Emily A Holmes

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder
    Chris R Brewin
    Subdepartment of Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Clin Psychol Rev 23:339-76. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: images, treatment techniques and outcomes
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:297-305. 2007
  3. doi request reprint The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Emotion 8:395-409. 2008
  4. pmc Involuntary memories after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania?
    Charlotte Davies
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Clin Psychol Psychother 19:341-51. 2012
  5. pmc Fishing for happiness: the effects of generating positive imagery on mood and behaviour
    Arnaud Pictet
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 49:885-91. 2011
  6. pmc Nonlinear time-series approaches in characterizing mood stability and mood instability in bipolar disorder
    M B Bonsall
    Mathematical Ecology Research Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 279:916-24. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Mental imagery and emotion in treatment across disorders: using the example of depression
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cogn Behav Ther 38:21-8. 2009
  8. pmc Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e13706. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: a review of the trauma film paradigm
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 127:553-66. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Prospective and positive mental imagery deficits in dysphoria
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Behav Res Ther 46:976-81. 2008

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi request reprint Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder
    Chris R Brewin
    Subdepartment of Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Clin Psychol Rev 23:339-76. 2003
    ..We review empirical evidence relevant to each model and identify promising areas for further research...
  2. ncbi request reprint Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: images, treatment techniques and outcomes
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:297-305. 2007
    ..A working definition of two types of imagery rescripting is provided, along with a heuristic framework for conceptualising the range of imagery techniques in cognitive therapy...
  3. doi request reprint The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Emotion 8:395-409. 2008
    ....
  4. pmc Involuntary memories after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania?
    Charlotte Davies
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Clin Psychol Psychother 19:341-51. 2012
    ..Clinical implications regarding the modulation of positive imagery after a positive emotional experience are discussed. Generally, boosting positive imagery may be a useful strategy for the recovery of depressed mood...
  5. pmc Fishing for happiness: the effects of generating positive imagery on mood and behaviour
    Arnaud Pictet
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 49:885-91. 2011
    ..Understanding the mechanisms underlying mood change in dysphoria may hold implications for both theory and treatment development...
  6. pmc Nonlinear time-series approaches in characterizing mood stability and mood instability in bipolar disorder
    M B Bonsall
    Mathematical Ecology Research Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 279:916-24. 2012
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Mental imagery and emotion in treatment across disorders: using the example of depression
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cogn Behav Ther 38:21-8. 2009
    ..Finally, the authors consider the implications of this imagery-based approach for the development of new cognitive treatments in this area...
  8. pmc Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e13706. 2010
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: a review of the trauma film paradigm
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 127:553-66. 2008
    ..It is hoped that further use of this paradigm may lead to prophylactic training for at risk groups and an improved understanding of intrusions across psychopathologies...
  10. doi request reprint Prospective and positive mental imagery deficits in dysphoria
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Behav Res Ther 46:976-81. 2008
    ..Therapeutic strategies that address both such positive-specific imagery biases hold promise for depression treatment innovation...
  11. doi request reprint Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: application to bipolar disorder
    Emily A Holmes
    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Behav Res Ther 46:1251-8. 2008
    ..Introducing imagery has novel implications for bipolar treatment innovation--an area where CBT improvements are much-needed...
  12. doi request reprint Looking at or through rose-tinted glasses? Imagery perspective and positive mood
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford Oxford, United Kingdom
    Emotion 8:875-9. 2008
    ..Treatment implications include promoting field imagery to facilitate a more rose-tinted view of positive events...
  13. pmc Can playing the computer game "Tetris" reduce the build-up of flashbacks for trauma? A proposal from cognitive science
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e4153. 2009
    ..We predicted that playing "Tetris" half an hour after viewing trauma would reduce flashback frequency over 1-week...
  14. doi request reprint Developing interpretation bias modification as a "cognitive vaccine" for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Abnorm Psychol 118:76-88. 2009
    ..Imagining a positive event can make you feel better than thinking about the same event verbally. The authors propose that recruiting imagery will be useful in therapeutic innovations to develop a "cognitive vaccine" for depressed mood...
  15. pmc Mood stability versus mood instability in bipolar disorder: a possible role for emotional mental imagery
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Behav Res Ther 49:707-13. 2011
    ..The findings were consistent with predictions. Further investigation of imagery in bipolar disorder appears warranted as it may highlight processes that contribute to mood instability with relevance for cognitive behaviour therapy...
  16. doi request reprint Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Clin Psychol Rev 30:349-62. 2010
    ..4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment...
  17. pmc Imagery about suicide in depression--"Flash-forwards"?
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:423-34. 2007
    ..These results provide the first data to our knowledge on the existence of mental imagery in suicidality, opening a promising new avenue for research...
  18. ncbi request reprint Posttraumatic stress symptoms in London school children following September 11, 2001: an exploratory investigation of peri-traumatic reactions and intrusive imagery
    Emily A Holmes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JK, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:474-90. 2007
    ..Implications for treating children's intrusive images following stressful events are explored...
  19. ncbi request reprint Investigating peri-traumatic dissociation using hypnosis during a traumatic film
    Emily A Holmes
    Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellow, University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Trauma Dissociation 7:91-113. 2006
    ..Implications of our results for views of the relationship between peri-traumatic dissociation and intrusive memories are discussed...
  20. ncbi request reprint Positive interpretation training: effects of mental imagery versus verbal training on positive mood
    Emily A Holmes
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Ther 37:237-47. 2006
    ..This study also provides the first test of a standardized intervention using an "interpretive bias training" paradigm to improve positive mood...
  21. ncbi request reprint Mental imagery and emotion: a special relationship?
    Emily A Holmes
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Emotion 5:489-97. 2005
    ..Results support the hypothesis of a special link between imagery and anxiety but leave open the question of whether this also applies to other emotions...
  22. doi request reprint Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: developing a cognitive vaccine
    Tamara J Lang
    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Behav Res Ther 47:139-45. 2009
    ..Further, this effect transfers to reducing intrusive symptomatology related to a standardized event (a depressive film) over one week, suggesting novel clinical implications...
  23. pmc Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder and unipolar depression: imagining suicide
    Susie A Hales
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Bipolar Disord 13:651-61. 2011
    ..Therefore the authors investigated and compared imagery and verbal thoughts related to past suicidality in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 20) and unipolar depression (n = 20)...
  24. pmc SenseCam, imagery and bias in memory for wellbeing
    Fionnuala C Murphy
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Memory 19:768-77. 2011
    ..Further refinements are necessary before similar methods can be applied to individuals suffering from subclinical and clinical depression...
  25. ncbi request reprint Intrusive images and "hotspots" of trauma memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: an exploratory investigation of emotions and cognitive themes
    Emily A Holmes
    Traumatic Stress Clinic, Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care NHS Trust, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CB2 2EF, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36:3-17. 2005
    ..The relative of frequency of these peritraumatic themes is presented. The exploratory findings are discussed with respect to our understanding and treatment of intrusive imagery in PTSD...
  26. ncbi request reprint Schizotypy: a vulnerability factor for traumatic intrusions
    Emily A Holmes
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Nerv Ment Dis 192:28-34. 2004
    ..More reported intrusive experiences were associated with high positive symptom schizotypy. Our findings are discussed in relation to the possible role of trauma-related intrusions within psychotic disorders...
  27. pmc Using attentional bias modification as a cognitive vaccine against depression
    Michael Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 72:572-9. 2012
    ....
  28. pmc Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory
    Catherine Deeprose
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 43:758-64. 2012
    ..Since involuntary autobiographical memories are image-based, we tested predictions that visuospatial (but not other) established cognitive tasks could disrupt their consolidation when completed post-encoding...
  29. pmc Presence of mental imagery associated with chronic pelvic pain: a pilot study
    Chantal Berna
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Pain Med 12:1086-93. 2011
    ..To ascertain whether a small sample of patients with chronic pelvic pain experienced any pain-related cognitions in the form of mental images...
  30. doi request reprint Induction of depressed mood disrupts emotion regulation neurocircuitry and enhances pain unpleasantness
    Chantal Berna
    Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 67:1083-90. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that dysregulation of the neural circuitry underlying emotion regulation is the mechanism whereby pain processing is affected during depressed mood...
  31. pmc Lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the cognitive modification of attentional bias
    Michael Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 67:919-25. 2010
    ..It has been hypothesized, but not proved, that psychological interventions may alter the function of prefrontal regions supervising the allocation of attentional resources...
  32. pmc Using an experimental medicine model to explore combination effects of pharmacological and cognitive interventions for depression and anxiety
    Michael Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:2689-97. 2011
    ..More generally, the findings suggest that pinpointing the cognitive actions of treatments may inform future development of combination strategies in mental health...
  33. pmc Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals
    Machteld D Telman
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 4AU, UK
    Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44:602-11. 2013
    ..Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience. ..
  34. pmc Optimism and mental imagery: a possible cognitive marker to promote well-being?
    Simon E Blackwell
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Psychiatry Res 206:56-61. 2013
    ..Boosting positive future imagery could provide a cognitive target for treatment innovations to promote optimism, with implications for mental health and even physical well-being...
  35. doi request reprint Suicidal imagery in a previously depressed community sample
    Catherine Crane
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Clin Psychol Psychother 19:57-69. 2012
    ..The findings are consistent with Joiner's model of acquired capability for suicide through habituation to pain and fear of suicide and suggest that it may be useful to tackle such imagery directly in the treatment of suicidal patients...
  36. doi request reprint Is it mere distraction? Peri-traumatic verbal tasks can increase analogue flashbacks but reduce voluntary memory performance
    Corin Bourne
    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 41:316-24. 2010
    ..We propose that this is in line with a modality hypothesis concerning trauma flashbacks. Disrupting verbal/conceptual processing during trauma could be harmful for later flashbacks...
  37. doi request reprint An exploration of prospective imagery: the impact of future events scale
    Catherine Deeprose
    University of Oxford, UK
    Behav Cogn Psychother 38:201-9. 2010
    ..Mental imagery of the future has clear clinical importance, although little is known about intrusive, prospective imagery of personally-relevant events. Currently, no measure is available to assess this...
  38. pmc Positive involuntary autobiographical memories: you first have to live them
    Ian A Clark
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Conscious Cogn 22:402-6. 2013
    ..Results demonstrate the importance of positive emotional reaction at the time of an event for subsequent positive IAMs...
  39. doi request reprint The use of cognitive bias modification and imagery in the understanding and treatment of depression
    Michael Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK
    Curr Top Behav Neurosci 14:243-60. 2013
    ..In summary, by providing a method for altering habitual cognitive function in experimental and clinical settings CBM techniques have begun to further the understanding of and the treatment for depression...
  40. doi request reprint Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: effects on interpretation biases and mood
    Claudia Lothmann
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:24-32. 2011
    ..Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, training paradigms have not yet been explored in adolescents...
  41. ncbi request reprint Reflecting on imagery: a clinical perspective and overview of the special issue of memory on mental imagery and memory in psychopathology
    Ann Hackmann
    Oxford University, and Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Memory 12:389-402. 2004
    ..These include consideration of a variety of techniques for eliminating troublesome imagery, and creating healthy, realistic alternatives...
  42. pmc Vivid visual mental imagery in the absence of the primary visual cortex
    Holly Bridge
    FMRIB Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    J Neurol 259:1062-70. 2012
    ..The pattern of cortical activation to visual mental imagery in SBR is indistinguishable from individual sighted subjects, in contrast to the visual perceptual responses, which are greatly attenuated...
  43. doi request reprint The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders
    Michael Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 10:8-20. 2010
    ..Finally, we suggest a conceptual framework that embraces both pharmacological and psychological approaches and consider the possible implications of this work for future research and treatment development...
  44. ncbi request reprint Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications
    Emily A Holmes
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CB2 2EF, UK
    Clin Psychol Rev 25:1-23. 2005
    ..Examples are provided within Depersonalization Disorder, Conversion Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)...
  45. ncbi request reprint Memory suppression in PTSD treatment?
    Emily A Holmes
    Science 318:1722; author reply 1722. 2007
  46. ncbi request reprint Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development
    Emily A Holmes
    Psychology Department, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Psychol Gen 133:3-22. 2004
    ..Intrusive memories were largely unrelated to recall and recognition measures. Increases in dissociation and decreases in heart rate during the film were also associated with later intrusions...
  47. ncbi request reprint A healthy imagination? Editorial for the special issue of memory: mental imagery and memory in psychopathology
    Emily A Holmes
    Memory 12:387-8. 2004
  48. ncbi request reprint Occurrence of imagery and its link with early memories in agoraphobia
    Samantha J Day
    University College London, UK
    Memory 12:416-27. 2004
    ..While these exploratory findings require replication, potential treatment implications are discussed...
  49. ncbi request reprint Positive schizotypy and trait dissociation as vulnerability factors for post-traumatic distress
    Craig Steel
    Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK
    Br J Clin Psychol 47:245-9. 2008
    ..This study investigated whether trait positive schizotypy or trait dissociation was associated with increased levels of data-driven processing and symptoms of post-traumatic distress following a road traffic accident...
  50. ncbi request reprint The influence of a visuospatial grounding task on intrusive images of a traumatic film
    Ailsa D P Stuart
    University College London, Sub Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Behav Res Ther 44:611-9. 2006
    ..The task had no effect on levels of distress or peritraumatic dissociation, consistent with the hypothesis that intrusions were reduced because the task competed for resources necessary for encoding into an image-based memory system...