U K Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Bldg, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1218-26. 2003
    ..Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We examined whether this association could be explained by the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with serum sex hormone concentrations...
  53. pmc Oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal and post-menopausal meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans
    H V Thomas
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 80:1470-5. 1999
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Prostate cancer: rates in Europe, dietary hypotheses, and plans for EPIC
    T J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, OX2 6HE, UK
    IARC Sci Publ 156:197-200. 2002
  55. pmc Endogenous sex hormones and endometrial cancer risk in women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Endocr Relat Cancer 15:485-97. 2008
    ..In conclusion, relatively high blood concentrations of estrogens and free testosterone are associated with an increased endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women...
  56. ncbi request reprint Soy intake and blood cholesterol concentrations: a cross-sectional study of 1033 pre- and postmenopausal women in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Magdalena S Rosell
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1391-6. 2004
    ..Clinical trials have suggested that the intake of soy protein reduces blood cholesterol. Few studies have explored this relation in subjects who consume soy as part of their regular diet...
  57. ncbi request reprint Use of hormonal therapy for menopause in nine European countries
    E Banks
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    IARC Sci Publ 156:301-3. 2002
  58. pmc A case--control study of selenium in nails and prostate cancer risk in British men
    N E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Br J Cancer 90:1392-6. 2004
    ..78, 95% CI, 0.27-2.25). These results suggest that selenium is not strongly associated with prostate cancer risk in British men...
  59. ncbi request reprint Health benefits of a vegetarian diet
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 58:271-5. 1999
    ..The evidence available suggests that widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet could prevent approximately 40,000 deaths from IHD in Britain each year...
  60. pmc Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence
    X S Wang
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Occup Med (Lond) 61:78-89. 2011
    ..Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published...
  61. ncbi request reprint Lifestyle and nutritional determinants of bioavailable androgens and related hormones in British men
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK
    Cancer Causes Control 13:353-63. 2002
    ..To investigate the lifestyle and nutritional determinants of serum bioavailable androgens and their related hormones in men...
  62. ncbi request reprint Melatonin and breast cancer: a prospective study
    Ruth C Travis
    Cancer Research UK, Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Natl Cancer Inst 96:475-82. 2004
    ..To determine whether low levels of endogenous melatonin are associated with an increased risk for developing breast cancer, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study among British women...
  63. ncbi request reprint Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bowel movement frequency: a cross-sectional study of 20630 men and women in EPIC-Oxford
    Miguel A Sanjoaquin
    Cancer Research UK, Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, The Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Public Health Nutr 7:77-83. 2004
    ..To investigate the relationships between nutritional and lifestyle factors and bowel movement frequency...
  64. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of breast cancer
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK
    Lancet Oncol 2:133-40. 2001
    ..Alcohol increases risk, whereas physical activity is probably protective. Mutations in certain genes greatly increase breast-cancer risk, but these account for a minority of cases...
  65. pmc Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies
    N E Eaton
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 80:930-4. 1999
    ..Further research is needed to substantiate the small difference found in A-diol-g concentrations between prostate cancer cases and controls...
  66. pmc The dose-effect relationship between 'unopposed' oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund s Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 57:205-12. 1988
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 78:533S-538S. 2003
    ..Three prospective studies have examined the mortality of vegetarians in Britain...
  68. ncbi request reprint Mortality in British vegetarians
    Paul N Appleby
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, The Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Public Health Nutr 5:29-36. 2002
    ..To compare the mortality of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians...
  69. doi request reprint Association between endogenous plasma hormone concentrations and fracture risk in men and women: the EPIC-Oxford prospective cohort study
    Andrew W Roddam
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK
    J Bone Miner Metab 27:485-93. 2009
    ....
  70. pmc A case-control study of cryptorchidism and maternal hormone concentrations in early pregnancy
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 73:698-701. 1996
    ....
  71. pmc Soya foods and breast cancer risk: a prospective study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
    T J Key
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Br J Cancer 81:1248-56. 1999
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Hormones and breast cancer
    T J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    IARC Sci Publ 156:273-6. 2002
  73. ncbi request reprint Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Francesca L Crowe
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1405-13. 2008
    ..However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear...
  74. doi request reprint Physical activity and fracture risk: a prospective study of 1898 incident fractures among 34,696 British men and women
    Paul N Appleby
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK
    J Bone Miner Metab 26:191-8. 2008
    ..The markedly increased risk of fractures associated with bicycling, and the moderately increased risk associated with other exercise and sports, are probably the result of an increased incidence of injury...
  75. doi request reprint A prospective analysis of the association between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk in EPIC
    Reiko Suzuki
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 124:245-9. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that dietary fiber intake is not associated with prostate cancer risk...
  76. pmc Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies
    Andrew W Roddam
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Ann Intern Med 149:461-71, W83-8. 2008
    ..Some, but not all, published results have shown an association between circulating blood levels of some insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) and the subsequent risk for prostate cancer...
  77. doi request reprint Plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1567-75. 2008
    ..Some evidence indicates that a low selenium intake may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer...
  78. ncbi request reprint A prospective study of vegetarianism and isoflavone intake in relation to breast cancer risk in British women
    Ruth C Travis
    Cancer Research UK, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 122:705-10. 2008
    ..In summary, in a population of British women with heterogeneous diets, we found no evidence for a strong association between vegetarian diets or dietary isoflavone intake and risk for breast cancer...
  79. doi request reprint Prospective study of the association between grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Elizabeth A Spencer
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cancer Causes Control 20:803-9. 2009
    ..05). There was no association between grapefruit intake and estradiol or estrone among postmenopausal women. In this study, we found no evidence of an association between grapefruit intake and risk of breast cancer...
  80. ncbi request reprint Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Francesca L Crowe
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1353-63. 2008
    ..Plausible biological mechanisms underlie possible associations between fatty acids in blood and risk of prostate cancer; epidemiologic evidence for an association, however, is inconsistent...
  81. doi request reprint The association between diet and serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Francesca L Crowe
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:1333-40. 2009
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participants
    Elizabeth A Spencer
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, The Radcliffe Infirmary, UK
    Public Health Nutr 5:561-5. 2002
    ....
  83. doi request reprint Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Konstantinos K Tsilidis
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Int J Cancer 128:1881-9. 2011
    ..Our results show no significant association of estrogen-only or estrogen plus progestin therapy with colorectal cancer risk...
  84. doi request reprint A cross-sectional analysis of the associations between adult height, BMI and serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 -2 and -3 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Francesca L Crowe
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 38:194-202. 2011
    ..Height and BMI are risk factors for several types of cancer and may be related to circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a peptide associated with increased cancer risk...
  85. doi request reprint Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study
    Francesca L Crowe
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Public Health Nutr 14:340-6. 2011
    ..The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans...
  86. doi request reprint Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of endometrial carcinoma among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 172:1394-403. 2010
    ..The increased risk associated with tibolone use requires further investigation...
  87. doi request reprint Plasma phytanic acid concentration and risk of prostate cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Alison J Price
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:1769-76. 2010
    ..Phytanic acid, a fatty acid predominantly obtained from foods high in ruminant fat, may have a biological role in the up-regulation of the protein alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer tissue...
  88. ncbi request reprint Association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and fracture risk: the EPIC-Oxford study
    Andrew W Roddam
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 166:1327-36. 2007
    ..15 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 1.61) and 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.13), respectively. These results were not affected by adjustment for potential confounders and were consistent across a number of subgroups...
  89. ncbi request reprint Serum androgens and prostate cancer among 643 cases and 643 controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Ruth C Travis
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 121:1331-8. 2007
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3 concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1121-7. 2007
    ..Some studies suggest that elevated serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and, in particular, with an increased risk of advanced-stage prostate cancer...
  91. ncbi request reprint Nutrition and breast cancer
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK
    Breast 12:412-6. 2003
    ..Nutrition might affect breast cancer risk by altering levels of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-I. Current dietary advice should be to avoid obesity, limit alcohol intake, and maintain a varied diet...
  92. doi request reprint Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans
    K E Bradbury
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 68:178-83. 2014
    ..A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. ..
  93. ncbi request reprint The association between polymorphisms in the CYP17 and 5alpha-reductase (SRD5A2) genes and serum androgen concentrations in men
    N E Allen
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:185-9. 2001
    ..These results suggest that the CYP17 MspA1 I polymorphism is not associated with testosterone concentrations and that the SRD5A2 V89L polymorphism is not a strong determinant of A-diol-g concentration in Caucasian men...
  94. ncbi request reprint Association between two polymorphisms in the SRD5A2 gene and serum androgen concentrations in British men
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, OX2 6HE, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:578-81. 2003
    ..0003). Because of the rarity of this variant allele, larger studies are needed to additionally clarify the role of the A49T polymorphism in androgen metabolism...
  95. ncbi request reprint Reproducibility of a short semi-quantitative food group questionnaire and its performance in estimating nutrient intake compared with a 7-day diet diary in the Million Women Study
    Andrew W Roddam
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Public Health Nutr 8:201-13. 2005
    ..To assess the short- and long-term reproducibility of a short food group questionnaire, and to compare its performance for estimating nutrient intakes in comparison with a 7-day diet diary...
  96. ncbi request reprint A prospective study of diet and prostate cancer in Japanese men
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, OX2 6HE, UK
    Cancer Causes Control 15:911-20. 2004
    ..This study aimed to examine the association between dietary intake and prostate cancer risk among 18,115 men in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, using prospective data from the Life Span Study...
  97. ncbi request reprint Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Public Health Nutr 7:187-200. 2004
    ..To assess the epidemiological evidence on diet and cancer and make public health recommendations...
  98. ncbi request reprint The effect of diet on risk of cancer
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Lancet 360:861-8. 2002
    ..Prudent advice is to eat a varied diet including plenty of fruit, vegetables, and cereals to maintain a healthy bodyweight with the help of regular physical activity and to restrict consumption of alcohol...
  99. ncbi request reprint Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
    Timothy J Key
    Cancer Research U K Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Int J Cancer 109:119-24. 2004
    ..79-1.26) for total fruits and vegetables combined; intake of cruciferous vegetables was not associated with risk. These results suggest that total consumption of fruits and vegetables is not associated with the risk for prostate cancer...
  100. ncbi request reprint Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men
    Magdalena S Rosell
    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:327-34. 2005
    ..Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans...
  101. ncbi request reprint Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration in men is not associated with the cytosine-adenosine repeat polymorphism of the IGF-I gene
    Naomi E Allen
    Cancer Research United Kingdom Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6HE, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:319-20. 2002