Charles ffrench-Constant

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi Association between integrin-dependent migration capacity of neural stem cells in vitro and anatomical repair following transplantation
    L Prestoz
    Department of Medical Genetics and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Neurosci 18:473-84. 2001
  2. ncbi Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped
    Charles ffrench-Constant
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Science 304:688-9. 2004
  3. ncbi Patterns of laminins and integrins in the embryonic ventricular zone of the CNS
    Justin D Lathia
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Comp Neurol 505:630-43. 2007
  4. ncbi Integrins: versatile integrators of extracellular signals
    Charles ffrench-Constant
    Departments of Pathology and Medical Genetics, and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Trends Cell Biol 14:678-86. 2004
  5. pmc Integrins direct Src family kinases to regulate distinct phases of oligodendrocyte development
    Holly Colognato
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21QP, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 167:365-75. 2004
  6. ncbi Beta1 integrins activate a MAPK signalling pathway in neural stem cells that contributes to their maintenance
    Lia S Campos
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Development 131:3433-44. 2004
  7. ncbi Up-regulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cell alphaV integrin and its extracellular ligands during central nervous system remyelination
    Chao Zhao
    MRC Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci Res 87:3447-55. 2009
  8. pmc Quiescence and activation of stem and precursor cell populations in the subependymal zone of the mammalian brain are associated with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix signals
    Ilias Kazanis
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:9771-81. 2010
  9. ncbi Osteopontin is extensively expressed by macrophages following CNS demyelination but has a redundant role in remyelination
    Chao Zhao
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
    Neurobiol Dis 31:209-17. 2008
  10. ncbi Generation of an environmental niche for neural stem cell development by the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin C
    Emmanuel Garcion
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, and Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Development 131:3423-32. 2004

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi Association between integrin-dependent migration capacity of neural stem cells in vitro and anatomical repair following transplantation
    L Prestoz
    Department of Medical Genetics and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Neurosci 18:473-84. 2001
    ..Differences in integrin signaling therefore contribute to the greater migration potential of the repairing MHP36 cell line...
  2. ncbi Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped
    Charles ffrench-Constant
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Science 304:688-9. 2004
  3. ncbi Patterns of laminins and integrins in the embryonic ventricular zone of the CNS
    Justin D Lathia
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Comp Neurol 505:630-43. 2007
    ....
  4. ncbi Integrins: versatile integrators of extracellular signals
    Charles ffrench-Constant
    Departments of Pathology and Medical Genetics, and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Trends Cell Biol 14:678-86. 2004
    ..As a result, growth factor concentrations in the physiological range, which are too low to initiate signalling alone, do so in the presence of the ECM, enabling integrins to control the time and space of growth factor signalling...
  5. pmc Integrins direct Src family kinases to regulate distinct phases of oligodendrocyte development
    Holly Colognato
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21QP, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 167:365-75. 2004
    ....
  6. ncbi Beta1 integrins activate a MAPK signalling pathway in neural stem cells that contributes to their maintenance
    Lia S Campos
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Development 131:3433-44. 2004
    ..We conclude that integrins are therefore an important part of the signalling mechanisms that control neural stem cell behaviour in specific areas of the CNS...
  7. ncbi Up-regulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cell alphaV integrin and its extracellular ligands during central nervous system remyelination
    Chao Zhao
    MRC Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci Res 87:3447-55. 2009
    ....
  8. pmc Quiescence and activation of stem and precursor cell populations in the subependymal zone of the mammalian brain are associated with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix signals
    Ilias Kazanis
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:9771-81. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi Osteopontin is extensively expressed by macrophages following CNS demyelination but has a redundant role in remyelination
    Chao Zhao
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
    Neurobiol Dis 31:209-17. 2008
    ..There was no difference in the rate of remyelination between the two groups indicating that OPN is not a critical component of remyelination...
  10. ncbi Generation of an environmental niche for neural stem cell development by the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin C
    Emmanuel Garcion
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, and Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Development 131:3423-32. 2004
    ..We conclude that tenascin C contributes to the generation of a stem cell 'niche' within the SVZ, acting to orchestrate growth factor signalling so as to accelerate neural stem cell development...
  11. ncbi Contrasting effects of mitogenic growth factors on myelination in neuron-oligodendrocyte co-cultures
    Zhen Wang
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Glia 55:537-45. 2007
    ..Moreover, the results highlight important differences between the growth factors...
  12. ncbi Inflammation stimulates myelination by transplanted oligodendrocyte precursor cells
    Anna Setzu
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair and MS Society Cambridge Centre for Myelin Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Glia 54:297-303. 2006
    ..Our results have important implications for the development of immunomodulatory treatments for acute demyelinating disease and for the therapeutic creation of proremyelination environments in chronic demyelinating disease...
  13. ncbi Integrin activation or alpha 9 expression allows retinal pigmented epithelial cell adhesion on Bruch's membrane in wet age-related macular degeneration
    Fardad T Afshari
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PY, UK
    Brain 133:448-64. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc Retinoid X receptor gamma signaling accelerates CNS remyelination
    Jeffrey K Huang
    MRC Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Neurosci 14:45-53. 2011
    ..Our results indicate that RXR-γ is a positive regulator of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and remyelination and might be a pharmacological target for regenerative therapy in the CNS...
  15. pmc Mice lacking the giant protocadherin mFAT1 exhibit renal slit junction abnormalities and a partially penetrant cyclopia and anophthalmia phenotype
    Lorenza Ciani
    Departments of Medical Genetics and Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Mol Cell Biol 23:3575-82. 2003
    ..Our results confirm a necessary role for FAT1 in the modified adhesion junctions of the renal glomerular epithelial cell and reveal hitherto unsuspected roles for FAT1 in CNS development...
  16. pmc Myelin regeneration in multiple sclerosis: targeting endogenous stem cells
    Jeffrey K Huang
    MRC Cambridge Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Neurotherapeutics 8:650-8. 2011
    ..We highlight recent studies on factors that influence endogenous remyelination and potential promising pharmacological targets that may be considered for enhancing central nervous system remyelination...
  17. pmc Dynamic regulation of integrin activation by intracellular and extracellular signals controls oligodendrocyte morphology
    Inger Marie Olsen
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    BMC Biol 3:25. 2005
    ..We asked whether integrins represent one class of oligodendrocyte cell-surface receptors able to provide this integration...
  18. ncbi Rab11 and its effector Rab coupling protein contribute to the trafficking of beta 1 integrins during axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglion neurons and PC12 cells
    Richard Eva
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:11654-69. 2010
    ..Our data suggest that manipulation of trafficking via Rab11 and RCP could be a useful strategy for promoting integrin-dependent axonal regeneration...
  19. ncbi Lipid rafts and integrin activation regulate oligodendrocyte survival
    Laurence Decker
    Department of Pathology, and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:3816-25. 2004
    ..Together, these results point to an essential role for rafts in oligodendrocyte survival signaling on the basis of the provision of a favorable environment for growth factor-mediated integrin activation...
  20. pmc Laminin enhances the growth of human neural stem cells in defined culture media
    Peter E Hall
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Neurosci 9:71. 2008
    ..A common feature of niches is the presence of the extracellular matrix molecule, laminin. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of exogenous laminin on hNSC growth...
  21. ncbi CNS integrins switch growth factor signalling to promote target-dependent survival
    Holly Colognato
    Department of Medical Genetics and Center for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2PY, UK
    Nat Cell Biol 4:833-41. 2002
    ..Our results provide a general mechanism by which growth factors can exert apparently contradictory effects at different stages of development in individual cell lineages...
  22. pmc The oligodendrocyte precursor mitogen PDGF stimulates proliferation by activation of alpha(v)beta3 integrins
    Wia Baron
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, ED Adrian Building, University Forvie Site, Cambridge CB2 2PY, UK
    EMBO J 21:1957-66. 2002
    ....
  23. ncbi Regulation of integrin growth factor interactions in oligodendrocytes by lipid raft microdomains
    Wia Baron
    Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, CB2 1QP, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 13:151-5. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate novel signaling roles for lipid rafts that ensure the separation and amplification of growth factor signaling pathways during development...
  24. pmc Toll-like receptor 3 is a negative regulator of embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation
    Justin D Lathia
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci 28:13978-84. 2008
    ..Our findings reveal a novel role for TLR3 in the negative regulation of NPC proliferation in the developing brain...
  25. pmc Integrin-mediated axoglial interactions initiate myelination in the central nervous system
    Joana Câmara
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 185:699-712. 2009
    ..We conclude that beta1 integrin plays a key role in the axoglial interactions that sense axon size and initiate myelination, such that loss of integrin signaling leads to a delay in myelination of small-diameter axons...
  26. ncbi ARF6 directs axon transport and traffic of integrins and regulates axon growth in adult DRG neurons
    Richard Eva
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 OPY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 32:10352-64. 2012
    ..Our data suggest a novel mechanism of integrin traffic and transport in peripheral axons, regulated by the activation state of ARF6, and suggest that ARF6 might be targeted to enhance integrin-dependent axon regeneration after injury...
  27. ncbi The adult mouse subependymal zone regenerates efficiently in the absence of tenascin-C
    Ilias Kazanis
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 27:13991-6. 2007
    ..Our results reveal a remarkable ability of the adult neural stem cell niche to retain proper function even after the removal of major extracellular matrix molecules...
  28. pmc Integrin activation promotes axon growth on inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans by enhancing integrin signaling
    Chin Lik Tan
    Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 31:6289-95. 2011
    ..These results suggest that inhibition by CSPGs can act via inactivation of integrins, and that activation of integrins is a potential method for improving axon regeneration after injury...
  29. ncbi Integrins are markers of human neural stem cells
    Peter E Hall
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 24:2078-84. 2006
    ..Therefore, integrin subunits alpha6 and beta1 are highly expressed by human neural precursors and represent convenient markers for their prospective isolation...
  30. ncbi Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells can be traced in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging and retain functional properties after transplantation into the CNS
    Mark D Dunning
    Cambridge Center for Brain Repair and Neuroregeneration Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:9799-810. 2004
    ..These studies demonstrate the feasibility of noninvasive imaging of transplanted SCs and OECs and represent a significant step toward the clinical application of promising experimental approaches...
  31. ncbi CNS axons retain their competence for myelination throughout life
    Anna Setzu
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair and Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Glia 45:307-11. 2004
    ..This finding suggests that chronically demyelinated regions of axons such as those in seen in multiple sclerosis are likely to remain competent to be remyelinated...
  32. ncbi The microenvironment of the embryonic neural stem cell: lessons from adult niches?
    Justin D Lathia
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Dev Dyn 236:3267-82. 2007
    ..Finally, we will ask how these lessons from the niche inform our understanding of neurodevelopmental diseases and cancers of the CNS...
  33. pmc Neurite outgrowth on a fibronectin isoform expressed during peripheral nerve regeneration is mediated by the interaction of paxillin with alpha4beta1 integrins
    Mariette Vogelezang
    Dept of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Neurosci 8:44. 2007
    ..Here we use PC12 cells to examine the role of the interaction between paxillin and the alpha4 integrin cytoplasmic domain in neurite outgrowth...
  34. ncbi Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy
    Robin J M Franklin
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:839-55. 2008
    ..The mechanisms of remyelination therefore provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remyelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically...
  35. ncbi Neuroprotection and repair in multiple sclerosis
    Robin J M Franklin
    Wellcome Trust and MRC Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, UK
    Nat Rev Neurol 8:624-34. 2012
    ..An understanding of these processes could lead to better strategies for the prevention and treatment of axonal loss, which will ultimately benefit patients with MS...
  36. ncbi Different mutations in the NF1 gene are associated with Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS)
    Diana Baralle
    Department of Medical Genetics, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet A 119:1-8. 2003
    ..These results show that NFNS can in some cases result from different mutations in the NF1 gene and therefore represents a variant form of NF1...
  37. ncbi Robust, persistent transgene expression in human embryonic stem cells is achieved with AAVS1-targeted integration
    Joseph R Smith
    Department of Surgery, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust MRC Building, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 OXY, United Kingdom
    Stem Cells 26:496-504. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate the utility of transgene integration at the AAVS1 locus in hESCs and its potential clinical application...
  38. doi Extracellular matrix and the neural stem cell niche
    Ilias Kazanis
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Dev Neurobiol 71:1006-17. 2011
    ..However the role of changes in the matrix itself remains to be determined. The answers will be important, as they will point to the molecules required to engineer niches ex-vivo so as to provide tools for regenerative neuroscience...
  39. ncbi Mechanisms of glial development
    Holly Colognato
    Departments of Pathology and Medical Genetics and Center for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:37-44. 2004
    ..An emerging theme is the so-called glial lineage being more diverse and more plastic than was previously thought. Here, we highlight some recent insights into glial development...
  40. ncbi ADAM23 is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed by central nervous system neurons
    Alexander P Goldsmith
    Departments of Pathology and Medical Genetics and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci Res 78:647-58. 2004
    ..Taken together, these data are consistent with a model wherein ADAM23 serves to mediate cell-cell interactions within the mammalian CNS...
  41. pmc Neuregulin and BDNF induce a switch to NMDA receptor-dependent myelination by oligodendrocytes
    Iben Lundgaard
    Wellcome Trust Medical Research Council MRC Stem Cell Institute, John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 11:e1001743. 2013
    ..These data resolve controversies over the signalling regulating myelination and suggest novel roles for neuregulin in schizophrenia and in remyelination after white matter damage. ..
  42. ncbi Alpha9 integrin promotes neurite outgrowth on tenascin-C and enhances sensory axon regeneration
    Melissa R Andrews
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2PY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:5546-57. 2009
    ....
  43. pmc Adherens junction domains are split by asymmetric division of embryonic neural stem cells
    Veronique Marthiens
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    EMBO Rep 10:515-20. 2009
    ..This provides a molecular explanation as to how both daughters remain anchored to the ventricular surface after mitosis, while adopting different fates...
  44. ncbi Magnetic resonance imaging of functional Schwann cell transplants labelled with magnetic microspheres
    Mark D Dunning
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2PY, UK
    Neuroimage 31:172-80. 2006
    ....
  45. pmc The number of stem cells in the subependymal zone of the adult rodent brain is correlated with the number of ependymal cells and not with the volume of the niche
    Ilias Kazanis
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, and MRC Cambridge Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom ac uk
    Stem Cells Dev 21:1090-6. 2012
    ..The elucidation of the factors generated by ependymal cells that regulate stem cell numbers within the SEZ is, therefore, of importance for stem cell biology and regenerative neuroscience...
  46. ncbi The chemokine receptor CXCR2 controls positioning of oligodendrocyte precursors in developing spinal cord by arresting their migration
    Hui Hsin Tsai
    Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Cell 110:373-83. 2002
    ..These data suggest that population of presumptive white matter by oligodendrocyte precursors is dependent on localized expression of CXCL1...
  47. pmc Congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system
    Christopher Verity
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:i3-8. 2003
  48. ncbi Identification of dystroglycan as a second laminin receptor in oligodendrocytes, with a role in myelination
    Holly Colognato
    Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Development 134:1723-36. 2007
    ....
  49. ncbi Integrin-growth factor interactions as regulators of oligodendroglial development and function
    Wia Baron
    Department of Membrane Cell Biology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Glia 49:467-79. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi The extracellular matrix glycoprotein Tenascin-C is expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells and required for the regulation of maturation rate, survival and responsiveness to platelet-derived growth factor
    Jeremy Garwood
    LNDR, CNRS 5, rue Blaise Pascal, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2524-40. 2004
    ..These were present in equivalent proportions to those found in wild-type neurospheres but displayed enhanced myelin membrane formation...
  51. ncbi The control of cell number during central nervous system development in flies and mice
    Alicia Hidalgo
    NeuroDevelopment Group, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Mech Dev 120:1311-25. 2003
    ..Although cell number control has long been studied in the nervous system, analogous mechanisms are likely to operate during the growth of other organs and organisms...
  52. ncbi Regulation of neural progenitor proliferation and survival by beta1 integrins
    Dino P Leone
    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Honggerberg, Zurich
    J Cell Sci 118:2589-99. 2005
    ..Thus, beta1-integrin signalling and growth factor signalling tightly interact to control the number and migratory capacity of nestin-positive progenitor cells...
  53. ncbi Enhancing central nervous system remyelination in multiple sclerosis
    Monique Dubois-Dalcq
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Neuron 48:9-12. 2005
    ..Here we raise issues highlighted by prior experimental and human work that should be considered lest these studies become "lost in translation."..
  54. ncbi Human diseases reveal novel roles for neural laminins
    Holly Colognato
    Department of Pharmacology, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Trends Neurosci 28:480-6. 2005
    ....
  55. ncbi Beta1-integrin signaling mediates premyelinating oligodendrocyte survival but is not required for CNS myelination and remyelination
    Yves Benninger
    Institute for Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 26:7665-73. 2006
    ..We conclude that, although beta1-integrin may still contribute to other aspects of oligodendrocyte biology, it is not essential for myelination and remyelination in the CNS...