Tim J Cole

Summary

Affiliation: University College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi Sympercents: symmetric percentage differences on the 100 log(e) scale simplify the presentation of log transformed data
    T J Cole
    Department of Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Stat Med 19:3109-25. 2000
  2. pmc SITAR--a useful instrument for growth curve analysis
    Tim J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 39:1558-66. 2010
  3. pmc Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood
    T J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, U K
    Stat Med 28:880-98. 2009
  4. pmc Child body mass index in four cities of East China compared to Western references
    Huiqi Pan
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 36:98-109. 2009
  5. pmc Association between common variation at the FTO locus and changes in body mass index from infancy to late childhood: the complex nature of genetic association through growth and development
    Ulla Sovio
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 7:e1001307. 2011
  6. pmc Assessing the efficacy of the Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Programme (HELP) compared with enhanced standard care of the obese adolescent in the community: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Deborah Christie
    General and Adolescent Paediatrics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    Trials 12:242. 2011
  7. pmc Designing the new UK-WHO growth charts to enhance assessment of growth around birth
    Tim J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 97:F219-22. 2012
  8. ncbi Early causes of child obesity and implications for prevention
    T J Cole
    UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Acta Paediatr Suppl 96:2-4. 2007
  9. ncbi The Oxford Brookes basal metabolic rate database--a reanalysis
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Public Health Nutr 8:1202-12. 2005
  10. ncbi The secular trend in human physical growth: a biological view
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Econ Hum Biol 1:161-8. 2003

Detail Information

Publications143 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Sympercents: symmetric percentage differences on the 100 log(e) scale simplify the presentation of log transformed data
    T J Cole
    Department of Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Stat Med 19:3109-25. 2000
    ..The term sympercent or s% is proposed for them. Sympercents should improve the presentation of log transformed data and lead to a wider understanding of the natural log transformation...
  2. pmc SITAR--a useful instrument for growth curve analysis
    Tim J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 39:1558-66. 2010
    ..Such data can be summarized with individual Preece-Baines (PB) curves, and their five parameters then related to earlier exposures or later outcomes. But it involves fitting many curves...
  3. pmc Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood
    T J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, U K
    Stat Med 28:880-98. 2009
    ..FEV(1) and FVC are close to normally distributed, while FEV(1)/FVC is appreciably skew to the left. GAMLSS is a powerful technique for the construction of such references, which should be useful in clinical medicine...
  4. pmc Child body mass index in four cities of East China compared to Western references
    Huiqi Pan
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 36:98-109. 2009
    ..The rising trends in child obesity worldwide are poorly documented in China...
  5. pmc Association between common variation at the FTO locus and changes in body mass index from infancy to late childhood: the complex nature of genetic association through growth and development
    Ulla Sovio
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 7:e1001307. 2011
    ..The associated shifts in developmental timing have clinical importance with respect to known relationships between AR and both later-life BMI and metabolic disease risk...
  6. pmc Assessing the efficacy of the Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Programme (HELP) compared with enhanced standard care of the obese adolescent in the community: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Deborah Christie
    General and Adolescent Paediatrics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    Trials 12:242. 2011
    ..There is widespread need for paediatric lifestyle programmes as change may be easier to accomplish in childhood than later in life...
  7. pmc Designing the new UK-WHO growth charts to enhance assessment of growth around birth
    Tim J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 97:F219-22. 2012
    ..Users will need training to use the charts, but this should improve overall understanding and the use of charts...
  8. ncbi Early causes of child obesity and implications for prevention
    T J Cole
    UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Acta Paediatr Suppl 96:2-4. 2007
    ..Of the conclusions drawn, one involves a futuristic solution to child obesity where neonates are given an infusion of the hormone leptin to reset their appetite regulation...
  9. ncbi The Oxford Brookes basal metabolic rate database--a reanalysis
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Public Health Nutr 8:1202-12. 2005
    ..To produce prediction equations for basal metabolic rate (BMR) derived from weight and height covering the age range from birth to old age...
  10. ncbi The secular trend in human physical growth: a biological view
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Econ Hum Biol 1:161-8. 2003
    ..The height trend has lasted for 150 years or more, i.e. for six generations, because the rate of catch-up from one generation to the next is biologically constrained to avoid the cost of too rapid catch-up...
  11. pmc Teaching dogs new tricks
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 329:715. 2004
  12. doi The PREM score: a graphical tool for predicting survival in very preterm births
    T J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 95:F14-9. 2010
    ..To develop a tool for predicting survival to term in babies born more than 8 weeks early using only information available at or before birth...
  13. ncbi A chart to link child centiles of body mass index, weight and height
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 56:1194-9. 2002
    ..However, this assessment has not been validated statistically, and it differs from the body mass index (BMI) centile...
  14. ncbi Weight reference charts for British long-term breastfed infants
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Acta Paediatr 91:1296-300. 2002
    ..To produce a modification of the British 1990 weight reference reflecting the growth of long-term breastfed infants...
  15. pmc Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    BMC Pediatr 4:6. 2004
    ..The aim here is to clarify the connection between the age at rebound and the corresponding pattern of body mass index change, in centile terms, so as to better understand its ability to predict later fatness...
  16. ncbi Modeling postnatal exposures and their interactions with birth size
    Tim J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, University College, London, UK
    J Nutr 134:201-4. 2004
    ..This suggests a fetal programming effect, with children who were relatively long at birth having a more sensitive relationship between blood pressure and weight at age 15. Whether this is a good or a bad thing is not immediately clear...
  17. pmc Growth hormone (GH) provocation tests and the response to GH treatment in GH deficiency
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, University College, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child 89:1024-7. 2004
    ..To identify factors, particularly the growth hormone (GH) provocation test result, affecting growth response to GH treatment in children with GH deficiency (GHD)...
  18. doi Revised birth centiles for weight, length and head circumference in the UK-WHO growth charts
    Tim J Cole
    Medical Statistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 38:7-11. 2011
    ..The pre-existing British 1990 reference birth centiles, used in the UK since 1995, had been biased by the inclusion of post-natal data...
  19. ncbi Nonlinear growth generates age changes in the moments of the frequency distribution: the example of height in puberty
    Tim J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Biostatistics 9:159-71. 2008
    ..A nonlinear growth process where subjects grow at different rates, such as in puberty, generates cyclical changes in the higher moments of the frequency distribution...
  20. ncbi The international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children: statistical considerations
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Food Nutr Bull 27:S237-43. 2006
    ....
  21. ncbi Centiles of body mass index for Dutch children aged 0-20 years in 1980--a baseline to assess recent trends in obesity
    T J Cole
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 26:303-8. 1999
    ..To document the distribution of body mass index (BMI) in Holland in 1980 when obesity was uncommon...
  22. pmc A simple chart to identify non-familial short stature
    T J Cole
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 82:173-6. 2000
    ..To develop a chart to identify non-familial short stature...
  23. doi A chart to predict adult height from a child's current height
    Tim J Cole
    UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 38:662-8. 2011
    ..A child's adult height is commonly predicted using their target height, based on mid-parent height. However, if no growth disorder is suspected, the child's current height is a far better predictor of their adult height...
  24. ncbi Galton's midparent height revisited
    T J Cole
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 27:401-5. 2000
    ..It demonstrates that midparent height SDS obtained by averaging the height SDSs of the two parents is a valid alternative to conventional midparent height...
  25. pmc Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey
    T J Cole
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 320:1240-3. 2000
    ..To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points...
  26. pmc Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey
    Tim J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 335:194. 2007
    ..To determine cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents, based on body mass index at age 18 years...
  27. ncbi Secular trends in growth
    T J Cole
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 59:317-24. 2000
    ..The timing of menarche is also likely to be determined by some growth factor operating near the time of birth, which also affects later weight, but not height...
  28. doi Does primary immunisation status predict MMR uptake?
    A Pearce
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child 94:49-51. 2009
    ..To investigate the relationship between primary immunisation status and MMR uptake...
  29. doi Age-variability in body shape associated with excess weight: the UK National Sizing Survey
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:435-41. 2008
    ..The health risks of obesity are disproportionately due to central abdominal adiposity; however, the extent to which age is associated with the body shape of obese adults is not known...
  30. doi Nutrition in infancy and long-term risk of obesity: evidence from 2 randomized controlled trials
    Atul Singhal
    Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:1133-44. 2010
    ..Growth acceleration as a consequence of relative overnutrition in infancy has been suggested to increase the risk of later obesity. However, few studies have investigated this association by using an experimental study design...
  31. pmc Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and use of single antigen vaccines in a contemporary UK cohort: prospective cohort study
    Anna Pearce
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 336:754-7. 2008
    ..To estimate uptake of the combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and single antigen vaccines and explore factors associated with uptake and reasons for not using MMR...
  32. ncbi Programming of lean body mass: a link between birth weight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease?
    Atul Singhal
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:726-30. 2003
    ..Programming of more lean tissue rather than fat mass by a high birth weight might explain this paradox and also explain the association of birth weight with later body mass index. This concept has been inadequately tested...
  33. doi Pediatric reference data for lean tissue properties: density and hydration from age 5 to 20 y
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:610-8. 2010
    ..The accuracy of these techniques depends on the validity of age- and sex-specific constant values for lean tissue hydration or density. Empirical data on these constants, and their variability between individuals, are lacking...
  34. doi Perceived and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment and overweight in preschool children and their mothers
    Summer Sherburne Hawkins
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Int J Pediatr Obes 4:183-92. 2009
    ..The secondary aim was to assess whether moving residence confounded these relationships...
  35. ncbi Is slower early growth beneficial for long-term cardiovascular health?
    Atul Singhal
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford St, London, UK, WC1N 1EH
    Circulation 109:1108-13. 2004
    ..To test this hypothesis in humans, we measured flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD) in a population subject to slower early growth and in healthy controls...
  36. ncbi Influence of leptin on arterial distensibility: a novel link between obesity and cardiovascular disease?
    Atul Singhal
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Circulation 106:1919-24. 2002
    ..Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high leptin concentrations are associated with lower arterial distensibility, an index of circulatory function relevant to the atherosclerotic process...
  37. pmc Prevalence of wasting among under 6-month-old infants in developing countries and implications of new case definitions using WHO growth standards: a secondary data analysis
    Marko Kerac
    Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child 96:1008-13. 2011
    ..To determine wasting prevalence among infants aged under 6 months and describe the effects of new case definitions based on WHO growth standards...
  38. ncbi Differential parental weight and height contributions to offspring birthweight and weight gain in infancy
    Lucy J Griffiths
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 36:104-7. 2007
    ..The differential contributions of the mother's and father's height and weight to birthweight, or weight gain in infancy, remain unclear and were examined using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study...
  39. ncbi Infant nutrition and stereoacuity at age 4-6 y
    Atul Singhal
    Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 85:152-9. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi Validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis in adolescents across different ethnic groups
    Dalia Haroun
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:1252-9. 2010
    ..We found significant variability in BC between ethnic groups that was not reflected by BMI. Manufacturers' equations are unsuitable for predicting BC in multi-ethnic populations, and our new equations are recommended...
  41. ncbi British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood
    T J Cole
    MRC Dunn Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK
    Stat Med 17:407-29. 1998
    ..The ability to express anthropometry as SDS greatly simplifies growth assessment...
  42. ncbi An investigation of ethnic differences in bone mineral, hip axis length, calcium metabolism and bone turnover between West African and Caucasian adults living in the United Kingdom
    B Dibba
    Medical Research Council Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 26:229-42. 1999
    ..This study revealed few ethnic differences that could account for the disparity in osteoporotic fracture rates between Africans and Caucasians, with the possible exception of anatomical differences in the hip...
  43. ncbi Evaluation of the novel Tanita body-fat analyser to measure body composition by comparison with a four-compartment model
    S A Jebb
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK
    Br J Nutr 83:115-22. 2000
    ..3% for men and 3.1% for women. This demonstrates that the practical simplicity of the novel Tanita method is not associated with a clinically significant decrement in performance relative to a traditional impedance device...
  44. doi Methodological approaches to optimize reproducibility and power in clinical studies of flow-mediated dilation
    Ann E Donald
    Vascular Physiology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    J Am Coll Cardiol 51:1959-64. 2008
    ..Our aim was to determine reproducibility of the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response profile, and discriminatory ability of the components...
  45. ncbi Prematurity and reduced body fatness at 8-12 y of age
    Mary S Fewtrell
    Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:436-40. 2004
    ..Children born preterm remain shorter and lighter than their term-born peers during childhood, but it is unclear whether the size difference is associated with altered body composition...
  46. ncbi Low nutrient intake and early growth for later insulin resistance in adolescents born preterm
    Atul Singhal
    The MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Lancet 361:1089-97. 2003
    ....
  47. ncbi Promotion of faster weight gain in infants born small for gestational age: is there an adverse effect on later blood pressure?
    Atul Singhal
    Medical Research Council Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford St, London, UK
    Circulation 115:213-20. 2007
    ..We report the long-term impact of growth promotion in term infants born small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile)...
  48. ncbi What is the best measure of adiposity change in growing children: BMI, BMI %, BMI z-score or BMI centile?
    T J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 59:419-25. 2005
    ..However, change can be measured in several ways: raw (kg/m2) units, percentage, z-scores or centiles. The suitability of the different measures is not known...
  49. ncbi Adjustment of fat-free mass and fat mass for height in children aged 8 y
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:947-52. 2002
    ..To explore the relationships between height and (a) fat-free mass (FFM) and (b) fat mass (FM) in children in order to determine the optimum means of adjusting body composition for height...
  50. doi Spirometry centile charts for young Caucasian children: the Asthma UK Collaborative Initiative
    Sanja Stanojevic
    Portex Unit, Respiratory Physiology and Medicine, UCL, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:547-52. 2009
    ....
  51. pmc Reference ranges for spirometry across all ages: a new approach
    Sanja Stanojevic
    Portex Respiratory Physiology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:253-60. 2008
    ....
  52. pmc Development of adiposity in adolescence: five year longitudinal study of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of young people in Britain
    Jane Wardle
    Cancer Research UK Health Behaviour Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
    BMJ 332:1130-5. 2006
    ..To examine the developmental trajectory of obesity in adolescence in relation to sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status...
  53. ncbi BMI compared with 3-dimensional body shape: the UK National Sizing Survey
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre and the Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 85:419-25. 2007
    ..Three-dimensional (3-D) body scanning provides high-quality digital information about shape...
  54. doi Examining smoking behaviours among parents from the UK Millennium Cohort Study after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland
    Summer Sherburne Hawkins
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Tob Control 20:112-8. 2011
    ..To investigate parental smoking behaviours between England and Scotland after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland came into effect in 2006 and examine inequalities in maternal smoking behaviours between countries...
  55. ncbi Is infant growth changing?
    A R Tate
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 30:1094-6. 2006
    ..There was very little difference in weight gain between white English Millennium cohort infants and the earlier cohort, suggesting that the current epidemic of childhood obesity starts after 9 months of age...
  56. ncbi The contribution of fat and fat-free tissue to body mass index in contemporary children and the reference child
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:1323-8. 2002
    ..However, BMI does not measure fat directly, and its relationship with body fatness is not necessarily stable over time...
  57. doi Birth weight and longitudinal growth in infants born below 32 weeks' gestation: a UK population study
    Tim J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 99:F34-40. 2014
    ..To describe birth weight and postnatal weight gain in a contemporaneous population of babies born <32 weeks' gestation, using routinely captured electronic clinical data...
  58. pmc Influence of moving to the UK on maternal health behaviours: prospective cohort study
    Summer Sherburne Hawkins
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 336:1052-5. 2008
    ....
  59. ncbi The role of growth hormone in determining birth size and early postnatal growth, using congenital growth hormone deficiency (GHD) as a model
    Ameeta Mehta
    London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63:223-31. 2005
    ..We have assessed the effects of CGHD on birth size and early postnatal growth, and the further impact of the presence of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline brain defects on these parameters...
  60. ncbi Back pain and obesity in the 1958 British birth cohort. cause or effect?
    J K Lake
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK
    J Clin Epidemiol 53:245-50. 2000
    ..78). No significant relationships were found for men. The risk of pain onset among women was evident in relation to BMI at baseline (age 23) and cannot therefore be explained by an effect of back pain on adiposity...
  61. ncbi Cholesterol metabolism in 8 to 12-year-old children born preterm or at term
    M Mortaz
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, King s College London, London, UK
    Acta Paediatr 92:525-30. 2003
    ..Studies in animals have indicated that cholesterol metabolism is susceptible to manipulation by diet and growth in early life. In humans, low birthweight has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease...
  62. ncbi Body fat reference curves for children
    H D McCarthy
    Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 30:598-602. 2006
    ..To refine the diagnosis of childhood obesity by creating new sex-specific centile curves for body fat and to base these references on a simple and affordable method that could be widely adopted in clinical practice and surveys...
  63. ncbi Stunting, adiposity, and the individual-level "dual burden" among urban lowland and rural highland peruvian children
    Emma Pomeroy
    Newnham College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom Division of Biological Anthropology, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Biol 26:481-90. 2014
    ....
  64. doi Associations of economic and gender inequality with global obesity prevalence: understanding the female excess
    Jonathan C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Soc Sci Med 75:482-90. 2012
    ..These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the women themselves and for their offspring...
  65. ncbi Factors affecting a mother's recall of her baby's birth weight
    A Rosemary Tate
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 34:688-95. 2005
    ..Parental permission to link babies to their birth registration data provided the opportunity to investigate factors affecting accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and to determine possible causes of error...
  66. doi Insufficient evidence to support separate BMI definitions for obesity in children and adolescents from south Asian ethnic groups in the UK
    R M Viner
    General and Adolescent Paediatrics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 34:656-8. 2010
    ....
  67. ncbi Breastmilk feeding and lipoprotein profile in adolescents born preterm: follow-up of a prospective randomised study
    Atul Singhal
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Lancet 363:1571-8. 2004
    ..We tested the hypothesis that breastmilk feeding benefits the lipoprotein profile in adolescents born preterm, in whom randomisation to different diets at birth is feasible...
  68. doi Effects of current size, postnatal growth, and birth size on blood pressure in early childhood
    Peter C Hindmarsh
    UCL Institute of Child Health, Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, 30 Guilford St, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    Pediatrics 126:e1507-13. 2010
    ..In a prospective study, we investigated the impact of early growth on blood pressure at 3 years of age...
  69. ncbi Television viewing in early childhood predicts adult body mass index
    Russell M Viner
    Department of Paediatrics, Royal Free and University College Medical School, and the Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    J Pediatr 147:429-35. 2005
    ..To examine the effects of duration, timing and type of television (TV) viewing at age 5 years on body mass index (BMI) in adult life...
  70. ncbi Geographical variations in nutrition-related vascular risk factors in the UK: National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over
    C J Bates
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
    J Nutr Health Aging 5:220-5. 2001
    ..There is a strong north-south gradient of vascular disease in Britain, whose aetiology is not fully understood...
  71. ncbi Relationship between alcohol and nutrient intakes and blood status indices of older people living in the UK: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over, 1994/5
    C M Walmsley
    MRC Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Public Health Nutr 1:157-67. 1998
    ..To examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and a range of nutrient intakes and blood status indices in older people...
  72. ncbi Sex-specific prediction equations for Vmax(FRC) in infancy: a multicenter collaborative study
    Ah Fong Hoo
    Portex Anaesthesia, Intensive Therapy and Respiratory Medicine Unit, Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Service Trust, London, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:1084-92. 2002
    ..Appropriate use of z scores, which indicate a "normal" range (z scores of 0 +/- 2) for Vmax(FRC), during infancy should also improve interpretation of both clinical and research studies...
  73. doi The unique contribution of manual chest compression-vibrations to airflow during physiotherapy in sedated, fully ventilated children
    Rachael K Gregson
    Portex Anaesthesia, Intensive Therapy and Respiratory Medicine Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Physiotherapy Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, UK
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 13:e97-e102. 2012
    ....
  74. doi Residential mobility and uptake of childhood immunisations: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study
    Anna Pearce
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Vaccine 26:1675-80. 2008
    ....
  75. ncbi Intrauterine growth and its relationship to size and shape at birth
    Peter C Hindmarsh
    London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Child Health, University College, UK
    Pediatr Res 52:263-8. 2002
    ..The weak relationship also suggests that routine antenatal scans around 30 wk of gestation to predict growth problems are unlikely to be of benefit in the majority of cases...
  76. ncbi Transient limb ischemia induces remote preconditioning and remote postconditioning in humans by a K(ATP)-channel dependent mechanism
    Stavros P Loukogeorgakis
    Vascular Physiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 34 Great Ormond St, London, WC1N 3JE, UK
    Circulation 116:1386-95. 2007
    ..Using an in vivo model of endothelial IR injury, we sought to determine whether RPostC occurred in humans and whether it shared mechanistic similarities with RIPC...
  77. ncbi Prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in Great Britain
    Susan A Jebb
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
    Public Health Nutr 7:461-5. 2004
    ..To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in British young people (4-18 years) in 1997...
  78. doi Birth weight predicts bone size in young adulthood at cortical sites in men and trabecular sites in women from The Gambia
    Stephanie de Bono
    MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK
    Bone 46:1316-21. 2010
    ..Current weight was a positive predictor of BMC and aBMD in both sexes. This suggests that pre-natal factors affecting fetal growth may influence adult bone strength independently of post-natal factors...
  79. ncbi Early nutrition and leptin concentrations in later life
    Atul Singhal
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 75:993-9. 2002
    ..Because obesity is associated with high leptin concentrations relative to fat mass, programming of leptin concentrations may be one mechanism by which early nutrition influences later obesity...
  80. doi Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: a family-based community intervention for childhood obesity
    Paul M Sacher
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:S62-8. 2010
    ..High-attendance rates suggest that families found this intensive community-based intervention acceptable. Further larger controlled trials are currently underway to confirm the promising findings of this initial trial...
  81. ncbi Birth weight and environmental heat load: a between-population analysis
    Jonathan C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Am J Phys Anthropol 119:276-82. 2002
    ..Further studies are needed to establish to what extent heat stress is a determinant of low birth weight in developing countries...
  82. ncbi Factors predicting ante- and postnatal growth
    Peter C Hindmarsh
    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University College London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Res 63:99-102. 2008
    ..Maternal and paternal stature equally influenced newborn and infant size. Conditional analysis reveals a series of modifiable (parity, length of gestation, and smoking) and nonmodifiable factors at different stages of the growth process...
  83. ncbi Repeatability of physiotherapy chest wall vibrations applied to spontaneously breathing adults
    Harriet Shannon
    University College London, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Physiotherapy 95:36-42. 2009
    ..In order to understand their effects, it is essential to measure the forces applied and their repeatability over time. This study investigated the repeatability of vibrations within and between test occasions...
  84. ncbi Primary vesicoureteric reflux as a predictor of renal damage in children hospitalized with urinary tract infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Isky Gordon
    Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London
    J Am Soc Nephrol 14:739-44. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the pathogenesis of renal damage in such patients is probably complex because it is often detected without demonstrable VUR...
  85. pmc Adult socioeconomic, educational, social, and psychological outcomes of childhood obesity: a national birth cohort study
    Russell M Viner
    Department of Paediatrics, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, London NW3 2PF
    BMJ 330:1354. 2005
    ..To assess adult socioeconomic, educational, social, and psychological outcomes of childhood obesity by using nationally representative data...
  86. ncbi Body shape in American and British adults: between-country and inter-ethnic comparisons
    J C K Wells
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:152-9. 2008
    ..Differential prevalence of obesity has been suggested as a contributing factor; however, the conventional approach to categorizing obesity, body mass index, is confounded by ethnic variability in physique...
  87. doi Risk factors for rapid weight gain in preschool children: findings from a UK-wide prospective study
    L J Griffiths
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 34:624-32. 2010
    ..To examine risk factors for rapid weight gain between 3 and 5 years of age...
  88. pmc An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study
    S S Hawkins
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 63:147-55. 2009
    ..To use an ecological systems approach to examine individual-, family-, community- and area-level risk factors for overweight (including obesity) in 3-year-old children...
  89. pmc Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence trends in England: evidence for growing socioeconomic disparities
    E Stamatakis
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1 19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 34:41-7. 2010
    ..The main aim of this study was to update the prevalence trends among school-age children and assess the changing socioeconomic gradient...
  90. doi New aids for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia: dysmorphic features, charts of fetal size and molecular confirmation using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma
    L S Chitty
    Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 37:283-9. 2011
    ....
  91. doi Childhood body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding and risk of Type 1 diabetes: findings from a longitudinal national birth cohort
    R M Viner
    Children and Young People s Diabetes Service, University College London, London, UK
    Diabet Med 25:1056-61. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi Effects of infant feeding practice on weight gain from birth to 3 years
    L J Griffiths
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 94:577-82. 2009
    ..This study examined the effect of breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods on weight gain from birth to 3 years...
  93. pmc Regional differences in overweight: an effect of people or place?
    S S Hawkins
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 93:407-13. 2008
    ..To examine UK country and English regional differences in childhood overweight (including obesity) at 3 years and determine whether any differences persist after adjustment for individual risk factors...
  94. pmc Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study
    S S Hawkins
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:30-8. 2008
    ..In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity...
  95. ncbi A simplified approach to analysing bio-electrical impedance data in epidemiological surveys
    J C K Wells
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 31:507-14. 2007
    ..It is simple, quick and cheap, but less accurate than other methods. It has potential epidemiological value, but has conventionally required validation before application...
  96. ncbi Leg and trunk length at 43 years in relation to childhood health, diet and family circumstances; evidence from the 1946 national birth cohort
    M E J Wadsworth
    MRC National Survey of Health and Development, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 31:383-90. 2002
    ..This is a study of the associations of adult leg and trunk length with early life height and weight, diet, socioeconomic circumstances, and health, and parental height, divorce and death...
  97. ncbi Sitting height and subischial leg length centile curves for boys and girls from Southeast England
    A D Dangour
    Public Health Nutrition Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Ann Hum Biol 29:290-305. 2002
    ..The current study was designed to produce up-to-date sitting height and subischial leg length centile curves for boys and girls in Southeast England...
  98. ncbi Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine in a clinical paediatric setting: does the method of size-adjustment matter?
    M S Fewtrell
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Bone 37:413-9. 2005
    ..Areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) measurements are known to be influenced by body size, but there is no consensus on the optimal way to deal with this for individual patients...
  99. pmc Low plasma taurine and later neurodevelopment
    B A Wharton
    Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1 1EH, UK
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F497-8. 2004
    ..Low plasma neonatal taurine was associated with lower scores on the Bayley mental development index at 18 months and the WISC-R arithmetic subtest at 7 years. Currently it is not mandatory to add taurine to infant formulas...
  100. ncbi Number of days needed to assess energy and nutrient intake in infants and young children between 6 months and 2 years of age
    J A Lanigan
    MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Nutr 58:745-50. 2004
    ..To estimate the minimum number of days of recorded dietary intake needed to place infants and young children into thirds of a population distribution with an acceptable degree of accuracy...
  101. pmc Height monitoring as a diagnostic test
    P C Hindmarsh
    Centre for Human Growth and Maturation, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    Arch Dis Child 89:296-7. 2004