Eddie C Holmes

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases
    Colin R Parrish
    Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:457-70. 2008
  2. ncbi Phylogenetic evidence for recombination in dengue virus
    E C Holmes
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, U K
    Mol Biol Evol 16:405-9. 1999
  3. ncbi Virology. 1918 and all that
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 303:1787-8. 2004
  4. pmc Viral evolution and the emergence of SARS coronavirus
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1059-65. 2004
  5. ncbi Error thresholds and the constraints to RNA virus evolution
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3PS, Oxford, UK
    Trends Microbiol 11:543-6. 2003
  6. pmc Patterns of intra- and interhost nonsynonymous variation reveal strong purifying selection in dengue virus
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:11296-8. 2003
  7. pmc Adaptation and immunity
    Eddie C Holmes
    Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 2:E307. 2004
  8. ncbi The origin, emergence and evolutionary genetics of dengue virus
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 3:19-28. 2003
  9. pmc Molecular clocks and the puzzle of RNA virus origins
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:3893-7. 2003
  10. ncbi The phylogeography of human viruses
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS UK
    Mol Ecol 13:745-56. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications65

  1. pmc Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases
    Colin R Parrish
    Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:457-70. 2008
    ....
  2. ncbi Phylogenetic evidence for recombination in dengue virus
    E C Holmes
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, U K
    Mol Biol Evol 16:405-9. 1999
    ..This is the first report of recombination in natural populations of dengue virus...
  3. ncbi Virology. 1918 and all that
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 303:1787-8. 2004
  4. pmc Viral evolution and the emergence of SARS coronavirus
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1059-65. 2004
    ....
  5. ncbi Error thresholds and the constraints to RNA virus evolution
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3PS, Oxford, UK
    Trends Microbiol 11:543-6. 2003
    ..Documenting the constraints to RNA virus evolution has important implications for predicting the emergence of new viruses and for improving therapeutic procedures...
  6. pmc Patterns of intra- and interhost nonsynonymous variation reveal strong purifying selection in dengue virus
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:11296-8. 2003
    ..Consequently, although arboviruses are able to successfully adapt to diverse cell types, they are characterized by a high rate of deleterious mutation...
  7. pmc Adaptation and immunity
    Eddie C Holmes
    Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 2:E307. 2004
  8. ncbi The origin, emergence and evolutionary genetics of dengue virus
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 3:19-28. 2003
    ....
  9. pmc Molecular clocks and the puzzle of RNA virus origins
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 77:3893-7. 2003
  10. ncbi The phylogeography of human viruses
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS UK
    Mol Ecol 13:745-56. 2004
    ..Key research questions for the future will also be established...
  11. ncbi The causes and consequences of genetic variation in dengue virus
    E C Holmes
    Dept of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Trends Microbiol 8:74-7. 2000
    ..This, coupled with evidence that viral strains could naturally differ in virulence, suggests that in the future we might be exposed to viruses with an expanded range of pathogenic properties...
  12. ncbi On the origin and evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    E C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 76:239-54. 2001
    ....
  13. ncbi Genetic constraints and the adaptive evolution of rabies virus in nature
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Virology 292:247-57. 2002
    ..Assuming that the average rate of synonymous change does not vary among species, we estimated that the current genetic diversity in lyssavirus genotype 1 may have arisen only during the last 500 years...
  14. ncbi Bayesian estimates of the evolutionary rate and age of hepatitis B virus
    Yang Zhou
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, Mueller Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Evol 65:197-205. 2007
    ..We conclude that HBV exhibits rapid evolutionary dynamics, typical of other viruses dependent on reverse transcriptase-mediated replication...
  15. ncbi Avian influenza virus exhibits rapid evolutionary dynamics
    Rubing Chen
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 23:2336-41. 2006
    ....
  16. ncbi Comment on "Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates"
    Edward C Holmes
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, Mueller Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Science 313:1573; author reply 1573. 2006
    ..However, we show that this observation is likely to be an artifact related to the location of PB1-F2 in the +1 reading frame of the PB1 gene...
  17. pmc Evolutionary processes among sylvatic dengue type 2 viruses
    Nikos Vasilakis
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 81:9591-5. 2007
    ..Our findings support a recent cross-species transmission event and suggest the possibility of future DENV reemergence from the sylvatic cycle...
  18. pmc JC virus evolution and its association with human populations
    Laura A Shackelton
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, Mueller Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Virol 80:9928-33. 2006
    ....
  19. ncbi Inferring the timescale of dengue virus evolution under realistic models of DNA substitution
    Eleca J Dunham
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Evol 64:656-61. 2007
    ....
  20. ncbi The evolution of epidemic influenza
    Martha I Nelson
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 8:196-205. 2007
    ....
  21. ncbi Ngoye virus: a novel evolutionary lineage within the genus Flavivirus
    Gilda Grard
    Unité des Virus Emergents EA3292, IFR48, IRD UR0178, Faculté de médecine La Timone, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
    J Gen Virol 87:3273-7. 2006
    ..Together with other recent data, these findings suggest that a large number of viruses related distantly to 'classical' arthropod-borne flaviviruses remain to be discovered...
  22. ncbi Phylogenetic evidence for deleterious mutation load in RNA viruses and its contribution to viral evolution
    Oliver G Pybus
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 24:845-52. 2007
    ..From this relationship, we propose an empirical threshold for the maximum viable deleterious mutation load in RNA viruses...
  23. ncbi Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy
    Gilda Grard
    Unité des Virus Emergents EA3292, IFR48, IRD UR0178, Faculté de médecine La Timone, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
    Virology 361:80-92. 2007
    ..Ticks that feed on both categories of vertebrates may constitute the evolutionary bridge between the three distinct identified lineages...
  24. pmc Stochastic processes are key determinants of short-term evolution in influenza a virus
    Martha I Nelson
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 2:e125. 2006
    ..Thus, predicting future patterns of influenza virus evolution for vaccine strain selection is inherently complex and requires intensive surveillance, whole-genome sequencing, and phenotypic analysis...
  25. pmc A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows
    Aaron C Brault
    Center for Vector Borne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Nat Genet 39:1162-6. 2007
    ..These phenotypic and evolutionary results provide compelling evidence for the positive selection of a mutation encoding increased viremia potential and virulence in the AMCR sentinel bird species...
  26. pmc Phylogenetic analysis reveals the emergence, evolution and dispersal of carnivore parvoviruses
    Karin Hoelzer
    Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Gen Virol 89:2280-9. 2008
    ..Such limited viral migration contrasts with the global spread of the virus observed during the early phase of the CPV pandemic, but corresponds to the more endemic nature of current CPV infections...
  27. pmc The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds
    Vivien G Dugan
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000076. 2008
    ....
  28. pmc The evolutionary dynamics of human influenza B virus
    Rubing Chen
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, Mueller Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Evol 66:655-63. 2008
    ..Additionally, we suggest that the interaction with influenza A virus may be central in shaping the evolutionary dynamics of influenza B virus, facilitating the shift of dominance between the Vic87 and the Yam88 lineages...
  29. pmc Multiple reassortment events in the evolutionary history of H1N1 influenza A virus since 1918
    Martha I Nelson
    Department of Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000012. 2008
    ..Intra-subtype reassortment therefore appears to be a more important process in the evolution and epidemiology of H1N1 influenza A virus than previously realized...
  30. pmc Genomic diversity and evolution of the lyssaviruses
    Olivier Delmas
    Institut Pasteur, UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 3:e2057. 2008
    ..In sum, we show that rigorous phylogenetic techniques based on full length genome sequence provide the best discriminatory power for genotype classification within the lyssaviruses...
  31. pmc The genomic and epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus
    Andrew Rambaut
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 453:615-9. 2008
    ..These results suggest a sink-source model of viral ecology in which new lineages are seeded from a persistent influenza reservoir, which we hypothesize to be located in the tropics, to sink populations in temperate regions...
  32. pmc Homologous recombination is very rare or absent in human influenza A virus
    Maciej F Boni
    Resources for the Future, 1616 P St NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA
    J Virol 82:4807-11. 2008
    ..We therefore conclude that, if it occurs at all, homologous recombination plays only a very minor role in the evolution of human influenza A virus...
  33. doi Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants
    Siobain Duffy
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:267-76. 2008
    ....
  34. pmc The evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of the paramyxoviridae
    Laura W Pomeroy
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, 501 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Mol Evol 66:98-106. 2008
    ....
  35. pmc Multiple recombinant dengue type 1 viruses in an isolate from a dengue patient
    John Aaskov
    Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    J Gen Virol 88:3334-40. 2007
    ..This is the first report of a population of dengue viruses isolated from a patient containing both parental and recombinant viruses...
  36. ncbi A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder
    Diana L Cox-Foster
    Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Science 318:283-7. 2007
    ..One organism, Israeli acute paralysis virus of bees, was strongly correlated with CCD...
  37. ncbi The "pressure pan" evolution of human erythrovirus B19 in the Amazon, Brazil
    Ronaldo Barros de Freitas
    Seção de Virologia, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministerio da Saude, Belem, Brazil
    Virology 369:281-7. 2007
    ....
  38. ncbi A phylogenetic method for detecting positive epistasis in gene sequences and its application to RNA virus evolution
    Beth Shapiro
    Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 23:1724-30. 2006
    ..Additionally, many comparative analyses that utilize the phylogenetic relationships among gene sequences assume that mutations represent independent, uncorrelated events. Our results show that this assumption may often be invalid...
  39. ncbi Host species barriers to influenza virus infections
    Thijs Kuiken
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Science 312:394-7. 2006
    ....
  40. pmc Phylogenetic evidence for the rapid evolution of human B19 erythrovirus
    Laura A Shackelton
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Virol 80:3666-9. 2006
    ..This rate is more typical of RNA viruses and suggests that high mutation rates are characteristic of the Parvoviridae...
  41. ncbi Origins, evolution, and vector/host coadaptations within the genus Flavivirus
    Ernest A Gould
    Institute of Virology and Environmental Microbiology, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3SR, United Kingdom
    Adv Virus Res 59:277-314. 2003
    ..This review also considers some of the likely implications of persistent/chronic infections in relation to virus dispersal and recombination between related flaviviruses on phylogenetic analysis and vaccine development strategies...
  42. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis reveals a low rate of homologous recombination in negative-sense RNA viruses
    Elizabeth R Chare
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Gen Virol 84:2691-703. 2003
    ..Consequently, recombination rate is unlikely to be a trait that is set by natural selection to create advantageous or purge deleterious mutations...
  43. ncbi Comparative population dynamics of mosquito-borne flaviviruses
    S Susanna Twiddy
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 3:87-95. 2003
    ..We therefore demonstrate that the use of these coalescent methods may be extremely valuable in monitoring responses to interventions such as vaccination or vector control...
  44. ncbi Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Cetartiodactyls
    Edward C Holmes
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Immunogenetics 55:193-202. 2003
    ....
  45. pmc Diverse dengue type 2 virus populations contain recombinant and both parental viruses in a single mosquito host
    Scott Craig
    School of Life Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    J Virol 77:4463-7. 2003
    ..Finally, one clone was identified as a recombinant genome composed of portions of these two "parental" genotypes. This is the first report of recombinant and parental dengue viruses in a single host...
  46. ncbi The extent of codon usage bias in human RNA viruses and its evolutionary origin
    Gareth M Jenkins
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Virus Res 92:1-7. 2003
    ..This suggests that translational selection may also have some influence in shaping codon usage bias...
  47. ncbi The extent of homologous recombination in members of the genus Flavivirus
    S Susanna Twiddy
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, UK
    J Gen Virol 84:429-40. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi Inferring the rate and time-scale of dengue virus evolution
    S Susanna Twiddy
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 20:122-9. 2003
    ....
  49. ncbi Phylogenetic evidence for frequent positive selection and recombination in the meningococcal surface antigen PorB
    Rachel Urwin
    The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 19:1686-94. 2002
    ..These data show that phylogenetic inference can be used to complement immunological and biochemical data in the choice of vaccine candidates...
  50. ncbi Phylogenetic evidence for adaptive evolution of dengue viruses in nature
    S Susanna Twiddy
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Gen Virol 83:1679-89. 2002
    ..Hence, evidence was found for localized adaptive evolution in natural isolates of DEN, revealing that selection pressures differ among serotypes, genotypes and viral proteins...
  51. ncbi A revised evolutionary history of hepatitis B virus (HBV)
    Mario Ali Fares
    Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva and Department de Genètica, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    J Mol Evol 54:807-14. 2002
    ..Finally, we provide a new estimate of the mean substitution rate in HBV, 4.2 x 10(-5), which suggests that divergence of HBV in humans and apes has occurred only in the last 6000 years...
  52. ncbi The causes and consequences of HIV evolution
    Andrew Rambaut
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 5:52-61. 2004
  53. ncbi Unifying the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogens
    Bryan T Grenfell
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 303:327-32. 2004
    ..A central pillar of this model is the Evolutionary Infectivity Profile, which captures the relationship between immune selection and pathogen transmission...
  54. pmc Clade replacements in dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 are associated with changing serotype prevalence
    Chunlin Zhang
    Department of Virology, U S Army Medical Component, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Virol 79:15123-30. 2005
    ..We postulate that intraserotypic genetic diversification proceeds at times of relative serotype abundance and that replacement events can result from differential susceptibility to cross-reactive immune responses...
  55. pmc Invasion and maintenance of dengue virus type 2 and type 4 in the Americas
    Christine V F Carrington
    Department of Pre Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad
    J Virol 79:14680-7. 2005
    ..Hence, DENV in the Americas has a clear geographic structure that maintains viral diversity between outbreaks...
  56. ncbi Heading off an influenza pandemic
    Edward C Holmes
    Science 309:989. 2005
  57. pmc Whole-genome analysis of human influenza A virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 viruses
    Edward C Holmes
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e300. 2005
    ....
  58. ncbi Ancient co-speciation of simian foamy viruses and primates
    William M Switzer
    HIV and Retrovirology Branch, Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS G 19, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Nature 434:376-80. 2005
    ..These results indicate that SFVs might have co-speciated with Old World primates for at least 30 million years, making them the oldest known vertebrate RNA viruses...
  59. ncbi Comparative population dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes B and C: subtype-specific differences in patterns of epidemic growth
    Polly R Walker
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 5:199-208. 2005
    ....
  60. ncbi The hepatitis C virus epidemic among injecting drug users
    Oliver G Pybus
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Infect Genet Evol 5:131-9. 2005
    ..The results provide a baseline for prediction of the future course of the HCV epidemic, and its likely response to transmission control policies...
  61. ncbi Sustained transmission of dengue virus type 1 in the Pacific due to repeated introductions of different Asian strains
    Atchareeya A-Nuegoonpipat
    National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Science, Bangkok, Thailand
    Virology 329:505-12. 2004
    ..There was no evidence that the introduction of these viruses into the Pacific was associated with any adaptive changes in the E protein of the viruses...
  62. ncbi The molecular epidemiology of dengue virus serotype 4 in Bangkok, Thailand
    Chonticha Klungthong
    Department of Virology, U S Army Medical Component Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand
    Virology 329:168-79. 2004
    ..Consequently, the rapid turnover of DENV-4 lineages through time is most likely the consequence of a high rate of deleterious mutation in the viral genome coupled to seasonal fluctuations in the size of the vector population...
  63. pmc Distribution of surface protein variants among hyperinvasive meningococci: implications for vaccine design
    Rachel Urwin
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:5955-62. 2004
    ..The patterns of antigenic variant combinations suggested that an OMP-based vaccine with as few as six PorA and five FetA variant sequences could generate homologous immune responses against all 78 isolates examined...
  64. pmc High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus adaptation and its relationship to disease progression
    Isabelle Sheridan
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    J Virol 78:3447-54. 2004
    ..Such analyses could play a similarly informative role in studies of other persistent virus infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus...
  65. pmc Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the e2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Aaron C Brault
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 76:1718-30. 2002
    ..Maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that one change at E2 position 213 has been influenced by positive selection and convergent evolution of the epizootic phenotype...