Philip J Cowen

Summary

Affiliation: University of Oxford
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Efficacy, safety and tolerability of duloxetine 60 mg once daily in major depression
    Philip J Cowen
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Curr Med Res Opin 21:345-56. 2005
  2. doi request reprint Short-term antidepressant treatment modulates amygdala response to happy faces
    Ray Norbury
    Psychopharmacology Research Unit PPRU, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Neurosciences Building, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 206:197-204. 2009
  3. doi request reprint Effect of acute antidepressant administration on negative affective bias in depressed patients
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 166:1178-84. 2009
  4. ncbi request reprint Impaired emotional categorisation in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Neuropsychologia 45:2975-80. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Increased positive versus negative affective perception and memory in healthy volunteers following selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1256-63. 2004
  6. doi request reprint Affective modulation of anterior cingulate cortex in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 192:356-61. 2008
  7. pmc Diminished neural processing of aversive and rewarding stimuli during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment
    Ciara McCabe
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 67:439-45. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Short-term serotonergic but not noradrenergic antidepressant administration reduces attentional vigilance to threat in healthy volunteers
    Susannah E Murphy
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:169-79. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Frontolimbic responses to emotional faces in young people at familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Affect Disord 130:127-32. 2011
  10. doi request reprint Elevated cortical glutamate in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Matthew J Taylor
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14:255-9. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Efficacy, safety and tolerability of duloxetine 60 mg once daily in major depression
    Philip J Cowen
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Curr Med Res Opin 21:345-56. 2005
    ..Duloxetine is a dual reuptake inhibitor of 5-HT and NA that has recently been licensed in the USA for the treatment of MDD...
  2. doi request reprint Short-term antidepressant treatment modulates amygdala response to happy faces
    Ray Norbury
    Psychopharmacology Research Unit PPRU, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Neurosciences Building, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 206:197-204. 2009
    ..These early effects of antidepressants may be an important component in the therapeutic effects of antidepressant treatment in patients with depression and anxiety...
  3. doi request reprint Effect of acute antidepressant administration on negative affective bias in depressed patients
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 166:1178-84. 2009
    ..The authors investigated whether this effect is apparent in depressed patients early in treatment, prior to changes in mood and symptoms...
  4. ncbi request reprint Impaired emotional categorisation in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Neuropsychologia 45:2975-80. 2007
    ..However, impairment in emotional categorization could identify a high-risk phenotype and may indicate that people at genetic risk of depression have difficulty in using "mood as information"...
  5. ncbi request reprint Increased positive versus negative affective perception and memory in healthy volunteers following selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 161:1256-63. 2004
    ..The present study therefore assessed the actions of repeated antidepressant administration on perception and memory for positive and negative emotional information in healthy volunteers...
  6. doi request reprint Affective modulation of anterior cingulate cortex in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 192:356-61. 2008
    ..We previously found that children of parents with depression showed impaired performance on a task of emotional categorisation...
  7. pmc Diminished neural processing of aversive and rewarding stimuli during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment
    Ciara McCabe
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 67:439-45. 2010
    ..There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans...
  8. doi request reprint Short-term serotonergic but not noradrenergic antidepressant administration reduces attentional vigilance to threat in healthy volunteers
    Susannah E Murphy
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:169-79. 2009
    ..Future studies are needed to clarify the neural mechanisms through which these effects on threat processing are mediated...
  9. doi request reprint Frontolimbic responses to emotional faces in young people at familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Affect Disord 130:127-32. 2011
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine whether related neural abnormalities might be present in young people at increased familial risk of depression but with no personal history of illness...
  10. doi request reprint Elevated cortical glutamate in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Matthew J Taylor
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14:255-9. 2011
    ..5, p=0.02). These findings suggest that abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission may reflect a trait marker of vulnerability to depression...
  11. doi request reprint A single dose of mirtazapine modulates neural responses to emotional faces in healthy people
    Nancy B Rawlings
    Psychopharmacology and Emotion Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Neurosciences Building, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:625-34. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of mirtazapine on the neural processing of emotional faces in healthy volunteers...
  12. ncbi request reprint Why do antidepressants take so long to work? A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action
    Catherine J Harmer
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 195:102-8. 2009
    ..The neuropharmacological actions of antidepressants are well characterised but our understanding of how these changes translate into improved mood are still emerging...
  13. doi request reprint Effects of 7 days of treatment with the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, on emotional processing
    Jamie Horder
    University Department of Psychiatry, Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 26:125-32. 2012
    ..Investigating such effects could be useful in detecting adverse psychiatric effects of novel treatments...
  14. doi request reprint Agomelatine facilitates positive versus negative affective processing in healthy volunteer models
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 25:1159-67. 2011
    ..The study highlights the potential value of volunteer models in drug development for screening and profiling of novel antidepressants...
  15. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drug treatment modifies the neural processing of nonconscious threat cues
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 59:816-20. 2006
    ..Emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety have been associated with hyperactivity of the amygdala, but it is unknown whether antidepressant treatment directly affects amygdala responses to emotionally significant information...
  16. doi request reprint Acute administration of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant impairs positive affective memory in healthy volunteers
    Jamie Horder
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:85-91. 2009
    ..The anti-obesity drug and cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, is associated with significant rates of depression and anxiety in clinical use...
  17. pmc Normal glutamate but elevated myo-inositol in anterior cingulate cortex in recovered depressed patients
    Matthew J Taylor
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Affect Disord 119:186-9. 2009
    ..Frontal Glx levels appear to be normalised after recovery from depression, but it is not known if this composite measure masks ongoing differences in glutamate or glutamine alone...
  18. ncbi request reprint Emotional bias and waking salivary cortisol in relatives of patients with major depression
    Marisa Le Masurier
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychol Med 37:403-10. 2007
    ..We also measured waking salivary cortisol, as the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to be impaired in depressive disorder...
  19. ncbi request reprint Reduction in occipital cortex gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations in medication-free recovered unipolar depressed and bipolar subjects
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 61:806-12. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to use MRS to determine whether changes in GABA and Glu levels were present in patients with mood disorders who had recovered and were no longer taking medication...
  20. pmc The D2 antagonist sulpiride modulates the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli in healthy volunteers
    Ciara McCabe
    Neuroscience Building, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 217:271-8. 2011
    ..We have developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model which permits examination of the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli...
  21. pmc 'It's the way that you look at it'--a cognitive neuropsychological account of SSRI action in depression
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20120407. 2013
    ..This suggests intriguing links between the effect of SSRIs to promote synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and their ability to remediate negative emotional biases in depressed patients...
  22. doi request reprint NK1 receptor antagonism and the neural processing of emotional information in healthy volunteers
    Ciara McCabe
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:1261-74. 2009
    ..Such findings confirm animal studies which support a role for NK1 receptors in emotion. Such an approach may be useful in understanding the effects of novel drug treatments prior to full-scale clinical trials...
  23. ncbi request reprint Lack of effect of tyrosine depletion on mood in recovered depressed women
    Sarah F B McTavish
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:786-91. 2005
    ..However ratings of depression were unaffected, suggesting that disruption of dopaminergic function by this manipulation does not induce a lowering of mood in individuals vulnerable to depression...
  24. ncbi request reprint 5HT(3) antagonism abolishes the emotion potentiated startle effect in humans
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, and University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:18-24. 2006
    ..The serotonergic system has been implicated in emotional processing in animals and humans. Although the contribution of different receptor subtypes has been hypothesised, there have been few direct tests of this in human subjects...
  25. ncbi request reprint Effects of pramipexole on the processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli
    Ciara McCabe
    Neuroscience Building, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 228:283-90. 2013
    ..Investigation of single doses of pramipexole in healthy participants in reward-based learning tasks has shown inhibition of the neural processing of reward, presumptively through stimulation of dopamine autoreceptors...
  26. pmc Using attentional bias modification as a cognitive vaccine against depression
    Michael Browning
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 72:572-9. 2012
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Neural processing of reward and punishment in young people at increased familial risk of depression
    Ciara McCabe
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 72:588-94. 2012
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine whether similar abnormalities might be present in young people at increased familial risk of depression but with no personal history of mood disorder...
  28. ncbi request reprint Single dose antidepressant administration modulates the neural processing of self-referent personality trait words
    Kamilla Miskowiak
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Neuroimage 37:904-11. 2007
    ..These results support the hypothesis that antidepressants have early effects on the neural processing of emotional material which may be important in their therapeutic actions...
  29. doi request reprint Reduced neural response to reward following 7 days treatment with the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant in healthy volunteers
    Jamie Horder
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 13:1103-13. 2010
    ..fMRI may be a useful method of screening novel agents for unwanted effects on reward and associated clinical adverse reactions...
  30. ncbi request reprint Olanzapine increases slow wave sleep and sleep continuity in SSRI-resistant depressed patients
    Ann L Sharpley
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:450-4. 2005
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine if the addition of olanzapine to SSRI treatment in depressed patients produced similar effects on sleep...
  31. pmc Effect of a single dose of citalopram on amygdala response to emotional faces
    Susannah E Murphy
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX
    Br J Psychiatry 194:535-40. 2009
    ..However, recent reports suggest they may have a much earlier therapeutic onset. A reduction in amygdala responsivity has been implicated in the therapeutic action of SSRIs...
  32. ncbi request reprint Increased brain GABA concentrations following acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 161:368-70. 2004
    ..The authors used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the effect of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram on cortical levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)...
  33. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the effects of citalopram and escitalopram on 5-Ht-mediated neuroendocrine responses
    Haitham S Nadeem
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1699-703. 2004
    ..Plasma and salivary cortisol responses after citalopram but not escitalopram correlated significantly. The present study does not support an enhanced effect of escitalopram on 5-HT-mediated neuroendocrine responses...
  34. ncbi request reprint Increased waking salivary cortisol levels in young people at familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 164:617-21. 2007
    ..The present study sought to answer this question by measuring waking salivary cortisol levels in young people at familial risk of depression but with no personal history of mood disorder...
  35. ncbi request reprint Normalization of enhanced fear recognition by acute SSRI treatment in subjects with a previous history of depression
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford
    Am J Psychiatry 161:166-8. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182:54-7. 2005
    ..Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based samples have been inconclusive...
  37. pmc Lack of effect of ketamine on cortical glutamate and glutamine in healthy volunteers: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
    Matthew J Taylor
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 26:733-7. 2012
    ..70). This study suggests that the gradual infusion of low-dose ketamine in antidepressant doses not cause changes in cortical glutamate or glutamine in healthy volunteers that are visible by proton MRS...
  38. doi request reprint Efficacy markers in depression
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 25:1148-58. 2011
    ..Greater validation is required to assess whether these effects are an obligatory component of effective treatment of depression and whether use of these models can improve the accuracy of go/no-go decisions in drug development...
  39. pmc Neural representation of reward in recovered depressed patients
    Ciara McCabe
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:667-77. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that people at risk of depression by virtue of a personal history of the illness would show impaired neural responses to a primary rewarding stimulus...
  40. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan supplementation induces a positive bias in the processing of emotional material in healthy female volunteers
    Susannah E Murphy
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 187:121-30. 2006
    ..However, evidence of its efficacy as the primary treatment for depression is limited, and the direct action of TRP on the symptoms of depression and anxiety has not been well-characterised...
  41. doi request reprint Cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in young people at familial risk of depression
    Zola N Mannie
    Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 203:18-23. 2013
    ..Depression is associated with increased risk of several general medical conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The nature of the association is complex and may involve bidirectional causation or a common pathophysiology...
  42. ncbi request reprint Increase in concentration of waking salivary cortisol in recovered patients with depression
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    University Department of Psyhiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Am J Psychiatry 160:1890-1. 2003
    ..An increase in salivary cortisol levels after waking provides a simple, dynamic measure of HPA axis activity. The authors measured this increase in recovered depressed patients and in a healthy comparison group...
  43. ncbi request reprint Short-term antidepressant treatment and facial processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Ray Norbury
    University of Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, MRS Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 190:531-2. 2007
    ..Our results show that reboxetine modulates the neural substrates of emotional processing, highlighting a mechanism by which drug treatment could normalise negative bias in depression and anxiety...
  44. doi request reprint Diminished brain 5-HT transporter binding in major depression: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]DASB
    Sudhakar Selvaraj
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 213:555-62. 2011
    ..In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found no difference in brain 5-HTT binding between unmedicated recovered depressed patients and healthy controls...
  45. ncbi request reprint Serotonin and depression: pathophysiological mechanism or marketing myth?
    Philip J Cowen
    Neurosciences Building, Warneford Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 29:433-6. 2008
    ..Clarification of the mechanism of this effect will enable an understanding of how impaired 5-HT activity contributes to the subjective experience of depression...
  46. ncbi request reprint Cortical glutathione levels in young people with bipolar disorder: a pilot study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Beata R Godlewska
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231:327-32. 2014
    ..Glutathione (GSH) is a key scavenger for cellular free radicals, and patients with bipolar disorder may have lowered GSH levels in plasma and in post-mortem brain tissue...
  47. ncbi request reprint Toward a neuropsychological theory of antidepressant drug action: increase in positive emotional bias after potentiation of norepinephrine activity
    Catherine J Harmer
    Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:990-2. 2003
    ..Cognitive theories suggest that biases in information processing lead depressed patients to make unrealistically negative judgments about themselves and the world...
  48. ncbi request reprint Methamphetamine activates reward circuitry in drug naïve human subjects
    Birgit A Vollm
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1715-22. 2004
    ..Our data also support recent hypotheses suggesting a central role for the orbitofrontal cortex in drug reinforcement and the development of addiction...
  49. ncbi request reprint Risperidone augmentation decreases rapid eye movement sleep and decreases wake in treatment-resistant depressed patients
    Ann L Sharpley
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 64:192-6. 2003
    ..This study aimed to assess whether risperidone produced typical antidepressant-like effects in the polysomnogram of healthy subjects and in depressed patients unresponsive to antidepressant medication...
  50. ncbi request reprint A dose-finding study on the effects of branch chain amino acids on surrogate markers of brain dopamine function
    Harm J Gijsman
    University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 160:192-7. 2002
    ..The amino acid mixture we tested previously is unpalatable, whereas mixtures containing only branch chain amino acids can be made more palatable. However, the effects of such mixtures on dopamine function in humans have not been studied...
  51. ncbi request reprint Lack of effect of a single dose of hydrocortisone on serotonin(1A) receptors in recovered depressed patients measured by positron emission tomography with [11C]WAY-100635
    Zubin Bhagwagar
    Clinical Sciences Centre Medical Research Council, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 54:890-5. 2003
    ..We tested this hypothesis by studying the effect of acute administration of hydrocortisone on 5-HT(1A) receptor binding potential (BP) in subjects recovered from depression...
  52. ncbi request reprint Validation of a tracer kinetic model for the quantification of 5-HT(2A) receptors in human brain with [(11)C]MDL 100,907
    Rainer Hinz
    Hammersmith Imanet Ltd, London, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:161-72. 2007
    ..This study confirmed the use of an arterial input kinetic model for the quantification of 5-HT(2A) receptor binding with [(11)C]MDL 100,907 and the use of the cerebellum as a reference region for the free and nonspecific binding...
  53. ncbi request reprint Effects of alpha-lactalbumin on emotional processing in healthy women
    Helen Scrutton
    University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:519-24. 2007
    ..Further studies in subjects more vulnerable to stress are needed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of alpha-lactalbumin in clinical populations...