- Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neuronsChristopher D Fiorillo
Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
Science 299:1898-902. 2003..The coding of uncertainty suggests a possible role for dopamine signals in attention-based learning and risk-taking behavior...
- Adaptive coding of reward value by dopamine neuronsPhilippe N Tobler
Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK, and Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
Science 307:1642-5. 2005..Responses shifted relative to the expected reward value, and the gain adjusted to the variance of reward value. In this way, dopamine neurons maintained their reward sensitivity over a large range of reward values...
- Explicit neural signals reflecting reward uncertaintyWolfram Schultz
Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3801-11. 2008..The brain can use the uncertainty signals to assess the uncertainty of rewards, influence learning, modulate the value of uncertain rewards and make appropriate behavioural choices between only partly known options...