Hugo D Critchley

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Electrodermal responses: what happens in the brain
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square
    Neuroscientist 8:132-42. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London UCL Autonomic Unit, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 493:154-66. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 126:2139-52. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, and Autonomic Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London Hospitals, UK
    Nat Neurosci 7:189-95. 2004
  5. pmc The human cortex responds to an interoceptive challenge
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6333-4. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Volitional control of autonomic arousal: a functional magnetic resonance study
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, ION, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 16:909-19. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Anterior cingulate activity during error and autonomic response
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 27:885-95. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Mental stress and sudden cardiac death: asymmetric midbrain activity as a linking mechanism
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 128:75-85. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Fear conditioning in humans: the influence of awareness and autonomic arousal on functional neuroanatomy
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, Institute of Neurology and Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 33:653-63. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Activity in the human brain predicting differential heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 24:751-62. 2005

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint Electrodermal responses: what happens in the brain
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square
    Neuroscientist 8:132-42. 2002
    ..Moreover, such studies enable an understanding of mechanisms by which states of bodily arousal, indexed by EDA, influence cognition and bias motivational behavior...
  2. ncbi request reprint Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London UCL Autonomic Unit, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 493:154-66. 2005
    ..Generation of visceral autonomic correlates of control reinforce experiential engagement in simulatory models and underpin concepts such as somatic markers to bridge the dualistic divide...
  3. ncbi request reprint Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 126:2139-52. 2003
    ..Thus, converging neuroimaging and clinical findings suggest that ACC function mediates context-driven modulation of bodily arousal states...
  4. ncbi request reprint Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, and Autonomic Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London Hospitals, UK
    Nat Neurosci 7:189-95. 2004
    ..These findings indicate that right anterior insula supports a representation of visceral responses accessible to awareness, providing a substrate for subjective feeling states...
  5. pmc The human cortex responds to an interoceptive challenge
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6333-4. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Volitional control of autonomic arousal: a functional magnetic resonance study
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, ION, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Neuroimage 16:909-19. 2002
    ..These findings identify neural substrates that support integration of perceptual processing, interoception, and intentional modulation of bodily states of arousal...
  7. ncbi request reprint Anterior cingulate activity during error and autonomic response
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 27:885-95. 2005
    ..These data highlight the role of ACC in psychophysiological aspects of error processing and suggest that an interface exists within ACC between cognitive and biobehavioral systems in the service of response adaptation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Mental stress and sudden cardiac death: asymmetric midbrain activity as a linking mechanism
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 128:75-85. 2005
    ..Our findings highlight a proximal brain basis for stress-induced cardiac arrhythmic vulnerability...
  9. ncbi request reprint Fear conditioning in humans: the influence of awareness and autonomic arousal on functional neuroanatomy
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, Institute of Neurology and Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 33:653-63. 2002
    ..The findings indicate that the expression of conditioning-related neural activity is modulated by both awareness and representations of bodily states of autonomic arousal...
  10. ncbi request reprint Activity in the human brain predicting differential heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 24:751-62. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Neural activity in the human brain relating to uncertainty and arousal during anticipation
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, 12 Queen Square, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 29:537-45. 2001
    ..Our findings highlight distinct contributions of cognitive uncertainty and autonomic arousal to anticipatory neural activity in prefrontal cortex...
  12. ncbi request reprint Levels of appraisal: a medial prefrontal role in high-level appraisal of emotional material
    Raffael Kalisch
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Functional Imaging Laboratory, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 30:1458-66. 2006
    ..Our data provide neurobiological evidence for a distinction between low-level and high-level appraisal mechanisms...
  13. pmc Inflammation causes mood changes through alterations in subgenual cingulate activity and mesolimbic connectivity
    Neil A Harrison
    Wellcome Trust, Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Biol Psychiatry 66:407-14. 2009
    ..Similarly in humans, therapeutic interferon-alpha induces clinical depression in a third of patients. Conversely, patients with depression also show elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines...
  14. pmc Neural origins of human sickness in interoceptive responses to inflammation
    Neil A Harrison
    Wellcome Trust, Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Biol Psychiatry 66:415-22. 2009
    ..Studies in rodents suggest an afferent interoceptive neural mechanism, although comparable data in humans are lacking...
  15. pmc A cortical potential reflecting cardiac function
    Marcus A Gray
    Functional Imaging Laboratory, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6818-23. 2007
    ..Our findings highlight the dynamic interaction of heart and brain in stress-induced cardiovascular morbidity...
  16. pmc Emotional and autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury explored using functional brain imaging
    Alessia Nicotra
    Autonomic Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, and Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK
    Brain 129:718-28. 2006
    ..Together these observations may account for motivational and affective sequelae of SCI in some individuals...
  17. pmc Imitating expressions: emotion-specific neural substrates in facial mimicry
    Tien Wen Lee
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 1:122-35. 2006
    ..Further, by entering metrics for facial muscular change into analysis of brain imaging data, we highlight shared and discrete neural substrates supporting affective, action and social consequences of somatomotor emotional expression...
  18. ncbi request reprint Changes in cerebral morphology consequent to peripheral autonomic denervation
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 18:908-16. 2003
    ....
  19. pmc Modulation of emotional appraisal by false physiological feedback during fMRI
    Marcus A Gray
    Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e546. 2007
    ..Moreover, anxiety states are proposed to arise from detection of mismatch between actual and anticipated states of physiological arousal. However, the neural underpinnings of these phenomena previously have not been examined...
  20. ncbi request reprint Anxiety reduction through detachment: subjective, physiological, and neural effects
    Raffael Kalisch
    University College London, UK
    J Cogn Neurosci 17:874-83. 2005
    ..Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we locate the potential site and source of this modulation of anticipatory anxiety in the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate and anterolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively...
  21. pmc Dynamic pupillary exchange engages brain regions encoding social salience
    Neil A Harrison
    University College London, London, UK
    Soc Neurosci 4:233-43. 2009
    ..Our data provide empirical evidence for an autonomically mediated extension of forward models of motor control into social interaction...
  22. pmc Pupillary contagion: central mechanisms engaged in sadness processing
    Neil A Harrison
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology and Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, UK
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 1:5-17. 2006
    ..These findings provide evidence that perception-action mechanisms extend to non-volitional operations of the autonomic nervous system...
  23. ncbi request reprint Changes in brain activity following sacral neuromodulation for urinary retention
    Ranan Dasgupta
    Department of Uro Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WCIN 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Urol 174:2268-72. 2005
    ..Therefore, we undertook a functional brain imaging study to determine how neuromodulation acts on brain centers involved in the representation and control of bladder function...
  24. pmc Controlling emotional expression: behavioral and neural correlates of nonimitative emotional responses
    Tien Wen Lee
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Cereb Cortex 18:104-13. 2008
    ..Our findings point to these regions as providing a putative neural substrate underpinning a crucial adaptive aspect of social/emotional behavior...
  25. pmc Peripheral inflammation is associated with altered substantia nigra activity and psychomotor slowing in humans
    Lena Brydon
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Neurology at University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 63:1022-9. 2008
    ..Systemic infections commonly cause sickness symptoms including psychomotor retardation. Inflammatory cytokines released during the innate immune response are implicated in the communication of peripheral inflammatory signals to the brain...
  26. pmc Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: behavioral and neural effects on encoding negative material
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Psychosom Med 69:17-22. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that the antidepressant action of VNS may emerge through corrective influences on 'negativity bias' in memory. We therefore examined the impact of VNS on emotional memory and its underlying brain activity...
  27. ncbi request reprint Influence of sympathetic autonomic arousal on cortical arousal: implications for a therapeutic behavioural intervention in epilepsy
    Yoko Nagai
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, Box 19, UCL, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Epilepsy Res 58:185-93. 2004
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate modulation of this arousal-related potential by a behavioural intervention, indicating a potential therapeutic use of arousal biofeedback using GSR in the management of treatment-resistant epilepsy...
  28. ncbi request reprint Brain activity during biofeedback relaxation: a functional neuroimaging investigation
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK
    Brain 124:1003-12. 2001
    ..The findings have potential implications for a mechanistic account of how therapeutic interventions, such as relaxation training in stress-related disorders, mediate their effects...
  29. ncbi request reprint Cognitive functioning in orthostatic hypotension due to pure autonomic failure
    Hannah C Heims
    Dept of Neuropsychology, Box 37, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Clin Auton Res 16:113-20. 2006
    ..However, a failure in integrated bodily arousal responses during cognitive behaviours may also contribute to some of the observed deficits...
  30. ncbi request reprint Cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenia determined through structural magnetic resonance imaging with optimized volumetric voxel-based morphometry
    Hema Ananth
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 159:1497-505. 2002
    ..The authors applied an unbiased technique to test for differences in cerebral morphometry between patients with schizophrenia and matched comparison subjects...
  31. ncbi request reprint Neural responses during anticipation of a primary taste reward
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, 12 Queen Square, WC1 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 33:815-26. 2002
    ..Apart from OFC, these regions were not activated by reward receipt. The findings indicate that when rewards are predictable, brain regions recruited during expectation are, in part, dissociable from areas responding to reward receipt...
  32. doi request reprint Sub-cortical and brainstem sites associated with chemo-stimulated increases in ventilation in humans
    Leanne C McKay
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK
    Neuroimage 49:2526-35. 2010
    ..The neuroanatomical structures identified provide evidence for the spontaneous control of breathing to be mediated by higher brain centres, as well as respiratory nuclei in the brainstem...
  33. pmc Fear recognition ability predicts differences in social cognitive and neural functioning in men
    Ben Corden
    University College London
    J Cogn Neurosci 18:889-97. 2006
    ..We suggest that important individual differences in social cognitive skills are expressed within the healthy male population, which appear to have a basis in a compromised neural system that underpins social information processing...
  34. ncbi request reprint Processing of observed pupil size modulates perception of sadness and predicts empathy
    Neil A Harrison
    Wellcome Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology and University College, London, England
    Emotion 7:724-9. 2007
    ..Together, these data demonstrate a central role of sadness processing in empathetic emotion and highlight the salience of implicit autonomic signals in affective communication...
  35. ncbi request reprint A patient with both Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome: clue to the genetics of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome?
    Mary M Robertson
    St Georges Hospital and Medical School, UK
    J Psychosom Res 61:365-8. 2006
    ....
  36. doi request reprint The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome-quality of life scale (GTS-QOL): development and validation
    A E Cavanna
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N3BG, UK
    Neurology 71:1410-6. 2008
    ..However, no patient-reported HR-QOL measures have been developed for this population...
  37. pmc Cerebral correlates of autonomic cardiovascular arousal: a functional neuroimaging investigation in humans
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology and Autonomic Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    J Physiol 523:259-70. 2000
    ....
  38. pmc Imaging informational conflict: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of numerical stroop
    J Tang
    University College London, UK
    J Cogn Neurosci 18:2049-62. 2006
    ..Conflict trials elicited greater activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right middle frontal gyri, and right superior frontal gyri. We postulate two sources to the conflict, namely, at cognitive and response levels...
  39. ncbi request reprint Brain mechanisms for mood congruent memory facilitation
    P A Lewis
    Functional Imaging Laboratory, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR, London
    Neuroimage 25:1214-23. 2005
    ..This pattern suggests that mood congruent facilitation occurs at the level of attempted recall rather than that of successful recollection...
  40. ncbi request reprint Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaries with sympathetic skin conductance level: a physiological account of a "default mode" of brain function
    Y Nagai
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 22:243-51. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Neural activity relating to generation and representation of galvanic skin conductance responses: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 20:3033-40. 2000
    ..We propose that this functional arrangement enables integration of adaptive bodily responses with ongoing emotional and attentional states of the organism...
  42. ncbi request reprint Brain activity relating to the contingent negative variation: an fMRI investigation
    Y Nagai
    Institute of Neurology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 21:1232-41. 2004
    ..Moreover, these data suggest a mechanistic model whereby thalamocortical interactions regulate CNV amplitude...
  43. pmc Neural correlates of processing valence and arousal in affective words
    P A Lewis
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Cereb Cortex 17:742-8. 2007
    ..In addition, our data support the physiological validity of descriptions of valence along independent axes or as absolute distance from neutral but fail to support the validity of descriptions of valence along a bipolar continuum...
  44. pmc Schizotypal personality traits in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
    A E Cavanna
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Acta Neurol Scand 116:385-91. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of schizotypal traits in GTS and to detail the relationship between schizotypy and comorbid psychopathology...
  45. doi request reprint Biofeedback treatment for tourette syndrome: a preliminary randomized controlled trial
    Yoko Nagai
    Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer Campus, Brighton, UK Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health National Health Service Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK St George s Hospital and Medical School, London, UK Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Cogn Behav Neurol 27:17-24. 2014
    ..To study the clinical effectiveness of biofeedback treatment in reducing tics in patients with Tourette syndrome...
  46. ncbi request reprint Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome
    Grainne M McAlonan
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Brain 125:1594-606. 2002
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Neuroanatomical basis for first- and second-order representations of bodily states
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nat Neurosci 4:207-12. 2001
    ..Our findings provide empirical support for a theory proposing a hierarchical representation of bodily states...
  48. ncbi request reprint Social and motivational functioning is not critically dependent on feedback of autonomic responses: neuropsychological evidence from patients with pure autonomic failure
    H C Heims
    Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Box 37, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuropsychologia 42:1979-88. 2004
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Catatonic signs in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
    Andrea E Cavanna
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N3BG, UK
    Cogn Behav Neurol 21:34-7. 2008
    ..Originally described in association with schizophrenia, catatonic signs have been reported in a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions...
  50. ncbi request reprint Affective neuroscience and psychiatry
    Neil A Harrison
    Br J Psychiatry 191:192-4. 2007
    ..By providing a coherent conceptual framework, affective neuroscience is increasingly able to provide a mechanistic explanatory understanding of current therapies and is driving the development of novel therapeutic approaches...
  51. ncbi request reprint Regret and its avoidance: a neuroimaging study of choice behavior
    Giorgio Coricelli
    Neuropsychology Group, Institut des Sciences Cognitives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 67 Boulevard Pinel 69675, Bron, France
    Nat Neurosci 8:1255-62. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that medial orbitofrontal cortex modulates the gain of adaptive emotions in a manner that may provide a substrate for the influence of high-level emotions on decision making...
  52. ncbi request reprint Face-selective and auditory neurons in the primate orbitofrontal cortex
    Edmund T Rolls
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3UD, England
    Exp Brain Res 170:74-87. 2006
    ..The findings are relevant to understanding the functions of the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex in normal behaviour, and to understanding the effects of damage to this region in humans...
  53. doi request reprint Autonomic contributions to empathy: evidence from patients with primary autonomic failure
    Bina Chauhan
    Royal Free and University College London Medical School UCL, Gower Street London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Auton Neurosci 140:96-100. 2008
    ..These early observations provide preliminary evidence for a direct contribution of autonomic responsivity to the 'higher-order' social cognitive process of empathy, and may inform the dynamics of supportive care...
  54. ncbi request reprint Blood pressure, attention and cognition: drivers and air traffic controllers
    Hugo D Critchley
    Clin Auton Res 13:399-401. 2003
  55. ncbi request reprint Impaired olfactory identification in Asperger's syndrome
    Yusuke Suzuki
    Clinical Age Research Unit, Department of Health Care of Elderly, Guy s, King s, and St Thomas School of Medicine, King s College London, UK
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 15:105-7. 2003
    ..Relative to control subjects, Asperger's syndrome subjects were not impaired at odor detection but were significantly impaired at olfactory identification...
  56. pmc Interoceptive basis to craving
    Marcus A Gray
    Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex Falmer Campus, Brighton BN1 6PX, United Kingdom
    Neuron 54:183-6. 2007
    ..demonstrated that smoking addiction is disrupted by damage to the insula cortex. This suggests that brain circuits mediating interoception also contribute to craving states...
  57. ncbi request reprint Deliberate self-harm by insertion of foreign bodies into the forearm
    William M Wraight
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Queen Victoria Hospital, Holtye Road, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 3DZ, UK
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 61:700-3. 2008
    ..We discuss the management considerations of each case and emphasise the importance of actively addressing the underlying psychiatric problems for all instances of deliberate self-harm...
  58. ncbi request reprint Asperger syndrome: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of brain
    Declan G M Murphy
    Department of Psychological Medicine, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:885-91. 2002
    ..Nobody has examined the relationship between abnormalities in the frontal and parietal lobes and clinical symptoms in people with AS...