T J Crow

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Amygdala volume in schizophrenia: post-mortem study and review of magnetic resonance imaging findings
    Steven A Chance
    University of Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 180:331-8. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Macroscopic brain asymmetry is changed along the antero-posterior axis in schizophrenia
    Steven A Chance
    Schizophrenia Research, Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Schizophr Res 74:163-70. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Automatic analysis of cerebral asymmetry: an exploratory study of the relationship between brain torque and planum temporale asymmetry
    Thomas R Barrick
    Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre MARIARC, Pembroke Place, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
    Neuroimage 24:678-91. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Schneider's first rank symptoms and continuous performance disturbance as indices of dysconnectivity of left- and right-hemispheric components of language in schizophrenia
    Alfonso Ceccherini-Nelli
    Berkshire Health Care NHS Trust, Prospect Park Hospital, Honey End Lane, Reading RG30 4EJ, UK
    Schizophr Res 90:203-13. 2007
  5. doi request reprint Schizophrenia as variation in the sapiens-specific epigenetic instruction to the embryo
    T J Crow
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, SANE POWIC, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Clin Genet 81:319-24. 2012
  6. ncbi request reprint How and why genetic linkage has not solved the problem of psychosis: review and hypothesis
    Timothy J Crow
    Department of Psychiatry, SANE Prince of Wales Centre for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 164:13-21. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Callosal misconnectivity and the sex difference in psychosis
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int Rev Psychiatry 19:449-57. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Craddock & Owen vs Kraepelin: 85 years late, mesmerised by "polygenes"
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Schizophr Res 103:156-60. 2008
  9. doi request reprint Where and what is the right shift factor or cerebral dominance gene? A critique of Francks et al. (2007)
    T J Crow
    Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Laterality 14:3-10. 2009
  10. doi request reprint A theory of the origin of cerebral asymmetry: epigenetic variation superimposed on a fixed right-shift
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Laterality 15:289-303. 2010

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. ncbi request reprint Amygdala volume in schizophrenia: post-mortem study and review of magnetic resonance imaging findings
    Steven A Chance
    University of Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 180:331-8. 2002
    ..Some post-mortem studies do not find these abnormalities...
  2. ncbi request reprint Macroscopic brain asymmetry is changed along the antero-posterior axis in schizophrenia
    Steven A Chance
    Schizophrenia Research, Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Schizophr Res 74:163-70. 2005
    ..Anatomical asymmetry may be altered in schizophrenia, but the changes are subtle and in some studies undetected perhaps due to methodological limitations...
  3. ncbi request reprint Automatic analysis of cerebral asymmetry: an exploratory study of the relationship between brain torque and planum temporale asymmetry
    Thomas R Barrick
    Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre MARIARC, Pembroke Place, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
    Neuroimage 24:678-91. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Schneider's first rank symptoms and continuous performance disturbance as indices of dysconnectivity of left- and right-hemispheric components of language in schizophrenia
    Alfonso Ceccherini-Nelli
    Berkshire Health Care NHS Trust, Prospect Park Hospital, Honey End Lane, Reading RG30 4EJ, UK
    Schizophr Res 90:203-13. 2007
    ..Here we investigate pathophysiological dimensions (language disturbance, negative symptoms, lateralisation and the continuous performance test) in relation to ICD-10 and DSM-IV concepts of diagnosis...
  5. doi request reprint Schizophrenia as variation in the sapiens-specific epigenetic instruction to the embryo
    T J Crow
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, SANE POWIC, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Clin Genet 81:319-24. 2012
    ..Diversity in meiotic pairing is postulated as the basis for species-specific deviations in development associated with psychosis...
  6. ncbi request reprint How and why genetic linkage has not solved the problem of psychosis: review and hypothesis
    Timothy J Crow
    Department of Psychiatry, SANE Prince of Wales Centre for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 164:13-21. 2007
    ..The author examined the chromosomal linkage method as an approach to the genetic basis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
  7. ncbi request reprint Callosal misconnectivity and the sex difference in psychosis
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int Rev Psychiatry 19:449-57. 2007
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Craddock & Owen vs Kraepelin: 85 years late, mesmerised by "polygenes"
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Schizophr Res 103:156-60. 2008
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Where and what is the right shift factor or cerebral dominance gene? A critique of Francks et al. (2007)
    T J Crow
    Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Laterality 14:3-10. 2009
    ....
  10. doi request reprint A theory of the origin of cerebral asymmetry: epigenetic variation superimposed on a fixed right-shift
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Laterality 15:289-303. 2010
    ....
  11. doi request reprint 'The missing genes: what happened to the heritability of psychiatric disorders?'
    T J Crow
    SANE POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 16:362-4. 2011
    ..Thus sexually dimorphic variation that distinguishes the species may be transmitted between generations in epigenetic form that evades detection by linkage and association...
  12. doi request reprint The 'big bang' theory of the origin of psychosis and the faculty of language
    Timothy J Crow
    SANE POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Schizophr Res 102:31-52. 2008
    ..To achieve a unified concept of the aetiology of psychosis...
  13. ncbi request reprint March 27, 1827 and what happened later--the impact of psychiatry on evolutionary theory
    Timothy J Crow
    Prince of Wales International Centre for SANE Research into Schizophrenia and Depression Warneford Hospital Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:785-96. 2006
    ..In H. sapiens the core component of this system is the capacity for language; the nuclear symptoms of schizophrenia are necessary clues to its neural structure...
  14. ncbi request reprint Anomalies of cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia interact with gender and age of onset: a post-mortem study
    J R Highley
    Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Schizophr Res 34:13-25. 1998
    ..The findings also suggest that there is an interaction between gender and cerebral asymmetry that is critical in determining age of onset...
  15. ncbi request reprint Fiber content of the fornix in schizophrenia: lack of evidence for a primary limbic encephalopathy
    S A Chance
    Department of Clinical Neurology, Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 156:1720-4. 1999
    ..The fornix is a major pathway through which neurons project to and from the hippocampus. The authors investigated whether the fiber number or structure of the fornix is abnormal in schizophrenia, as was suggested by an earlier MRI study...
  16. ncbi request reprint Temporal-lobe length is reduced, and gyral folding is increased in schizophrenia: a post-mortem study
    J R Highley
    Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Schizophr Res 34:1-12. 1998
    ..These two structural changes may reflect an alteration of the cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in schizophrenia...
  17. pmc Replication profile of PCDH11X and PCDH11Y, a gene pair located in the non-pseudoautosomal homologous region Xq21.3/Yp11.2
    N D Wilson
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK
    Chromosome Res 15:485-98. 2007
    ..Our data are relevant to the complex relationship between X-inactivation, as a chromosome-wide phenomenon, and asynchrony of replication and expression status of single genes on chromosome X...
  18. doi request reprint The relationship between callosal axons and cortical neurons in the planum temporale: alterations in schizophrenia
    R Simper
    Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK
    Neurosci Res 71:405-10. 2011
    ..The findings offer cytoarchitectural insight into the relationship between PT cortex and callosal white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia...
  19. ncbi request reprint Schizophrenia and the frontal lobes: post-mortem stereological study of tissue volume
    J R Highley
    Schizophrenia Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurology (Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 178:337-43. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Such structural abnormalities as are present in the frontal lobes are more subtle than straightforward alterations in tissue volume; they may include changes in shape and the pattern of gyral folding...
  20. ncbi request reprint Commentary on Annett, Yeo et al., Klar, Saugstad and Orr: cerebral asymmetry, language and psychosis--the case for a Homo sapiens-specific sex-linked gene for brain growth
    T J Crow
    POWIC, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Schizophr Res 39:219-31. 1999
    ..Crow, T.J., Renowden, S., Wardell, M., Smith, D.M., Anslow, P., in press. Is the course of brain development in schizophrenia delayed? Evidence from onsets in adolescence. Schizophr. Res.)...
  21. ncbi request reprint The size and fibre composition of the corpus callosum with respect to gender and schizophrenia: a post-mortem study
    J R Highley
    Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Brain 122:99-110. 1999
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Reduced density of calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons in the planum temporale in schizophrenia
    S A Chance
    Schizophrenia Research, Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Brain Res 1046:32-7. 2005
    ..Loss of columnar inhibition may result in reduced minicolumnar segregation and altered cell size may reflect altered minicolumn size...
  23. ncbi request reprint The dorsal raphe nucleus in schizophrenia: a post mortem study of 5-hydroxytryptamine neurones
    R M Craven
    Schizophrenia Research Group, University Department of Clinical Neurology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 31:258-69. 2005
    ..Our results do not support the proposal that an abnormality in the number and/or size of DRN 5-HT neurones is central to the aetiopathology of schizophrenia...
  24. ncbi request reprint Size of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia
    J R Highley
    Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 183:414-7. 2003
    ..Meta-analyses of hippocampal size have indicated that this structure is smaller in schizophrenia. This could reflect a reduction in the size of constituent neurons or a reduced number of neurons...
  25. ncbi request reprint Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision
    T J Crow
    Prince of Wales International Centre, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychologia 36:1275-82. 1998
    ..The variation associated with degrees of dominance may reflect the operation of continuing selection on the gene (postulated to be X-Y linked) by which language evolved and speciation occurred...
  26. ncbi request reprint PCDH11 is X/Y homologous in Homo sapiens but not in Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes
    N D Wilson
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Cytogenet Genome Res 114:137-9. 2006
    ..By confirmingthe suspected lack of X-Y homologous status for PCDH11 in non-human primates, our results reinforce the hypothesis of a hominid-specific role for this gene in brain development...
  27. ncbi request reprint Childhood precursors of psychosis as clues to its evolutionary origins
    T J Crow
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 245:61-9. 1995
    ..It is argued that the psychoses represent extremes of variation in a gene (or genes) that differs between sexes and controls the timing of development of the two cerebral hemispheres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  28. ncbi request reprint The locus coeruleus in schizophrenia: a postmortem study of noradrenergic neurones
    R M Craven
    Schizophrenia Research Group, University Department of Clinical Neurology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 31:115-26. 2005
    ..The findings presented here concur with previous studies suggesting that noradrenergic dysfunction in schizophrenia is not associated with an anatomical abnormality at the level of the LC...
  29. ncbi request reprint Minicolumnar structure in Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale: Asymmetries in relation to sex and callosal fiber number
    S A Chance
    Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Neuroscience 143:1041-50. 2006
    ..We conclude that asymmetry of the surface area of the PT is a function of minicolumn spacing. Fewer callosal projections between the plana are found when the minicolumn spacing is more asymmetrical...
  30. ncbi request reprint The cytoarchitecture of sulcal folding in Heschl's sulcus and the temporal cortex in the normal brain and schizophrenia: lamina thickness and cell density
    S A Chance
    Schizophrenia Research Group, Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    Neurosci Lett 367:384-8. 2004
    ..Sampling methods should consider that cortical folding affects cell and lamina distribution in the sampled region in a highly localised manner...
  31. ncbi request reprint Methylation of two Homo sapiens-specific X-Y homologous genes in Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY)
    Norman L J Ross
    SANE POWIC, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141:544-8. 2006
    ..The origin of the parental alleles or their preferential X inactivation was not associated with psychotic symptoms...
  32. ncbi request reprint Minicolumn thinning in temporal lobe association cortex but not primary auditory cortex in normal human ageing
    Steven A Chance
    Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Woodstock Road, OX2 6HE, Oxford, UK
    Acta Neuropathol 111:459-64. 2006
    ..Since old age is the greatest risk factor for dementia, the transition to dementia may involve an extension of normal ageing processes...
  33. pmc Auditory cortex asymmetry, altered minicolumn spacing and absence of ageing effects in schizophrenia
    Steven A Chance
    Neuropathology, Level 1, West Wing, John Radcliff Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Brain 131:3178-92. 2008
    ..The arrested capacity to absorb anomalous events and cognitive demands may confer vulnerability to schizophrenic symptoms when adult neuroplastic demands are not met...
  34. doi request reprint Schizophrenia delays and alters maturation of the brain in adolescence
    Gwenaelle Douaud
    Department of Clinical Neurology, FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Brain 132:2437-48. 2009
    ..Taken together, these results suggest common aetiological mechanisms for adolescent- and adult-onset schizophrenia with an altered neurodevelopmental time course in the schizophrenic patients that is particularly salient in adolescence...
  35. ncbi request reprint Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: a primary change in the temporal lobe?
    Steven A Chance
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Schizophr Res 62:123-31. 2003
    ..The anatomical origin of the enlargement of the cerebral ventricles in schizophrenia is obscure...
  36. ncbi request reprint Quantitation of X-Y homologous genes in patients with schizophrenia by multiplex polymerase chain reaction
    Norman L J Ross
    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychiatr Genet 13:115-9. 2003
    ..This study determined whether dosage imbalances of X-Y homologous regions in general are associated with schizophrenia...
  37. ncbi request reprint Application of a new image analysis technique to study brain asymmetry in schizophrenia
    Clare E Mackay
    Prince of Wales International Centre for SANE Research POWIC, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychiatry Res 124:25-35. 2003
    ..Future studies with larger sample sizes should consider sexual dimorphism and specific symptoms in relation to asymmetry...
  38. ncbi request reprint Sex-dependent effects of schizophrenia: an MRI study of gyral folding, and cortical and white matter volume
    J Robin Highley
    The Schizophrenia Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurology Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, OX2 6HE, Oxford, UK
    Psychiatry Res 124:11-23. 2003
    ..It is concluded that the changes in connectivity underlying the pathogenesis of schizophrenia are sex-specific and expressed in occipito-parietal white matter...
  39. ncbi request reprint Bilateral generic working memory circuit requires left-lateralized addition for verbal processing
    Manaan Kar Ray
    Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Partnership National Health Service Trust, Warneford Hospital, Warneford Lane, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Cereb Cortex 18:1421-8. 2008
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint ProtocadherinX/Y, a candidate gene-pair for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a DHPLC investigation of genomic sequence
    Maria Giouzeli
    Department of Psychiatry, POWIC SANE Research Centre, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 129:1-9. 2004
    ..However, we note the unusual status of this region with respect to X-inactivation. Further investigation of the epigenetic control of PCDHX/Y in relation to psychosis is warranted...
  41. ncbi request reprint Nuclear schizophrenic symptoms as a window on the relationship between thought and speech
    T J Crow
    Prince of Wales International Centre, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford
    Br J Psychiatry 173:303-9. 1998
    ..Symptoms of schizophrenia known as 'nuclear' or 'first-rank' are found in all populations. The genetic variation that gives rise to them must be as old as modern Homo sapiens...
  42. ncbi request reprint A single optimum degree of hemispheric specialisation in two tasks, in two UK national birth cohorts
    S J Leask
    University of Nottingham, Department of Psychiatry, Duncan Macmillan House, Porchester Road, Nottingham NG3 6AA, UK
    Brain Cogn 62:221-7. 2006
    ..These demonstrate that maximal performance, both cognitive and hand function, is found in association with one particular degree of functional lateralization...
  43. ncbi request reprint Schizophrenia as the price that homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species
    T J Crow
    POWIC, Warneford Hospital, University Department of Psychiatry, OX3 7JX, Oxford, UK
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 31:118-29. 2000
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Allele sharing for schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder within a region of Homo sapiens specific XY homology
    Timothy R J Nicholson
    University Department of Biological Anthropology, Banbury Road, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet 114:637-40. 2002
    ..With respect to the latter possibility we draw attention to the recent evolutionary history of the Xq21.3/Yp region. Genes within the region are in transition to protection from X inactivation and therefore may be epigenetically labile...
  45. ncbi request reprint Brain volume, asymmetry and intellectual impairment in relation to sex in early-onset schizophrenia
    Simon L Collinson
    POWIC SANE Research Centre, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 183:114-20. 2003
    ..Accumulating evidence suggests that early-onset schizophrenia arises from a disturbance in the normal trajectory of cerebral development...
  46. ncbi request reprint Asymmetry of the uncinate fasciculus: a post-mortem study of normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia
    J Robin Highley
    Schizophrenia Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurology Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Cereb Cortex 12:1218-24. 2002
    ..The unchanged size of the fasciculus in schizophrenia contrasts with commissural tracts, which are affected in this brain series in a sex-specific manner...
  47. ncbi request reprint Handedness, language lateralisation and anatomical asymmetry: relevance of protocadherin XY to hominid speciation and the aetiology of psychosis. Point of view
    T J Crow
    POWIC, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 181:295-7. 2002
  48. ncbi request reprint Does a four-week delay in the introduction of medication alter the course of functional psychosis?
    E C Johnstone
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 13:238-44. 1999
    ..It is concluded that a 4-week delay in initiating active treatment in patients with functional psychosis has no long-term adverse effects...
  49. ncbi request reprint Anomalies of asymmetry of pyramidal cell density and structure in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia
    Thomas J Cullen
    Prince of Wales International Centre for SANE Research, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 188:26-31. 2006
    ..Studies suggest that neuronal density in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is increased in schizophrenia...
  50. ncbi request reprint A postmortem study of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in schizophrenia
    T J Cullen
    Department of Clinical Neurology Neuropathology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, OX2 6HE, Oxford, UK
    Schizophr Res 60:157-66. 2003
    ..Hence our negative observations, in the largest sample yet investigated, cast doubt on the robustness and/or the generalisability of MD neuropathology in schizophrenia...
  51. ncbi request reprint Is lateral bias anomalous in early-onset schizophrenia? Selected comparisons with normal populations
    Simon L Collinson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychiatry Res 125:219-24. 2004
    ..These findings are consistent with the view that lateralisation is anomalous in schizophrenia early in the course of illness...
  52. ncbi request reprint Accelerated evolution of Protocadherin11X/Y: a candidate gene-pair for cerebral asymmetry and language
    Nic A Williams
    Prince of Wales International Centre for SANE Research, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141:623-33. 2006
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Estimated neuronal populations and volumes of the hippocampus and its subfields in schizophrenia
    Mary A Walker
    Department of Neuropathology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 159:821-8. 2002
    ..There are conflicting findings, however, with both techniques...
  54. ncbi request reprint Low medial and lateral right pulvinar volumes in schizophrenia: a postmortem study
    J Robin Highley
    University Department of Psychaitry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 160:1177-9. 2003
    ..In this study, the volume and neuronal number of the pulvinar thalamic nucleus in schizophrenia patients were measured...
  55. ncbi request reprint The etiology of schizophrenia and the origin of language: overview of a theory
    Marcelo T Berlim
    Schizophrenia Research Group, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Compr Psychiatry 44:7-14. 2003
    ..We review recent evidence supporting this theory...
  56. ncbi request reprint Disintegration of the components of language as the path to a revision of Bleuler's and Schneider's concepts of schizophrenia. Linguistic disturbances compared with first-rank symptoms in acute psychosis
    Alfonso Ceccherini-Nelli
    Fair Mile Hospital, Cholsey, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 182:233-40. 2003
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Inactivation status of PCDH11X: sexual dimorphisms in gene expression levels in brain
    Alexandra M Lopes
    IPATIMUP, Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, R Dr Roberto Frias, S N, 4200 465, Porto, Portugal
    Hum Genet 119:267-75. 2006
    ..Although no differences in promoter methylation were found between humans and chimpanzees, evidence of an upregulation of PCDH11X in humans deserves further investigation...
  58. ncbi request reprint Familial cognitive deficits in schizophrenia
    Anne L Hoff
    Napa State Hospital, Napa, California and Department of Psychiatry, UC Davis, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 133:43-9. 2005
    ..These latter correlations suggest that some cognitive measures may be genetically related to the illness...
  59. ncbi request reprint Lateralization of verbal ability in pre-psychotic children
    Stuart J Leask
    Nottingham University Department of Psychiatry, Duncan Macmillan House, Porchester Road, Nottingham, NG3 6AA, UK
    Psychiatry Res 136:35-42. 2005
    ..The findings are consistent with the concept that in psychosis at some critical stage in development there is a failure of lateralization of the components of language...
  60. ncbi request reprint A genome-wide scan for linkage to chromosomal regions in 382 sibling pairs with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
    Lynn E DeLisi
    Department of Psychiatry, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 159:803-12. 2002
    ..Since schizophrenia is a complex disorder, a study with sufficient power to detect a locus with a small or moderate gene effect is necessary...
  61. ncbi request reprint Semantic fluency is impaired but phonemic and design fluency are preserved in early-onset schizophrenia
    Tania Jane Phillips
    CAMHS Academic Unit, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Dunstable Health Centre, Priory Gardens, LU6 3SU Dunstable, UK
    Schizophr Res 70:215-22. 2004
    ..These results lend support to the hypothesis that impaired semantic fluency may be an early trait marker of schizophrenia that is potentially related to a failure of lateralisation of language...