C J Harmer

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Administration of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol impairs the processing of facial expressions of sadness
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154:383-9. 2001
  2. doi request reprint Dissociable effects of acute antidepressant drug administration on subjective and emotional processing measures in healthy volunteers
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:495-502. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drug treatment modifies the neural processing of nonconscious threat cues
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 59:816-20. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint 5HT(3) antagonism abolishes the emotion potentiated startle effect in humans
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, and University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:18-24. 2006
  5. doi request reprint NK1 receptor antagonism and emotional processing in healthy volunteers
    P Chandra
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 24:481-7. 2010
  6. pmc Direct effects of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers
    S E Murphy
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Warneford Lane, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:503-13. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Tyrosine depletion attenuates dopamine function in healthy volunteers
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154:105-11. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint A single dose of citalopram increases fear recognition in healthy subjects
    M Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:684-90. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint The effects of reboxetine on emotional processing in healthy volunteers: an fMRI study
    R Norbury
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 13:1011-20. 2008
  10. pmc Short-term SSRI treatment normalises amygdala hyperactivity in depressed patients
    B R Godlewska
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 42:2609-17. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. ncbi request reprint Administration of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol impairs the processing of facial expressions of sadness
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154:383-9. 2001
    ..The amygdala has also been associated with the processing of facial expressions of emotion, particularly those of fear and sadness. However, the role of noradrenaline in the latter process is unknown...
  2. doi request reprint Dissociable effects of acute antidepressant drug administration on subjective and emotional processing measures in healthy volunteers
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:495-502. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend this finding by studying the effects of a single dose of the selective serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, duloxetine...
  3. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drug treatment modifies the neural processing of nonconscious threat cues
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 59:816-20. 2006
    ..Emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety have been associated with hyperactivity of the amygdala, but it is unknown whether antidepressant treatment directly affects amygdala responses to emotionally significant information...
  4. ncbi request reprint 5HT(3) antagonism abolishes the emotion potentiated startle effect in humans
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, and University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:18-24. 2006
    ..The serotonergic system has been implicated in emotional processing in animals and humans. Although the contribution of different receptor subtypes has been hypothesised, there have been few direct tests of this in human subjects...
  5. doi request reprint NK1 receptor antagonism and emotional processing in healthy volunteers
    P Chandra
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 24:481-7. 2010
    ..Human models of emotional processing may provide a useful means of assessing the likely therapeutic potential of new treatments for depression...
  6. pmc Direct effects of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers
    S E Murphy
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Warneford Lane, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:503-13. 2008
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Tyrosine depletion attenuates dopamine function in healthy volunteers
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154:105-11. 2001
    ..Such information could establish tyrosine depletion as an effective probe of dopamine function in healthy volunteers and would also have relevance for future therapeutic applications of this manipulation...
  8. ncbi request reprint A single dose of citalopram increases fear recognition in healthy subjects
    M Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:684-90. 2007
    ..Our data also suggests that some of the positive biases in emotional processing produced by SSRI treatment might be detectable at the beginning of treatment...
  9. ncbi request reprint The effects of reboxetine on emotional processing in healthy volunteers: an fMRI study
    R Norbury
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 13:1011-20. 2008
    ..Such adaptations in the neural processing of emotional information support the hypothesis that antidepressants have early effects on emotional processing in a manner which would be expected to reverse negative biases in depression...
  10. pmc Short-term SSRI treatment normalises amygdala hyperactivity in depressed patients
    B R Godlewska
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 42:2609-17. 2012
    ..However, it is not clear if these effects occur before, or as a consequence of, changes in clinical state...
  11. pmc Using an experimental medicine model to understand the antidepressant potential of the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine
    A Pringle
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 26:1417-23. 2012
    ..However, the overall profile of effects is more limited than that which might be expected in response to a conventional antidepressant...
  12. doi request reprint Neural response to angry and disgusted facial expressions in bulimia nervosa
    F Ashworth
    Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, University of Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 41:2375-84. 2011
    ..Disgust and anger are of particular theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated the neural response to facial expressions of anger and disgust in bulimia nervosa (BN)...
  13. doi request reprint Negative ion treatment increases positive emotional processing in seasonal affective disorder
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 42:1605-12. 2012
    ..High-density negative ion (HDNI) treatment is an environmental manipulation that has efficacy in randomized clinical trials in seasonal affective disorder (SAD)...
  14. doi request reprint Effects of low dose tryptophan depletion on emotional processing in dieters
    A Pringle
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Eat Behav 13:154-7. 2012
    ..These results suggest that ATD affects the processing of some negative (including ED-relevant) stimuli, and that reduced 5-HT function may be involved in some aspects of psychological vulnerability to EDs...
  15. doi request reprint Short-term antidepressant administration reduces negative self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex in subjects at risk for depression
    M Di Simplicio
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 17:503-10. 2012
    ....
  16. doi request reprint Neural correlates of the processing of self-referent emotional information in bulimia nervosa
    A Pringle
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Neuropsychologia 49:3272-8. 2011
    ..Different patterns of neural activation between patients and controls may be the result of either habituation to personally relevant negative self beliefs or of emotional blunting in patients...
  17. ncbi request reprint Acute administration of nutritionally sourced tryptophan increases fear recognition
    M J Attenburrow
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 169:104-7. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Antidopaminergic effects of dietary tyrosine depletion in healthy subjects and patients with manic illness
    S F McTavish
    University Department of Psychiatry, Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 179:356-60. 2001
    ..In rats, amino acid mixtures lacking tyrosine and its precursor phenylalanine decrease the release of dopamine produced by the psychostimulant drug amphetamine. Amphetamine has been proposed as a model for clinical mania...
  19. doi request reprint Early effects of mirtazapine on emotional processing
    D Arnone
    Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 203:685-91. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to test whether, like monoamine re-uptake inhibitors, mirtazapine would also produce positive biases in emotional processing...
  20. ncbi request reprint Acute SSRI administration affects the processing of social cues in healthy volunteers
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneord Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:148-52. 2003
    ..This effect may represent an early acute effect of SSRIs on social and emotional processing that is relevant to their therapeutic actions...
  21. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan depletion decreases the recognition of fear in female volunteers
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:411-7. 2003
    ..The processing of other fear-relevant cues, such as facial expressions, has also been associated with amygdala function, but an effect of serotonin depletion on these processes has not been assessed...
  22. doi request reprint A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action
    A Pringle
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Neurosciences Building, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:1586-92. 2011
    ..Experimental medicine models developed under this premise have the potential to screen for new treatments, to predict individual treatment response and to consider the effects of pharmacological vs psychological treatments...
  23. doi request reprint Biases in emotional processing are associated with vulnerability to eating disorders over time
    A Pringle
    Department of Experiment Psychology, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, UK
    Eat Behav 12:56-9. 2011
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Antidepressant treatment and emotional processing: can we dissociate the roles of serotonin and noradrenaline?
    A Pringle
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 27:719-31. 2013
    ..The data reviewed here also suggest that noradrenergic-based treatments may have earlier effects on emotional memory that those which affect serotonin. ..
  25. ncbi request reprint Acute reboxetine administration increases plasma and salivary cortisol
    S A Hill
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 17:273-5. 2003
    ..However, placebo-controlled, within-subject designs are likely to yield a more valid measure of noradrenaline-mediated cortisol release...
  26. doi request reprint The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on amygdala function: a meta-analysis
    S E Murphy
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 18:512-20. 2013
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Contrasting effects of citalopram and reboxetine on waking salivary cortisol
    C J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, OX3 7JX, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:112-4. 2003
    ..The effects of repeated antidepressant administration have been less studied, but the ability of such treatment to modulate HPA axis activity may be relevant to therapeutic effects...
  28. doi request reprint Investigating vulnerability to eating disorders: biases in emotional processing
    A Pringle
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychol Med 40:645-55. 2010
    ..However, little is known about whether these difficulties exist pre-morbidly and how they might contribute to risk...
  29. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation of medial-frontal cortex impairs the processing of angry facial expressions
    C J Harmer
    MRC Human Movement and Balance Unit, Institute of Neurology, 8 11 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nat Neurosci 4:17-8. 2001
    ..We found that TMS over the medial-frontal cortex impairs the processing of angry, but not happy, facial expressions of emotion...
  30. doi request reprint Decreased heart rate variability during emotion regulation in subjects at risk for psychopathology
    M Di Simplicio
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 42:1775-83. 2012
    ..However, it is unknown whether subjects with high neuroticism present with specific biases in emotion regulation associated with reduced HRV...
  31. doi request reprint Memory impairment in young women at increased risk of depression: influence of cortisol and 5-HTT genotype
    Z N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 39:757-62. 2009
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Effects of a branched-chain amino acid drink in mania
    A Scarna
    University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 182:210-3. 2003
    ..Administration of a complex tyrosine-free amino acid drink acutely decreases manic symptoms. Although a nutrient-based approach to illness management is attractive, complex amino acid drinks are too unpalatable for repeated administration...
  33. ncbi request reprint Bilateral generic working memory circuit requires left-lateralized addition for verbal processing
    Manaan Kar Ray
    Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Partnership National Health Service Trust, Warneford Hospital, Warneford Lane, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Cereb Cortex 18:1421-8. 2008
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Affective modulation of anterior cingulate cortex in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 192:356-61. 2008
    ..We previously found that children of parents with depression showed impaired performance on a task of emotional categorisation...
  35. doi request reprint Risk for depression is associated with neural biases in emotional categorisation
    Stella W Y Chan
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychologia 46:2896-903. 2008
    ..These results highlight a role of the fronto-parietal circuitry in emotional processing and further suggest that negative biases in these neural processes may be involved in risk for depression...
  36. ncbi request reprint Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder is not a working memory impairment in disguise
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychologia 40:1586-90. 2002
    ..Deficits in sustaining attention may help explain the difficulties in psychological and occupational functioning in bipolar disorder patients during remission...
  37. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of erythropoietin on neural and cognitive measures of executive function 3 and 7 days post-administration
    Kamilla Miskowiak
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK
    Exp Brain Res 184:313-21. 2008
    ..The present study supports the notion that Epo may have clinical applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction...
  38. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan supplementation induces a positive bias in the processing of emotional material in healthy female volunteers
    Susannah E Murphy
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 187:121-30. 2006
    ..However, evidence of its efficacy as the primary treatment for depression is limited, and the direct action of TRP on the symptoms of depression and anxiety has not been well-characterised...
  39. ncbi request reprint Toward a neuropsychological theory of antidepressant drug action: increase in positive emotional bias after potentiation of norepinephrine activity
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:990-2. 2003
    ..Cognitive theories suggest that biases in information processing lead depressed patients to make unrealistically negative judgments about themselves and the world...
  40. ncbi request reprint The role of the anterior cingulate cortex in the counting Stroop task
    Gail Hayward
    Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
    Exp Brain Res 154:355-8. 2004
    ..The Stroop interference effect was abolished by TMS over both anterior cingulate sites. These findings support functional neuroimaging research which suggests that cingulate cortex is central to the processes underlying the Stroop task...
  41. ncbi request reprint Normalization of enhanced fear recognition by acute SSRI treatment in subjects with a previous history of depression
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford
    Am J Psychiatry 161:166-8. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Increased positive versus negative affective perception and memory in healthy volunteers following selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1256-63. 2004
    ..The present study therefore assessed the actions of repeated antidepressant administration on perception and memory for positive and negative emotional information in healthy volunteers...
  43. ncbi request reprint Lack of effect of tyrosine depletion on mood in recovered depressed women
    Sarah F B McTavish
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:786-91. 2005
    ..However ratings of depression were unaffected, suggesting that disruption of dopaminergic function by this manipulation does not induce a lowering of mood in individuals vulnerable to depression...
  44. ncbi request reprint Low-dose tryptophan depletion in recovered depressed patients induces changes in cognitive processing without depressive symptoms
    Gail Hayward
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK
    Biol Psychiatry 57:517-24. 2005
    ..The neurochemical mechanism is thought to be impairment of brain serotonin neurotransmission, but the neuropsychologic mechanisms underlying the effect are unclear...
  45. ncbi request reprint Emotional bias and waking salivary cortisol in relatives of patients with major depression
    Marisa Le Masurier
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 37:403-10. 2007
    ..We also measured waking salivary cortisol, as the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to be impaired in depressive disorder...
  46. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in the effect of acute tryptophan depletion on declarative episodic memory: a pooled analysis of nine studies
    Anke Sambeth
    Department of Neurocognition, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, P O Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31:516-29. 2007
    ..The findings provide further support for a critical role of serotonin in declarative episodic memory...
  47. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal response during memory retrieval in humans
    Kamilla Miskowiak
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 27:2788-92. 2007
    ..04) independent of changes in hematocrit. This is consistent with upregulation of hippocampal BDNF and neurotrophic actions found in animals and highlights Epo as a promising candidate for treatment of psychiatric disorders...
  48. ncbi request reprint Impaired emotional categorisation in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Neuropsychologia 45:2975-80. 2007
    ..However, impairment in emotional categorization could identify a high-risk phenotype and may indicate that people at genetic risk of depression have difficulty in using "mood as information"...
  49. ncbi request reprint Single dose antidepressant administration modulates the neural processing of self-referent personality trait words
    Kamilla Miskowiak
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Neuroimage 37:904-11. 2007
    ..These results support the hypothesis that antidepressants have early effects on the neural processing of emotional material which may be important in their therapeutic actions...
  50. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin reduces neural and cognitive processing of fear in human models of antidepressant drug action
    Kamilla Miskowiak
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1244-50. 2007
    ..The current study aimed to explore the effects of Epo on neural and behavioral measures of emotional processing relevant for depression and the effects of conventional antidepressant medication...
  51. ncbi request reprint Short-term antidepressant treatment and facial processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Ray Norbury
    University of Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, MRS Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 190:531-2. 2007
    ..Our results show that reboxetine modulates the neural substrates of emotional processing, highlighting a mechanism by which drug treatment could normalise negative bias in depression and anxiety...
  52. ncbi request reprint Highly neurotic never-depressed students have negative biases in information processing
    Stella W Y Chan
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 37:1281-91. 2007
    ..Although negatively biased cognitions are well documented in depressed patients and to some extent in recovered patients, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities are present before the first depressive episode...
  53. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration
    Kamilla Miskowiak
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:611-8. 2008
    ..Consistent with our previous finding, Epo improved self-reported mood for all 3 days post-administration. Together, these results suggest that characterization of the effects of Epo in a clinically depressed group is warranted...
  54. ncbi request reprint Effects of alpha-lactalbumin on emotional processing in healthy women
    Helen Scrutton
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:519-24. 2007
    ..Further studies in subjects more vulnerable to stress are needed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of alpha-lactalbumin in clinical populations...
  55. ncbi request reprint Acute administration of citalopram facilitates memory consolidation in healthy volunteers
    Catherine J Harmer
    Neurosciences Building, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:106-10. 2002
    ..However, the improvement in cognitive function often found following successful pharmacological treatment in depression may be confounded by symptom improvement...
  56. ncbi request reprint Enhanced recognition of disgust in bipolar illness
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Biol Psychiatry 51:298-304. 2002
    ..Although impairments of cognitive function have been found to persist in bipolar patients during periods of euthymic mood, it is not known whether abnormalities in emotional processing also occur during these periods of recovery...
  57. ncbi request reprint A dose-finding study on the effects of branch chain amino acids on surrogate markers of brain dopamine function
    Harm J Gijsman
    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 160:192-7. 2002
    ..The amino acid mixture we tested previously is unpalatable, whereas mixtures containing only branch chain amino acids can be made more palatable. However, the effects of such mixtures on dopamine function in humans have not been studied...
  58. ncbi request reprint Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism
    Maria J Portella
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Neurosciences Bldg, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 162:807-9. 2005
    ..This study compared waking cortisol levels in healthy subjects with high and low levels of neuroticism without a previous history of depression...
  59. ncbi request reprint Effects of acute tyrosine depletion on subjective craving and selective processing of smoking-related cues in abstinent cigarette smokers
    Marcus R Munafo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:805-14. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Effect of branch chain amino acids supplemented with tryptophan on tyrosine availability and plasma prolactin
    Antonina Scarna
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 159:222-3. 2002