P Hunter

Summary

Affiliation: University of East Anglia
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Classification of bathing water quality based on the parametric calculation of percentiles is unsound
    Raymond Chawla
    UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Water Res 39:4552-8. 2005
  2. doi request reprint Microbiological surveillance of private water supplies in England: the impact of environmental and climate factors on water quality
    Hopi Yip Richardson
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Water Res 43:2159-68. 2009
  3. doi request reprint Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study
    Paul R Hunter
    Norwich School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    BMC Public Health 13:1145. 2013
  4. pmc Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa
    Jo Anne L Geere
    Faculty of Health, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Norfolk, UK
    Environ Health 9:52. 2010
  5. pmc Seasonal hazards and health risks in lower-income countries: field testing a multi-disciplinary approach
    Roger Few
    University of East Anglia, UK
    Environ Health 8:S16. 2009
  6. pmc Communication, perception and behaviour during a natural disaster involving a 'Do Not Drink' and a subsequent 'Boil Water' notice: a postal questionnaire study
    Gabriella Rundblad
    Department of Education and Professional Studies, King s College London, SE1 9NH, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:641. 2010
  7. pmc Geographic correlation between deprivation and risk of meningococcal disease: an ecological study
    Christopher J Williams
    East and North Hertfordshire Health Protection Unit, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL8 6JL, United Kingdom
    BMC Public Health 4:30. 2004
  8. pmc How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study
    Anna Stenberg
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    BMC Public Health 8:71. 2008
  9. pmc Multi-locus analysis of human infective Cryptosporidium species and subtypes using ten novel genetic loci
    Maha Bouzid
    Biomedical Research Centre, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    BMC Microbiol 10:213. 2010
  10. pmc Methods for determining disease burden and calibrating national surveillance data in the United Kingdom: the second study of infectious intestinal disease in the community (IID2 study)
    Sarah J O'Brien
    School of Translational Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:39. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. ncbi request reprint Classification of bathing water quality based on the parametric calculation of percentiles is unsound
    Raymond Chawla
    UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Water Res 39:4552-8. 2005
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Microbiological surveillance of private water supplies in England: the impact of environmental and climate factors on water quality
    Hopi Yip Richardson
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Water Res 43:2159-68. 2009
    ..These findings will be able to inform risk assessments of private water supplies prior to microbiological results being available...
  3. doi request reprint Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study
    Paul R Hunter
    Norwich School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    BMC Public Health 13:1145. 2013
    ..The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water...
  4. pmc Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa
    Jo Anne L Geere
    Faculty of Health, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Norfolk, UK
    Environ Health 9:52. 2010
    ..The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task...
  5. pmc Seasonal hazards and health risks in lower-income countries: field testing a multi-disciplinary approach
    Roger Few
    University of East Anglia, UK
    Environ Health 8:S16. 2009
    ....
  6. pmc Communication, perception and behaviour during a natural disaster involving a 'Do Not Drink' and a subsequent 'Boil Water' notice: a postal questionnaire study
    Gabriella Rundblad
    Department of Education and Professional Studies, King s College London, SE1 9NH, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:641. 2010
    ..The rare occurrence of two water notices provided a unique opportunity to compare compliance with public health advice. Information source use and other factors that may affect consumer perception and behaviour were also explored...
  7. pmc Geographic correlation between deprivation and risk of meningococcal disease: an ecological study
    Christopher J Williams
    East and North Hertfordshire Health Protection Unit, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL8 6JL, United Kingdom
    BMC Public Health 4:30. 2004
    ..This study investigated the relationships between the incidence and age distribution of meningococcal disease, and socioeconomic environment...
  8. pmc How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study
    Anna Stenberg
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    BMC Public Health 8:71. 2008
    ..To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world...
  9. pmc Multi-locus analysis of human infective Cryptosporidium species and subtypes using ten novel genetic loci
    Maha Bouzid
    Biomedical Research Centre, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    BMC Microbiol 10:213. 2010
    ..Comparative genomic tools were used to identify putative species-specific genes and a subset of these genes was tested by PCR in a collection of Cryptosporidium clinical isolates and reference strains...
  10. pmc Methods for determining disease burden and calibrating national surveillance data in the United Kingdom: the second study of infectious intestinal disease in the community (IID2 study)
    Sarah J O'Brien
    School of Translational Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:39. 2010
    ..We will also outline methods to determine whether or not incidence has declined since the mid-1990s...
  11. pmc A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar
    Beatrice Lyons
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 9:189. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the burden of urinary tract pathology and morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and identify reliable clinical predictors of schistosomiasis associated renal disease...
  12. ncbi request reprint The prevalence of self-reported symptoms of respiratory disease and community belief about the severity of pollution from various sources
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Int J Environ Health Res 13:227-38. 2003
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Household water treatment in developing countries: comparing different intervention types using meta-regression
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, U K
    Environ Sci Technol 43:8991-7. 2009
    ....
  14. pmc Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:219. 2010
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Quantitative microbial risk assessment of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis from very small private water supplies
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
    Risk Anal 31:228-36. 2011
    ..However, this increased immunity is presumed to derive from increased disease risk in young children, the group most at risk from severe disease...
  16. doi request reprint Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Sci Total Environ 407:2621-4. 2009
    ..Funders of water quality interventions in developing countries should put more effort into auditing whether interventions are sustainable and whether the health benefits are being achieved...
  17. pmc Meta-analysis of experimental data concerning antimicrobial resistance gene transfer rates during conjugation
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6085-90. 2008
    ..0, -3.1]. These probability distributions are suitable for use in the quantitative assessment of the risk of transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes to the intestinal flora of humans and animals...
  18. ncbi request reprint The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Int J Parasitol 35:1181-90. 2005
    ..However, for both parasites there is a need for molecular epidemiological studies to be undertaken in well-defined foci of transmission in order to fully determine the frequency and importance of zoonotic transmission...
  19. doi request reprint An assessment of the costs and benefits of interventions aimed at improving rural community water supplies in developed countries
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Sci Total Environ 407:3681-5. 2009
    ..Investments in drinking-water provision in rural settings are highly cost beneficial in the developed world. In the developed world, the CB ratio is substantially positive especially once the impact of IBS is included...
  20. ncbi request reprint Possible undetected outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in areas of the north west of England supplied by an unfiltered surface water source
    P Hunter
    Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Chester
    Commun Dis Public Health 4:136-8. 2001
    ..Following graphical representation of report rates, it would appear that outbreaks in the six health authorities were considerably more common than the average recorded in the national outbreak surveillance system...
  21. pmc Epidemiology and clinical features of Cryptosporidium infection in immunocompromised patients
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:145-54. 2002
    ..There is less evidence of severe complications in patients with other malignant diseases or in those receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy...
  22. ncbi request reprint Does calculation of the 95th percentile of microbiological results offer any advantage over percentage exceedence in determining compliance with bathing water quality standards?
    P R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Lett Appl Microbiol 34:283-6. 2002
    ..This study set out to determine whether this was an appropriate development...
  23. pmc Foot and mouth disease and cryptosporidiosis: possible interaction between two emerging infectious diseases
    Paul R Hunter
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:109-12. 2003
    ..We also noted a substantial decline in the proportion of human infections caused by the bovine strain (genotype 2) of Cryptosporidium parvum during weeks 13-38 in that year but not during the other weeks...
  24. ncbi request reprint Climate change and waterborne and vector-borne disease
    P R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 94:37S-46S. 2003
    ..Although increased temperature could lead to climatic conditions favourable to increases in certain vector-borne diseases such as malaria, the infrastructure in the UK would prevent the indigenous spread of malaria...
  25. pmc Potential sources of bias in the use of individual's recall of the frequency of exposure to air pollution for use in exposure assessment in epidemiological studies: a cross-sectional survey
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Environ Health 3:3. 2004
    ..This study reports the association between perception of above average levels of air pollution compared with others in the neighbourhood and a number of factors that may influence reporting...
  26. pmc Sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1241-9. 2004
    ..For C. parvum, eating raw vegetables and eating tomatoes were strongly negatively associated with illness; touching farm animals was associated with illness...
  27. ncbi request reprint Health sequelae of human cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent patients
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 39:504-10. 2004
    ..There have been no systematic studies following up the longer term health effects of cases of cryptosporidiosis for which genotype data exist...
  28. ncbi request reprint Self-reported diarrhea in a control group: a strong association with reporting of low-pressure events in tap water
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 40:e32-4. 2005
    ..In an analysis of this control group, there was a very strong association between self-reported diarrhea and reported low water pressure at the faucet...
  29. ncbi request reprint Drinking water and diarrhoeal disease due to Escherichia coli
    Paul R Hunter
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    J Water Health 1:65-72. 2003
    ..This paper discusses each of these types in turn and also describes their epidemiology, with particular reference to whether they are waterborne or not...
  30. pmc Cryptosporidiosis decline after regulation, England and Wales, 1989-2005
    Iain R Lake
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:623-5. 2007
    ..We estimate an annual reduction in disease of 905 reported cases and approximately 6,700 total cases...
  31. pmc A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between self-reported diarrheal disease and distance from home to water source
    Xia Wang
    School of Medicine, Health Policy, and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:582-4. 2010
    ..45; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.68). There is a need for better designed studies to further elucidate the health impacts on having to carry water home...
  32. pmc Perceived causes of sporadic cryptosporidiosis and their relation to sources of information
    Miguel F Doria
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ
    J Epidemiol Community Health 60:745-50. 2006
    ..The importance of a person's perceptions about the causes of their disease has been emphasised by research on various diseases. Several studies have found perception may be linked to protective behaviours...
  33. doi request reprint Whole genome amplification (WGA) for archiving and genotyping of clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium species
    Maha Bouzid
    Biomedical Research Centre, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Parasitology 137:27-36. 2010
    ..Thus WGA was found to be a useful technique for producing amplified DNA suitable for downstream genotyping techniques and archiving of Cryptosporidium clinical isolates...
  34. pmc Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores
    Diana Bell
    Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, School of Biological Sciences, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1107-14. 2004
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint A case-control study of drinking water and dairy products in Crohn's Disease--further investigation of the possible role of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis
    Ibrahim Abubakar
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 165:776-83. 2007
    ..The observed association with meat and the negative association with pasteurized milk need further study...
  36. pmc Using infectious intestinal disease surveillance data to explore illness aetiology; a cryptosporidiosis case study
    Iain R Lake
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Health Place 15:333-9. 2009
    ..These findings accord with previous research validating the techniques developed. Their use in future studies investigating IID geography is therefore recommended...
  37. ncbi request reprint Fault tree analysis of the causes of waterborne outbreaks
    Helen L Risebro
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
    J Water Health 5:1-18. 2007
    ..Retrospective analysis of multiple outbreaks of enteric disease can be used to inform outbreak investigations, facilitate corrective measures, and further develop multi-barrier approaches...
  38. pmc Case-control study of environmental and social factors influencing cryptosporidiosis
    Iain R Lake
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Eur J Epidemiol 22:805-11. 2007
    ..Socioeconomic status and areas with many individuals aged less then 4 years had a greater impact for infection with C. hominis than for C. parvum. Policy implications are discussed...
  39. ncbi request reprint Surveillance of waterborne disease in European member states: a qualitative study
    Helen L Risebro
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
    J Water Health 5:19-38. 2007
    ..Inter- and intra-organisational collaboration and information integration are likely to improve surveillance, leading to more astute estimates of the waterborne disease burden...
  40. ncbi request reprint A cluster of cases of abdominal pain possibly associated with high copper levels in a private water supply
    N Hoveyda
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom
    J Environ Health 66:29-32. 2003
    ..Further investigations showed that episodes of blue discoloration of the drinking water had occurred in the past. Furthermore, copper pipes in the distribution system showed evidence of internal corrosion...
  41. ncbi request reprint Perception of tap water risks and quality: a structural equation model approach
    M de Franca Doria
    Centre for Environmental Risk, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Water Sci Technol 52:143-9. 2005
    ..Finally, the use of tap water to drink at home can be moderately explained and depends mostly on the ability to use alternatives (i.e. bottled water), tap water taste, and perceived risk...
  42. ncbi request reprint What do negative associations between potential risk factors and illness in analytical epidemiological studies of infectious disease really mean?
    Louise Swift
    School of Medicine, Health Policy, and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Eur J Epidemiol 19:219-23. 2004
    ..e., factor B becomes protective decreases with higher exposure rates. Epidemiological studies may substantially underestimate the importance of risk factors where exposure is consistent over many years...
  43. doi request reprint A systematic review of analytical observational studies investigating the association between cardiovascular disease and drinking water hardness
    Louise A Catling
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK
    J Water Health 6:433-42. 2008
    ..This study found significant evidence of an inverse association between magnesium levels in drinking water and cardiovascular mortality following a meta-analysis of case control studies. Evidence for calcium remains unclear...
  44. pmc Subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum in humans and disease risk
    Paul R Hunter
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:82-8. 2007
    ..Microsatellite typing of C. parvum provides valuable additional information on the epidemiology of this pathogen...
  45. pmc A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions used to reduce exposure to house dust and their effect on the development and severity of asthma
    Clare Macdonald
    School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1691-5. 2007
    ..We assessed whether any household dust reduction intervention has the effect of increasing or decreasing the development or severity of atopic disease...
  46. pmc Cryptosporidium oocysts in a water supply associated with a cryptosporidiosis outbreak
    Andrew D Howe
    East Lancashire Health Authority, Nelson, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:619-24. 2002
    ..This persistence may have been due to oocysts being entrapped within biofilm. Despite the continued presence of oocysts, epidemiologic evidence suggested that no one became ill after the water source was changed...
  47. ncbi request reprint National disease burden due to waterborne transmission of nosocomial pathogens is substantially overestimated
    Paul R Hunter
    Arch Intern Med 163:1974; author reply 1974-5. 2003
  48. ncbi request reprint Effect of precipitation on seasonal variability in cryptosporidiosis recorded by the North West England surveillance system in 1990-1999
    Elena N Naumova
    Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Water Health 3:185-96. 2005
    ..The endemic level and the magnitude of epidemic peaks were inversely related, which might be indicative of multiple exposures to the pathogen in these localities and the development of some partial immunity...
  49. ncbi request reprint An enquiry into scientific and media discourse in the MMR controversy: authority and factuality
    Gabriella Rundblad
    King s College London, Department of Education and Professional Studies, London, UK
    Commun Med 3:69-80. 2006
    ..That Wakefield et al. stands out in the majority of indicators investigated is of interest in view of its controversial position in the MMR debate and worthy of further study...