W C Earnshaw

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc INCENP-aurora B interactions modulate kinase activity and chromosome passenger complex localization
    Zhenjie Xu
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 187:637-53. 2009
  2. pmc Borealin: a novel chromosomal passenger required for stability of the bipolar mitotic spindle
    Reto Gassmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 166:179-91. 2004
  3. pmc CENP-V is required for centromere organization, chromosome alignment and cytokinesis
    Ana Mafalda Baptista Tadeu
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    EMBO J 27:2510-22. 2008
  4. pmc Mitotic chromosomes are compacted laterally by KIF4 and condensin and axially by topoisomerase IIα
    Kumiko Samejima
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 199:755-70. 2012
  5. pmc Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology
    William C Earnshaw
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, ICB, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 11:e1001742. 2013
  6. pmc Epigenetic engineering shows H3K4me2 is required for HJURP targeting and CENP-A assembly on a synthetic human kinetochore
    Jan H Bergmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    EMBO J 30:328-40. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint Structural-functional model of the mitotic chromosome
    V Yu Polyakov
    Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 71:1-9. 2006
  8. pmc Repo-Man coordinates chromosomal reorganization with nuclear envelope reassembly during mitotic exit
    Paola Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Dev Cell 21:328-42. 2011
  9. pmc A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells
    Hee Sheung Lee
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    BMC Cancer 13:252. 2013
  10. pmc Esperanto for histones: CENP-A, not CenH3, is the centromeric histone H3 variant
    W C Earnshaw
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Chromosome Res 21:101-6. 2013

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. pmc INCENP-aurora B interactions modulate kinase activity and chromosome passenger complex localization
    Zhenjie Xu
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 187:637-53. 2009
    ..These experiments reveal that INCENP interactions with aurora B in vivo modulate the level of kinase activity, thus regulating CPC localization and functions during mitosis...
  2. pmc Borealin: a novel chromosomal passenger required for stability of the bipolar mitotic spindle
    Reto Gassmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 166:179-91. 2004
    ..These results implicate the chromosomal passenger holocomplex in the maintenance of spindle integrity and suggest that histone H3 serine10 phosphorylation is performed by an Aurora B-INCENP subcomplex...
  3. pmc CENP-V is required for centromere organization, chromosome alignment and cytokinesis
    Ana Mafalda Baptista Tadeu
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    EMBO J 27:2510-22. 2008
    ..CENP-V provides a novel link between centromeric chromatin, the primary constriction and the CPC...
  4. pmc Mitotic chromosomes are compacted laterally by KIF4 and condensin and axially by topoisomerase IIα
    Kumiko Samejima
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 199:755-70. 2012
    ..These three proteins are major determinants in shaping the characteristic mitotic chromosome morphology...
  5. pmc Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology
    William C Earnshaw
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, ICB, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 11:e1001742. 2013
    ..At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones...
  6. pmc Epigenetic engineering shows H3K4me2 is required for HJURP targeting and CENP-A assembly on a synthetic human kinetochore
    Jan H Bergmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    EMBO J 30:328-40. 2011
    ..Our data provide a functional link between the centromeric chromatin, α-satellite transcription, maintenance of CENP-A levels and kinetochore stability...
  7. ncbi request reprint Structural-functional model of the mitotic chromosome
    V Yu Polyakov
    Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 71:1-9. 2006
    ..A structural-functional model of the mitotic chromosome is proposed based on the principle of discreteness of structural levels of DNA compactization...
  8. pmc Repo-Man coordinates chromosomal reorganization with nuclear envelope reassembly during mitotic exit
    Paola Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Dev Cell 21:328-42. 2011
    ..These observations identify Repo-Man as a key factor that coordinates chromatin remodeling and early events of nuclear envelope reformation during mitotic exit...
  9. pmc A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells
    Hee Sheung Lee
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    BMC Cancer 13:252. 2013
    ..However, none of the existing methods, including the in vitro micronuclei (MNi) assay, developed to quantify CIN, is entirely satisfactory...
  10. pmc Esperanto for histones: CENP-A, not CenH3, is the centromeric histone H3 variant
    W C Earnshaw
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Chromosome Res 21:101-6. 2013
    ....
  11. pmc Inactivation of a human kinetochore by specific targeting of chromatin modifiers
    Megumi Nakano
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 37, Room 5040, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Cell 14:507-22. 2008
    ..Our results reveal that a dynamic balance between centromeric chromatin and heterochromatin is essential for vertebrate kinetochore activity...
  12. pmc Making the Auroras glow: regulation of Aurora A and B kinase function by interacting proteins
    Mar Carmena
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Michael Swann Building, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 21:796-805. 2009
    ..This review will focus on how interacting proteins make this functional diversity possible by targeting the kinases to different subcellular locations and regulating their activity...
  13. pmc Building mitotic chromosomes
    Shinya Ohta
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Michael Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 23:114-21. 2011
    ..Here, we discuss recent studies of chromosome organization and provide an in depth description of the latest proteomics studies, which have at last provided us with a definitive proteome for vertebrate chromosomes...
  14. pmc The protein composition of mitotic chromosomes determined using multiclassifier combinatorial proteomics
    Shinya Ohta
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Cell 142:810-21. 2010
    ..Our integrated analysis predicts that up to 97 new centromere-associated proteins remain to be discovered in our data set...
  15. ncbi request reprint Cell biology. Keeping survivin nimble at centromeres in mitosis
    William C Earnshaw
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Science 310:1443-4. 2005
  16. ncbi request reprint CrmA/SPI-2 inhibition of an endogenous ICE-related protease responsible for lamin A cleavage and apoptotic nuclear fragmentation
    A Takahashi
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Michael Swann Building, The King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 271:32487-90. 1996
    ..These results reveal that CrmA/SPI-2 can inhibit a caspase responsible both for lamin A cleavage and for the nuclear disintegration characteristic of apoptosis...
  17. pmc A perfect funeral with no corpse
    William C Earnshaw
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    J Cell Biol 160:989-90. 2003
    ..Mazia, 1961)..
  18. ncbi request reprint Mammalian caspases: structure, activation, substrates, and functions during apoptosis
    W C Earnshaw
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Biochem 68:383-424. 1999
    ..Collectively, these scissions disrupt survival pathways and disassemble important architectural components of the cell, contributing to the stereotypic morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptotic cell death...
  19. ncbi request reprint INCENP is required for proper targeting of Survivin to the centromeres and the anaphase spindle during mitosis
    S P Wheatley
    Chromosome Structure Group, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Swann Building, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, EH9 3JR, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 11:886-90. 2001
    ..Our data provide the first biochemical evidence that Survivin can interact directly with members of the chromosomal passenger complex...
  20. ncbi request reprint Human INCENP colocalizes with the Aurora-B/AIRK2 kinase on chromosomes and is overexpressed in tumour cells
    R R Adams
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Chromosoma 110:65-74. 2001
    ..Levels of Aurora-B are increased in several human cancers, and we show here that HsINCENP protein levels are also significantly increased in several colorectal cancer cell lines...
  21. pmc Essential roles of Drosophila inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora B in histone H3 phosphorylation, metaphase chromosome alignment, kinetochore disjunction, and chromosome segregation
    R R Adams
    Wellcome Center for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biol 153:865-80. 2001
    ..These experiments reveal that INCENP is required for aurora B kinase function and confirm that the chromosomal passengers have essential roles in mitosis...
  22. ncbi request reprint INCENP binds directly to tubulin and requires dynamic microtubules to target to the cleavage furrow
    S P Wheatley
    Wellcome Institute for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, Scotland
    Exp Cell Res 262:122-7. 2001
    ..These data indicate that INCENP is a microtubule-binding protein that targets to the equatorial cortex through interactions requiring microtubules...
  23. ncbi request reprint Two differentially spliced forms of topoisomerase IIalpha and beta mRNAs are conserved between birds and humans
    A S Petruti-Mot
    Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Gene 258:183-92. 2000
    ..These results suggest that cells express a more complex repertoire of topo II isoforms than previously thought, raising the possibility that different forms of topo II may fulfil specialized functions in chromosome dynamics...
  24. ncbi request reprint CAD/DFF40 nuclease is dispensable for high molecular weight DNA cleavage and stage I chromatin condensation in apoptosis
    K Samejima
    Wellcome Institute for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Swann Bldg, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 276:45427-32. 2001
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Sister chromatid cohesion and genome stability in vertebrate cells
    C Morrison
    Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, King s Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:263-5. 2003
    ..These results show that cohesin maintains genomic stability by ensuring appropriate DNA repair and equal chromosome segregation at mitosis...
  26. ncbi request reprint Chromosomal passengers and the (aurora) ABCs of mitosis
    R R Adams
    Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Michael Swann Building, King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, EH9 3JR, Edinburgh, UK
    Trends Cell Biol 11:49-54. 2001
    ..The chromosomal passenger complex functions throughout mitosis in chromosome condensation and segregation, and at the end of mitosis, in the completion of cytokinesis...
  27. pmc Formation of spindle poles by dynein/dynactin-dependent transport of NuMA
    A Merdes
    ICMB, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
    J Cell Biol 149:851-62. 2000
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Survivin is required for stable checkpoint activation in taxol-treated HeLa cells
    Ana Carvalho
    Chromosome Structure Group, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Sci 116:2987-98. 2003
    ..However, Survivin is required for the maintenance of the checkpoint when it is activated by taxol, which is generally thought to cause a loss of spindle tension...
  29. ncbi request reprint Structure and function in the nucleus
    A I Lamond
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK
    Science 280:547-53. 1998
    ..This review summarizes recent progress in understanding nuclear organization, highlighting in particular the dynamic aspects of nuclear structure...
  30. ncbi request reprint The chromosomal passenger complex: one for all and all for one
    Sandrine Ruchaud
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Cell 131:230-1. 2007
    ..2007) report the crystal structure of the regulatory subunit complex and reveal how interactions between these proteins promote the targeting and function of the chromosomal passenger complex during mitosis...
  31. ncbi request reprint INCENP binds the Aurora-related kinase AIRK2 and is required to target it to chromosomes, the central spindle and cleavage furrow
    R R Adams
    Wellcome Institute for Cell Biology, Edinburgh, UK
    Curr Biol 10:1075-8. 2000
    ..This interaction between INCENP and Aurora kinase was found to be biologically relevant. INCENP and AIRK2 colocalized exactly in human cells, and INCENP was required to target AIRK2 correctly to centromeres and the central spindle...
  32. ncbi request reprint DNA topoisomerase IIalpha interacts with CAD nuclease and is involved in chromatin condensation during apoptotic execution
    F Durrieu
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Curr Biol 10:923-6. 2000
    ..In addition, we show that CAD binds to Topo IIalpha, and that their association enhances the decatenation activity of Topo IIalpha in vitro...
  33. ncbi request reprint Proteomics of isolated mitotic chromosomes identifies the kinetochore protein Ska3/Rama1
    S Ohta
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 75:433-8. 2010
    ..The approach presented here offers a powerful way to define the functional proteome of complex organelles and structures whose composition is not simple or fixed...
  34. ncbi request reprint INCENP loss from an inactive centromere correlates with the loss of sister chromatid cohesion
    P B Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Institute for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Chromosoma 110:393-401. 2001
    ..These results are consistent with recent suggestions that one function of the chromosomal passenger proteins may be to regulate sister chromatid separation in mitosis...
  35. pmc Condensin regulates the stiffness of vertebrate centromeres
    Susana A Ribeiro
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 20:2371-80. 2009
    ..Loss of stiffness caused by condensin-depletion produces abnormal uncoordinated sister kinetochore movements, leads to an increase in Mad2(+) kinetochores near the metaphase plate and delays anaphase onset...
  36. pmc Deconstructing Survivin: comprehensive genetic analysis of Survivin function by conditional knockout in a vertebrate cell line
    Zuojun Yue
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Biol 183:279-96. 2008
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint RNAi analysis reveals an unexpected role for topoisomerase II in chromosome arm congression to a metaphase plate
    Chih Jui Chang
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    J Cell Sci 116:4715-26. 2003
    ..This is not kinetochore-based movement, as the centromere of the affected chromosome is located on the plate. This observation raises the possibility that further unexpected functions for Topo II may remain to be discovered...
  38. ncbi request reprint Chromosomal passengers: conducting cell division
    Sandrine Ruchaud
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:798-812. 2007
    ....
  39. pmc INCENP centromere and spindle targeting: identification of essential conserved motifs and involvement of heterochromatin protein HP1
    A M Ainsztein
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biol 143:1763-74. 1998
    ..Surprisingly, this interaction does not appear to be involved in targeting INCENP to the centromeric heterochromatin, but may instead have a role in its transfer from the chromosomes to the anaphase spindle...
  40. pmc Condensin and Repo-Man-PP1 co-operate in the regulation of chromosome architecture during mitosis
    Paola Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Nat Cell Biol 8:1133-42. 2006
    ..This activity, provisionally termed 'regulator of chromosome architecture' (RCA), cooperates with condensin to preserve the characteristic chromosome architecture during mitosis...
  41. ncbi request reprint Localization of CENP-E in the fibrous corona and outer plate of mammalian kinetochores from prometaphase through anaphase
    C A Cooke
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Michael Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Chromosoma 106:446-55. 1997
    ..Together, the observations reported here are consistent with models in which CENP-E has a role in promoting the poleward migration of sister chromatids during anaphase A...
  42. pmc Dual roles of Incenp crucial to the assembly of the acentrosomal metaphase spindle in female meiosis
    Nathalie Colombié
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Development 135:3239-46. 2008
    ..We propose that the two functions of Incenp are part of the mechanisms that compensate for the lack of centrosomes during meiotic spindle formation...
  43. pmc Hierarchical inactivation of a synthetic human kinetochore by a chromatin modifier
    Stefano Cardinale
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4194-204. 2009
    ..These results suggest that this novel approach to kinetochore dissection may reveal new patterns of protein interactions within the kinetochore...
  44. ncbi request reprint Drosophila Incenp is required for cytokinesis and asymmetric cell division during development of the nervous system
    Chih Jui Chang
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, UK
    J Cell Sci 119:1144-53. 2006
    ..In addition, the segregation of the cell-fate determinant Prospero in asymmetric neuroblast division is abnormal, suggesting a role for the chromosomal passenger complex in the regulation of this process...
  45. ncbi request reprint Human CLASP1 is an outer kinetochore component that regulates spindle microtubule dynamics
    Helder Maiato
    Chromosome Structure Group, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, EH9 3JR, Scotland, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Cell 113:891-904. 2003
    ..Our data suggest that CLASP1 is required at kinetochores for attached microtubules to exhibit normal dynamic behavior...
  46. ncbi request reprint The cellular geography of aurora kinases
    Mar Carmena
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:842-54. 2003
  47. ncbi request reprint Chromosomal passengers: the four-dimensional regulation of mitotic events
    Paola Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, UK
    Chromosoma 113:211-22. 2004
    ..The chromosomal passenger complex provides an essential mechanism for mitotic regulation...
  48. ncbi request reprint Kinetochore localisation of the DNA damage response component 53BP1 during mitosis
    Denis Jullien
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    J Cell Sci 115:71-9. 2002
    ..Our data suggest that 53BP1 may have a role in checkpoint signalling during mitosis and provide the evidence that DNA damage response machinery and mitotic checkpoint may share common molecular components...
  49. pmc Analysis of Scc1-deficient cells defines a key metaphase role of vertebrate cohesin in linking sister kinetochores
    Paola Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Swann Building, King s Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    EMBO Rep 5:167-71. 2004
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Aurora-B phosphorylation in vitro identifies a residue of survivin that is essential for its localization and binding to inner centromere protein (INCENP) in vivo
    Sally P Wheatley
    Chromosome Structure Laboratory, Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 279:5655-60. 2004
    ..These data suggest that phosphorylation of survivin at threonine 117 by aurora-B may regulate targeting of survivin, and possibly the entire passenger complex, in mammals...
  51. ncbi request reprint Mammalian centromeres: DNA sequence, protein composition, and role in cell cycle progression
    J M Craig
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Exp Cell Res 246:249-62. 1999
    ..In this review, we will focus on recent advances in the understanding of centromere composition at the protein and DNA level and of the role of centromeres in sister-chromatid cohesion and mitotic checkpoint control...
  52. ncbi request reprint Centromeres: old tales and new tools
    P Vagnarelli
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    FEBS Lett 582:1950-9. 2008
    ..In this review, we will analyse how centromeres are organised with respect to chromatin types and arrangements...
  53. ncbi request reprint Mitotic chromosome formation and the condensin paradox
    Reto Gassmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, UK
    Exp Cell Res 296:35-42. 2004
    ..Surprisingly, condensin is only required for the second of these events...
  54. ncbi request reprint Shugoshin: a centromeric guardian senses tension
    Sarah E Goulding
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Bioessays 27:588-91. 2005
    ..This discovery has provided a molecular link between sister chromatid cohesion and tension-sensing at the kinetochore-microtubule interface...
  55. ncbi request reprint Caspase-mediated cleavage of DNA topoisomerase I at unconventional sites during apoptosis
    K Samejima
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:4335-40. 1999
    ....
  56. pmc A super-resolution map of the vertebrate kinetochore
    Susana Abreu Ribeiro
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10484-9. 2010
    ..In mitosis, a CENP-C-dependent mechanism crosslinks CENP-A blocks of different layers together, conferring extra stability to the kinetochore...
  57. ncbi request reprint Condensin is required for nonhistone protein assembly and structural integrity of vertebrate mitotic chromosomes
    Damien F Hudson
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, EH9 3JR, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Dev Cell 5:323-36. 2003
    ..Thus, a major function of condensin is to promote the correct association of nonhistone proteins with mitotic chromosomes, and this is essential for establishment of a robust chromosome structure...
  58. ncbi request reprint Novel components of human mitotic chromosomes identified by proteomic analysis of the chromosome scaffold fraction
    Reto Gassmann
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, UK
    Chromosoma 113:385-97. 2005
    ..One of the proteins, nuclear protein p30, is a novel component of the inner centromere. Over-expression experiments indicated that p30 may have an active role in the formation of centromeric heterochromatin...
  59. pmc Molecular and genetic analysis of condensin function in vertebrate cells
    Damien F Hudson
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 19:3070-9. 2008
    ..Thus, despite their similar molecular organization, condensin and cohesin exhibit fundamental differences in their structure and function...
  60. pmc Caspase-6 gene disruption reveals a requirement for lamin A cleavage in apoptotic chromatin condensation
    Sandrine Ruchaud
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, ICMB, Swann Building, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    EMBO J 21:1967-77. 2002
    ....
  61. pmc Proteomic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes reveals topoisomerase II alpha as an Aurora B substrate
    Ciaran Morrison
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Swann Building, King s Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 30:5318-27. 2002
    ..Purified recombinant human topo IIalpha was phosphorylated by Aurora B in vitro, confirming this proteomic approach as a valid method for the initial definition of candidate substrates of key mitotic kinases...
  62. ncbi request reprint Apoptotic phosphorylation of histone H2B is mediated by mammalian sterile twenty kinase
    Wang L Cheung
    Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Cell 113:507-17. 2003
    ..Our data provide evidence for a potential apoptotic "histone code."..
  63. pmc Death receptor-induced apoptosis reveals a novel interplay between the chromosomal passenger complex and CENP-C during interphase
    Alison J Faragher
    MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 18:1337-47. 2007
    ..Our studies provide the first evidence for a functional interplay between the passenger complex and CENP-C...
  64. ncbi request reprint Chk1 is required for spindle checkpoint function
    George Zachos
    Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, United Kingdom
    Dev Cell 12:247-60. 2007
    ..In addition, Chk1-deficient cells exhibit increased resistance to taxol. These results suggest a mechanism through which Chk1 could protect against tumorigenesis through its role in spindle checkpoint signaling...
  65. ncbi request reprint Vascular smooth muscle cell polyploidization involves changes in chromosome passenger proteins and an endomitotic cell cycle
    Yuka Nagata
    Recognition and Formation, Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency JST, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 305:277-91. 2005
    ..Finally, the data show that ectopically expressed Survivin inhibits polyploidization in vascular smooth muscle cells. Hence, aberrant chromosome passenger protein activity and endomitosis are associated with VSMC polyploidization...
  66. ncbi request reprint Aurora-C kinase is a novel chromosomal passenger protein that can complement Aurora-B kinase function in mitotic cells
    Kaori Sasai
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 59:249-63. 2004
    ..Finally, Aurora-C could rescue the Aurora-B silenced multinucleation phenotype, demonstrating that Aurora-C kinase function overlaps with and complements Aurora-B kinase function in mitosis...
  67. pmc Centrosome amplification induced by DNA damage occurs during a prolonged G2 phase and involves ATM
    Helen Dodson
    Department of Biochemistry and NCBES, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
    EMBO J 23:3864-73. 2004
    ..Our data suggest DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification as a mechanism for ensuring death of cells that evade the DNA damage or spindle assembly checkpoints...
  68. pmc Sgt1 is required for human kinetochore assembly
    Peter Steensgaard
    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy
    EMBO Rep 5:626-31. 2004
    ..Our studies implicate Sgt1 as an essential protein and a critical assembly factor for the mammalian kinetochore, and lend credit to the hypothesis of a kinetochore assembly pathway that is conserved from yeast to man...
  69. ncbi request reprint CENP-C binds the alpha-satellite DNA in vivo at specific centromere domains
    Valeria Politi
    Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy
    J Cell Sci 115:2317-27. 2002
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint How do kinetochores CLASP dynamic microtubules?
    Helder Maiato
    Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    Cell Cycle 2:511-4. 2003
    ..These results suggest that CLASP1 is required at kinetochores to regulate the dynamic behavior of attached microtubules...
  71. ncbi request reprint CENP-I is essential for centromere function in vertebrate cells
    Ai Nishihashi
    PRESTO, The Japan Science and Technology Corporation, National Institute of Genetics and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mishima, 411 8540, Shizuoka, Japan
    Dev Cell 2:463-76. 2002
    ..Eventually, cells exited mitosis without undergoing cytokinesis. Immunocytochemical analysis of CENP-I-deficient cells demonstrated that both CENP-I and CENP-H are necessary for localization of CENP-C but not CENP-A to the centromere...
  72. ncbi request reprint Dynamic relocalization of the chromosomal passenger complex proteins inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora-B kinase during male mouse meiosis
    María Teresa Parra
    Departamento de Biologia, Edificio de Biológicas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Cell Sci 116:961-74. 2003
    ..We discuss the complex dynamic relocalization of the chromosomal passenger complex during prophase I. Additionally, we suggest that this complex may regulate sister-chromatid centromere cohesion during both meiotic divisions...
  73. ncbi request reprint In vivo functional dissection of human inner kinetochore protein CENP-C
    Stefania Trazzi
    Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, Bologna, Italy
    J Struct Biol 140:39-48. 2002
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint INCENP at the kinase crossroads
    Mar Carmena
    Nat Cell Biol 8:110-1. 2006
  75. pmc Essential roles of KIF4 and its binding partner PRC1 in organized central spindle midzone formation
    Yasuhiro Kurasawa
    Cell Fate Signaling Research Unit, RIKEN The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    EMBO J 23:3237-48. 2004
    ..These results suggest that KIF4 and its binding partner PRC1 play essential roles in the organization of central spindles and midzone formation...
  76. pmc MAST/Orbit has a role in microtubule-kinetochore attachment and is essential for chromosome alignment and maintenance of spindle bipolarity
    Helder Maiato
    Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4150 180, Portugal
    J Cell Biol 157:749-60. 2002
    ..Together, these results strongly support the conclusion that MAST/Orbit is required for microtubules to form functional attachments to kinetochores and to maintain spindle bipolarity...
  77. pmc Mammalian CLASP1 and CLASP2 cooperate to ensure mitotic fidelity by regulating spindle and kinetochore function
    Ana L Pereira
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4150 180 Porto, Portugal
    Mol Biol Cell 17:4526-42. 2006
    ..Together, our data support that the partial redundancy of CLASPs during mitosis acts as a possible mechanism to prevent aneuploidy in mammals...
  78. ncbi request reprint INCENP and Aurora B promote meiotic sister chromatid cohesion through localization of the Shugoshin MEI-S332 in Drosophila
    Tamar D Resnick
    Whitehead Institute and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Dev Cell 11:57-68. 2006
    ..These results implicate the chromosomal passenger complex in directly regulating MEI-S332 localization and, therefore, the control of sister chromatid cohesion in meiosis...
  79. ncbi request reprint Condensin I interacts with the PARP-1-XRCC1 complex and functions in DNA single-strand break repair
    Jason T Heale
    Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 92697, USA
    Mol Cell 21:837-48. 2006
    ..Furthermore, depletion of condensin in vivo compromises SSB but not double-strand break (DSB) repair. Our results identify a SSB-specific response of condensin I through PARP-1 and demonstrate a role for condensin in SSB repair...
  80. ncbi request reprint The dynamic kinetochore-microtubule interface
    Helder Maiato
    Laboratory of Cell Regulation, NYSDH Division of Molecular Medicine, Wadsworth Center, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201 0509, USA
    J Cell Sci 117:5461-77. 2004
    ....
  81. pmc Co-localization of centromere activity, proteins and topoisomerase II within a subdomain of the major human X alpha-satellite array
    Jennifer M Spence
    Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK
    EMBO J 21:5269-80. 2002
    ....
  82. pmc Three distinct stages of apoptotic nuclear condensation revealed by time-lapse imaging, biochemical and electron microscopy analysis of cell-free apoptosis
    Shigenobu Tone
    Department of Biochemistry, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 313:3635-44. 2007
    ..This requirement for ATP hydrolysis further distinguished stage 2 from stage 3. Together, these experiments provide the first steps towards a systematic biochemical characterization of chromatin condensation during apoptosis...
  83. pmc Synthesis of novel caspase inhibitors for characterization of the active caspase proteome in vitro and in vivo
    Alexander J Henzing
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, ICB, Swann Building, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom
    J Med Chem 49:7636-45. 2006
    ..These novel caspase inhibitors should provide powerful probes for the study of the active caspase proteome during apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo...
  84. ncbi request reprint Lack of correlation between caspase activation and caspase activity assays in paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells
    Timothy J Kottke
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, Mayo Graduate School, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:804-15. 2002
    ..These observations suggest that sequestration of caspases can occur in some model systems, causing tetrapeptide-based activity assays to underestimate the amount of caspase activation that has occurred in situ...
  85. pmc Mutations in pericentrin cause Seckel syndrome with defective ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling
    Elen Griffith
    Medical Research Council MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
    Nat Genet 40:232-6. 2008
    ..These findings also suggest that other known microcephaly genes implicated in either DNA repair responses or centrosomal function may act in common developmental pathways determining human brain and body size...
  86. ncbi request reprint Caspase-7 gene disruption reveals an involvement of the enzyme during the early stages of apoptosis
    Nadia Korfali
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 279:1030-9. 2004
    ..These results strongly suggest that caspase-7 is involved earlier than other effector caspases in the apoptotic execution process in DT40 B lymphocytes...
  87. ncbi request reprint Trashing the genome: the role of nucleases during apoptosis
    Kumiko Samejima
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Swann Building, King s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:677-88. 2005
    ..Waste-management nucleases also destroy DNA that is released into the extracellular compartment. Here, we describe the complex group of nucleases that are involved in DNA destruction during apoptotic cell death...
  88. ncbi request reprint Efficiency of de novo centromere formation in human artificial chromosomes
    Jose E Mejia
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK
    Genomics 79:297-304. 2002
    ..The 17alpha-HPRT1 HACs were less stable than those with 17alpha only, and these results may influence the design of new HAC gene transfer vectors...
  89. doi request reprint Apoptosis-associated caspase activation assays
    Scott H Kaufmann
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street, S W, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Methods 44:262-72. 2008
    ..Here we describe methods for each of these assays, identify recent improvements in these assays and outline the strengths and limitations of each approach...