Edwin A M Gale

Summary

Affiliation: University of Bristol
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc A critical analysis of the clinical use of incretin-based therapies: Are the GLP-1 therapies safe?
    Peter C Butler
    Larry L Hillblom Islet Research Center, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 36:2118-25. 2013
  2. pmc Viruses and type 1 diabetes: ignorance acquires a better vocabulary
    E A M Gale
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 168:1-4. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Spring harvest? Reflections on the rise of type 1 diabetes
    E A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, BS10 5NB, UK
    Diabetologia 48:2445-50. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Is there really an epidemic of type 2 diabetes?
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
    Lancet 362:503-4. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Recruitment to a clinical trial improves glycemic control in patients with diabetes
    Edwin A M Gale
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Diabetes Care 30:2989-92. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Dying of diabetes
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
    Lancet 368:1626-8. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint The Hawthorne studies-a fable for our times?
    E A M Gale
    Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
    QJM 97:439-49. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Glucose control in the UKPDS: what did we learn?
    E A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Diabet Med 25:9-12. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint A missing link in the hygiene hypothesis?
    E A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetologia 45:588-94. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Lessons from the glitazones: a story of drug development
    E A Gale
    Diabetes Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, 10HA 5NB, Bristol, UK
    Lancet 357:1870-5. 2001

Detail Information

Publications41

  1. pmc A critical analysis of the clinical use of incretin-based therapies: Are the GLP-1 therapies safe?
    Peter C Butler
    Larry L Hillblom Islet Research Center, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 36:2118-25. 2013
    ..In the counterpoint narrative following the contribution by Dr. Butler and colleagues, Dr. Nauck provides a defense of incretin-based therapies and that the benefits clearly outweigh any concern of risk...
  2. pmc Viruses and type 1 diabetes: ignorance acquires a better vocabulary
    E A M Gale
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 168:1-4. 2012
    ..Secondary or tertiary roles remain possible, but have yet to be confirmed in prospective studies...
  3. ncbi request reprint Spring harvest? Reflections on the rise of type 1 diabetes
    E A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, BS10 5NB, UK
    Diabetologia 48:2445-50. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Is there really an epidemic of type 2 diabetes?
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
    Lancet 362:503-4. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Recruitment to a clinical trial improves glycemic control in patients with diabetes
    Edwin A M Gale
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Diabetes Care 30:2989-92. 2007
    ..We assessed the effect upon A1C of recruitment to a clinical trial in patients with diabetes who had been screened and interviewed to determine eligibility but whose therapy was otherwise unchanged...
  6. ncbi request reprint Dying of diabetes
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
    Lancet 368:1626-8. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint The Hawthorne studies-a fable for our times?
    E A M Gale
    Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
    QJM 97:439-49. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Glucose control in the UKPDS: what did we learn?
    E A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Diabet Med 25:9-12. 2008
    ..It also taught us that glucose control is not enough: the central objective of therapy is to reduce vascular risk by any means available. This commentary looks back along the winding road that led to these conclusions...
  9. ncbi request reprint A missing link in the hygiene hypothesis?
    E A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetologia 45:588-94. 2002
    ..This hypothesis could be tested in case-control studies by the development of serological markers or skin testing. If confirmed, identification of the underlying mechanisms could open the way to new forms of immune intervention...
  10. ncbi request reprint Lessons from the glitazones: a story of drug development
    E A Gale
    Diabetes Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, 10HA 5NB, Bristol, UK
    Lancet 357:1870-5. 2001
    ..How should we use the glitazones? And how did they achieve blockbuster status without any clear evidence of advantage over existing therapy?..
  11. pmc Should we dump the metabolic syndrome? Yes
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Bristol, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB
    BMJ 336:640. 2008
  12. ncbi request reprint The discovery of type 1 diabetes
    E A Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetes 50:217-26. 2001
    ..Appreciation of the historical origin and subsequent evolution of these fundamental concepts could stimulate critical analysis and help prepare the way for a new paradigm...
  13. ncbi request reprint A randomized, controlled trial comparing insulin lispro with human soluble insulin in patients with Type 1 diabetes on intensified insulin therapy. The UK Trial Group
    E A Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabet Med 17:209-14. 2000
    ..This study compared insulin lispro with human soluble insulin in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple injection therapy who inject shortly before meals...
  14. ncbi request reprint Between two cultures: the expert clinician and the pharmaceutical industry
    Edwin A M Gale
    Division of Medicine, University of Bristol
    Clin Med 3:538-41. 2003
    ..In the absence of effective sanctions, each of us must seek a personal solution to the professional and ethical issues involved...
  15. ncbi request reprint The rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes and reduced contribution of high-risk HLA haplotypes
    Kathleen M Gillespie
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Lancet 364:1699-700. 2004
    ..003), especially in those diagnosed at age 5 years or younger, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the rise of type 1 diabetes is due to a major environmental effect...
  16. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance and progression to type 1 diabetes in the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT)
    Polly J Bingley
    Clinical Science at North Bristol, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetes Care 31:146-50. 2008
    ..We wanted to see whether measures of insulin resistance improved risk assessment in islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive relatives when added to other immune and metabolic markers...
  17. ncbi request reprint Absolute risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes defined by human leukocyte antigen class II genotype: a population-based study in the United Kingdom
    A Paul Lambert
    Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS10 5NB, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4037-43. 2004
    ..4%), whereas inclusion of 11 genotypes achieved the same sensitivity for diagnosis for ages 10-14 yr. Analysis of genotype-specific risk should form the basis for design of future primary prevention trials in the general population...
  18. ncbi request reprint Is puberty an accelerator of type 1 diabetes in IL6-174CC females?
    Kathleen M Gillespie
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetes 54:1245-8. 2005
    ..012). These data support the hypothesis that pubertal changes may contribute to accelerated onset of type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible females. This phenomenon may be orchestrated by the action of estrogen on the IL6 promoter...
  19. ncbi request reprint Islet autoimmunity in children with Down's syndrome
    Kathleen M Gillespie
    Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
    Diabetes 55:3185-8. 2006
    ..Other factors, possibly including genes on chromosome 21, may increase the penetrance of type 1 diabetes in Down's syndrome...
  20. ncbi request reprint The rise of childhood type 1 diabetes in the 20th century
    Edwin A M Gale
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Medical School Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, U K
    Diabetes 51:3353-61. 2002
    ..The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it...
  21. ncbi request reprint HLA class II typing of whole genome amplified mouth swab DNA
    K M Gillespie
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Tissue Antigens 56:530-8. 2000
    ..We have optimised conditions for HLA class II typing on whole genome amplified DNA collected by mouth swab, but this method could potentially be applied to low concentrations of DNA from other sources...
  22. ncbi request reprint Optimized autoantibody-based risk assessment in family members. Implications for future intervention trials
    P J Bingley
    Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, U K
    Diabetes Care 22:1796-801. 1999
    ..To determine the best autoantibody-based testing strategy for recruiting relatives for future intervention trials and to establish the role of islet cell antibodies (ICAs) within this strategy...
  23. ncbi request reprint High familial risk and genetic susceptibility in early onset childhood diabetes
    Kathleen M Gillespie
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Diabetes 51:210-4. 2002
    ..001). Diabetes with onset before age 5 years is therefore a marker of high familial risk...
  24. ncbi request reprint The high prevalence of autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase in first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes is not associated with islet autoimmunity
    A J Williams
    Diabetes and Metabolism Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetes Care 24:504-9. 2001
    ..The high prevalence of celiac autoimmunity may be explained by shared genetic susceptibility and identifies a population within which screening for the disease may be justified...
  25. ncbi request reprint Survival of the fittest? Natural selection in islet transplantation
    Richard M Smith
    Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    Transplantation 79:1301-3. 2005
    ..Input from "transplanters" and diabetologists is essential in order to select appropriate patients for islet transplantation...
  26. ncbi request reprint Diabetes and gender
    E A Gale
    Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Diabetologia 44:3-15. 2001
    ..Women are, however, more likely to transmit Type II diabetes to their offspring. Understanding these experiments of nature might suggest ways of influencing the early course of both forms of the disease...
  27. ncbi request reprint Why can't we prevent type 1 diabetes?: maybe it's time to try a different combination
    Desmond Schatz
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Diabetes Care 26:3326-8. 2003
  28. ncbi request reprint Can we change the course of beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes?
    Edwin A M Gale
    N Engl J Med 346:1740-2. 2002
  29. ncbi request reprint The market in diabetes
    Alexandra Hauber
    Diabetologia 49:247-52. 2006
  30. ncbi request reprint Troglitazone: the lesson that nobody learned?
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetologia 49:1-6. 2006
  31. ncbi request reprint Mortality from cerebrovascular disease in a cohort of 23 000 patients with insulin-treated diabetes
    Susan P Laing
    Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
    Stroke 34:418-21. 2003
    ..Cerebrovascular mortality rates have been shown to be raised in patients with type II diabetes but have not previously been reported by age and sex in patients with type I diabetes...
  32. ncbi request reprint Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the ATP-sensitive K+ channel subunit Kir6.2 are rare in clinically defined type 1 diabetes diagnosed before 2 years
    Emma L Edghill
    Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5AX, UK
    Diabetes 53:2998-3001. 2004
    ..Although activating KCNJ11 mutations are rare in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, the identification of a KCNJ11 mutation may have important treatment implications...
  33. ncbi request reprint Infant diets and type 1 diabetes: too early, too late, or just too complicated?
    Mark Atkinson
    JAMA 290:1771-2. 2003
  34. pmc Maternal microchimerism in peripheral blood in type 1 diabetes and pancreatic islet beta cell microchimerism
    J Lee Nelson
    Human Immunogenetics, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1637-42. 2007
    ..Thus, T1D patients have higher levels of MMc in their circulation than unaffected siblings and healthy individuals, and MMc contributes to islet beta cells in a mother's progeny...
  35. ncbi request reprint Association of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene with type 1 diabetes
    Sergey Nejentsev
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, CB2 2XY, Cambridge, UK
    Lancet 362:1723-4. 2003
    ..91, p=0.03; 446 families, 0.60, p=0.006). Our data indicate an aetiological role for ICAM-1 in type 1 diabetes, which needs to be confirmed in future genetic and functional experiments...
  36. ncbi request reprint Do dogs develop autoimmune diabetes?
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetologia 48:1945-7. 2005
  37. ncbi request reprint The myth of the metabolic syndrome
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetologia 48:1679-83. 2005
  38. ncbi request reprint Your journal and mine
    Edwin A M Gale
    Diabetologia 48:1-2. 2005