P Cohen

Summary

Affiliation: University of Dundee
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The regulation of protein function by multisite phosphorylation--a 25 year update
    P Cohen
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK DD1 5EH
    Trends Biochem Sci 25:596-601. 2000
  2. pmc The kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates the transcription factor FKHR at Ser329 in vitro, a novel in vivo phosphorylation site
    Y L Woods
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 355:597-607. 2001
  3. pmc The activation of protein kinase B by H2O2 or heat shock is mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and not by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2
    M Shaw
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
    Biochem J 336:241-6. 1998
  4. ncbi request reprint Stress-activated protein kinase-2/p38 and a rapamycin-sensitive pathway are required for C2C12 myogenesis
    A Cuenda
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:4341-6. 1999
  5. ncbi request reprint Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in mediating lipopolysaccharide-stimulated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-1 beta in RAW264 macrophages
    M Caivano
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 164:3018-25. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint The role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 in activating AGC kinases defined in embryonic stem cells
    M R Williams
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland
    Curr Biol 10:439-48. 2000
  7. pmc A novel method to identify protein kinase substrates: eEF2 kinase is phosphorylated and inhibited by SAPK4/p38delta
    A Knebel
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    EMBO J 20:4360-9. 2001
  8. pmc The kinase DYRK phosphorylates protein-synthesis initiation factor eIF2Bepsilon at Ser539 and the microtubule-associated protein tau at Thr212: potential role for DYRK as a glycogen synthase kinase 3-priming kinase
    Y L Woods
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 355:609-15. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of activation and function of protein kinase B
    D R Alessi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 8:55-62. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint Paradoxical activation of Raf by a novel Raf inhibitor
    C A Hall-Jackson
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, The University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK
    Chem Biol 6:559-68. 1999

Detail Information

Publications73

  1. ncbi request reprint The regulation of protein function by multisite phosphorylation--a 25 year update
    P Cohen
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK DD1 5EH
    Trends Biochem Sci 25:596-601. 2000
    ..Multisite phosphorylation can enable several such effects to operate in the same protein. It can also determine the extent and duration of a response and is the key to signal integration...
  2. pmc The kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates the transcription factor FKHR at Ser329 in vitro, a novel in vivo phosphorylation site
    Y L Woods
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 355:597-607. 2001
    ..We find that FKHR and DYRK1A co-localize in discrete regions of the nucleus and can be co-immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. These experiments suggest that DYRK1A may phosphorylate FKHR at Ser(329) in vivo...
  3. pmc The activation of protein kinase B by H2O2 or heat shock is mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and not by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2
    M Shaw
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
    Biochem J 336:241-6. 1998
    ..The activation of PKB isoforms by H2O2 may underlie some of the insulin-mimetic effects of this compound...
  4. ncbi request reprint Stress-activated protein kinase-2/p38 and a rapamycin-sensitive pathway are required for C2C12 myogenesis
    A Cuenda
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:4341-6. 1999
    ..These results show for the first time that SAPK2/p38 plays an essential role in C2C12 cell differentiation...
  5. ncbi request reprint Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in mediating lipopolysaccharide-stimulated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-1 beta in RAW264 macrophages
    M Caivano
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 164:3018-25. 2000
    ..They also suggest that MSK1 and MSK2 may play a role in these processes and hence are potential targets for the development of novel antiinflammatory drugs...
  6. ncbi request reprint The role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 in activating AGC kinases defined in embryonic stem cells
    M R Williams
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland
    Curr Biol 10:439-48. 2000
    ....
  7. pmc A novel method to identify protein kinase substrates: eEF2 kinase is phosphorylated and inhibited by SAPK4/p38delta
    A Knebel
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    EMBO J 20:4360-9. 2001
    ..The phosphorylation of eEF2K at Ser359 was also induced by insulin-like growth factor-1. However, this was blocked by rapamycin, indicating that Ser359 is targeted by at least two signalling pathways...
  8. pmc The kinase DYRK phosphorylates protein-synthesis initiation factor eIF2Bepsilon at Ser539 and the microtubule-associated protein tau at Thr212: potential role for DYRK as a glycogen synthase kinase 3-priming kinase
    Y L Woods
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 355:609-15. 2001
    ..Phosphorylation of Thr(212) primes tau for phosphorylation by GSK3 at Ser(208) in vitro, suggesting a more general role for DYRK isoforms in priming phosphorylation of GSK3 substrates...
  9. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of activation and function of protein kinase B
    D R Alessi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 8:55-62. 1998
    ..The highlights include the discovery of a protein kinase required for the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent activation of PKB and the identification of several physiological substrates for PKB...
  10. ncbi request reprint Paradoxical activation of Raf by a novel Raf inhibitor
    C A Hall-Jackson
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, The University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK
    Chem Biol 6:559-68. 1999
    ..Raf is a proto-oncogene that is activated in response to growth factors or phorbol esters, and is thought to activate MAP kinase kinase-1 (MKK1) and hence the classical MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade...
  11. ncbi request reprint The role of protein phosphorylation in human health and disease. The Sir Hans Krebs Medal Lecture
    P Cohen
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK
    Eur J Biochem 268:5001-10. 2001
    ..I also discuss the exploitation of specific protein kinase inhibitors for the study of cell signalling and make recommendations for their effective use in cell-based assays...
  12. ncbi request reprint Effects of MAP kinase cascade inhibitors on the MKK5/ERK5 pathway
    N Mody
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 502:21-4. 2001
    ..Our results also indicate that ERK5 is not a significant activator of MAPK-activated protein kinase-1/RSK in HeLa cells...
  13. ncbi request reprint A common phosphate binding site explains the unique substrate specificity of GSK3 and its inactivation by phosphorylation
    S Frame
    Division of Signal Transduction Therapy, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, Dundee, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell 7:1321-7. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Further evidence that inhibitor-2 acts like a chaperone to fold PP1 into its native conformation
    C Mackintosh
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    FEBS Lett 397:235-8. 1996
    ....
  15. pmc Characterization of a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding protein containing two FYVE fingers in tandem that is targeted to the Golgi
    P C Cheung
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U K
    Biochem J 355:113-21. 2001
    ..Cell localization studies using a green fluorescent protein fusion show that TAFF1 is localized to the Golgi, and that the Golgi targeting sequence is located within the N-terminal 187 residues and not in either FYVE domain...
  16. ncbi request reprint The development and therapeutic potential of protein kinase inhibitors
    P Cohen
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 3:459-65. 1999
    ..The basis for the specificity of several of these drugs has been elucidated and a number are undergoing human clinical trials...
  17. pmc Synergistic activation of stress-activated protein kinase 1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK1/JNK) isoforms by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK7
    Y Fleming
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 352:145-54. 2000
    ..MKK7 also phosphorylates SAPK2a/p38 at a low rate (but not SAPK3/p38 gamma or SAPK4/p38 delta), and phosphorylation occurs exclusively at the tyrosine residue, demonstrating that MKK7 is intrinsically a 'dual-specific' protein kinase...
  18. ncbi request reprint MSK1 is required for CREB phosphorylation in response to mitogens in mouse embryonic stem cells
    J S Arthur
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    FEBS Lett 482:44-8. 2000
    ..Thus MSK1 is required for CREB and ATF1 phosphorylation after mitogenic stimulation of ES cells...
  19. pmc Roles of the forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR) phosphorylation sites in regulating 14-3-3 binding, transactivation and nuclear targetting
    G Rena
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 354:605-12. 2001
    ....
  20. pmc Activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase by agonists that activate phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase is mediated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and PDK2
    T Kobayashi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 339:319-28. 1999
    ..These findings raise the possibility that some physiological roles ascribed to PKB on the basis of the overexpression of constitutively active PKB mutants might be mediated by SGK...
  21. ncbi request reprint IGF-1 up-regulates K+ channels via PI3-kinase, PDK1 and SGK1
    N Gamper
    Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St Petersburg, Russia
    Pflugers Arch 443:625-34. 2002
    ..In conclusion, IGF-1 through PI3-kinase, PDK1 and SGK1 up-regulates Kv channels, an effect required for the proliferative action of the growth factor...
  22. pmc Role of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in regulating the activity and localization of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1
    R A Currie
    Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U K
    Biochem J 337:575-83. 1999
    ..Thirdly, the interaction of PDK1 with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 facilitates the rate at which it can activate PKB...
  23. ncbi request reprint The major myosin phosphatase in skeletal muscle is a complex between the beta-isoform of protein phosphatase 1 and the MYPT2 gene product
    G Moorhead
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    FEBS Lett 438:141-4. 1998
    ..Surprisingly, the M21 subunit of smPP1M appears to be produced from the same gene that encodes MYPT2...
  24. ncbi request reprint K+ channel activation by all three isoforms of serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent protein kinase SGK
    N Gamper
    Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 445:60-6. 2002
    ..The present observations thus reveal a powerful stimulating effect of all three isoforms of SGK on K(+) channels. Those effects may participate in regulation of epithelial transport, cell proliferation, and neuromuscular excitability...
  25. pmc Regulation of BAD by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated via phosphorylation of a novel site, Ser155
    J M Lizcano
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 349:547-57. 2000
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1
    J A Le Good
    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 281:2042-5. 1998
    ..The activation loop phosphorylation of PKCdelta in response to serum stimulation of cells was PI 3-kinase-dependent and was enhanced by PDK1 coexpression...
  27. pmc Human and rat testis express two mRNA species encoding variants of NRD convertase, a metalloendopeptidase of the insulinase family
    V Hospital
    Laboratoire de Biochimie des Signaux Régulateurs Cellulaires et Moléculaires, Unite de Recherche Associee au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1682, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 96 Bd Raspail, 75006 Paris, France
    Biochem J 327:773-9. 1997
    ..The human gene encoding NRD convertase was localized to chromosome 1p32.1-p32.2. Whereas NRD convertase is mostly expressed in testis and in 24 cell lines, low mRNA levels were detected in most of the 27 other tissues tested...
  28. ncbi request reprint Stress-activated protein kinase-3 interacts with the PDZ domain of alpha1-syntrophin. A mechanism for specific substrate recognition
    M Hasegawa
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:12626-31. 1999
    ..Phosphorylation of a PDZ domain-containing protein by an associated protein kinase is a novel mechanism for determining both the localization and the substrate specificity of a protein kinase...
  29. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead family member FKHR by protein kinase B
    G Rena
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:17179-83. 1999
    ..The conservation of Thr-24, Ser-256, and Ser-319 and the sequences surrounding them in DAF16 therefore suggests that DAF16 is also a direct substrate for PKB in C. elegans...
  30. ncbi request reprint Regulation and physiological roles of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase isoforms
    F Lang
    Department of Physiology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Sci STKE 2001:re17. 2001
    ..This raises the possibility that specific inhibitors of SGK1 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of several diseases...
  31. pmc Characterization of the structure and regulation of two novel isoforms of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase
    T Kobayashi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI WTB complex, Dow Street, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U K
    Biochem J 344:189-97. 1999
    ..Like PKB and SGK1, SGK2 and SGK3 preferentially phosphorylate Ser and Thr residues that lie in Arg-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser/Thr motifs...
  32. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle glycogen-targetting subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in response to adrenaline in vivo
    K S Walker
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, UK
    FEBS Lett 466:121-4. 2000
    ..Thus the phosphorylation of G(M) at Ser48 by MAPKAP-K1 or other insulin-stimulated protein kinases is not involved in the activation of glycogen synthase by insulin...
  33. ncbi request reprint Antiischemic effects of SB203580 are mediated through the inhibition of p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase: Evidence from ectopic expression of an inhibition-resistant kinase
    J L Martin
    Department of Cardiology, King's College London, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London
    Circ Res 89:750-2. 2001
    ..In contrast, SB203580 did not protect cells expressing the SB203580-resistant form of p38alpha MAPK. These observations suggest that SB203580-mediated protection depends on the inhibition of p38alpha MAPK...
  34. pmc Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue
    A Soukas
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Genes Dev 14:963-80. 2000
    ..Future studies of the molecular basis for the apparent coordinate regulation of the other clusters of leptin-regulated genes may reveal additional mechanisms by which leptin exerts its weight-reducing effects...
  35. ncbi request reprint Serine 727 phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 by MNK1-related protein kinases
    Y Hefner
    Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:37542-51. 2000
    ..The results suggest that MNK1 or a closely related kinase is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of cPLA2 on Ser-727...
  36. ncbi request reprint Requirement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and I kappa B phosphorylation for induction of proinflammatory cytokines synthesis by macrophages indicates functional similarity of receptors triggered by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors from parasiti
    C Ropert
    , Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    J Immunol 166:3423-31. 2001
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint The serine/threonine kinases SGK2 and SGK3 are potent stimulators of the epithelial Na+ channel alpha,beta,gamma-ENaC
    B Friedrich
    Physiologisches Institut der Universitat Tubingen, Gmelinstrasse 5, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 445:693-6. 2003
    ..In conclusion, SGK2 and SGK3 mimic the function of SGK1 and are likely to participate in the regulation of ENaC activity...
  38. pmc Activation of protein kinase B beta and gamma isoforms by insulin in vivo and by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 in vitro: comparison with protein kinase B alpha
    K S Walker
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, U K
    Biochem J 331:299-308. 1998
    ..Insulin did not induce PKBgamma activity in adipocytes, hepatocytes or skeletal muscle, but PKBgamma was the major isoform activated by insulin in rat L6 myotubes (a skeletal-muscle cell line)...
  39. ncbi request reprint A novel kinase cascade triggered by stress and heat shock that stimulates MAPKAP kinase-2 and phosphorylation of the small heat shock proteins
    J Rouse
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland
    Cell 78:1027-37. 1994
    ..The RKK, RK, and MAPKAP kinase-2 constitute a new stress-activated signal transduction pathway in vertebrates that is distinct from the classical MAPK cascade...
  40. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylation and activation of human tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and MAP-kinase-activated kinases 1 and 2
    C Sutherland
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland
    Eur J Biochem 217:715-22. 1993
    ..The effect on activity of phosphorylating both Ser31 and Ser40 was not additive. The possible roles of MAPKAP kinase-1, MAPKAP kinase-2 and MAP kinase in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo are discussed...
  41. ncbi request reprint N-arginine dibasic convertase (NRD convertase): a newcomer to the family of processing endopeptidases. An overview
    V Chesneau
    Laboratoire de Biochimie des Signaux Régulateurs Cellulaires et Moléculaires, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, URA CNRS 1682, Paris, France
    Biochimie 76:234-40. 1994
    ..Its substrate selectivity and the characteristic motifs of its amino acid sequence allow us to propose this new metalloendopeptidase as the first member of a new class of processing enzymes...
  42. ncbi request reprint Activation of the MAP kinase homologue RK requires the phosphorylation of Thr-180 and Tyr-182 and both residues are phosphorylated in chemically stressed KB cells
    Y N Doza
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 364:223-8. 1995
    ..Here we demonstrate that the stress-induced activation of the RK in human KB cells is accompanied by the phosphorylation of Thr-180 and Tyr-182, and that the phosphorylation of both residues is required for the activation of this enzyme...
  43. ncbi request reprint Purification of the hepatic glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1 by microcystin-Sepharose affinity chromatography
    G Moorhead
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 362:101-5. 1995
    ..The GL subunit binds phosphorylase a with high affinity, and is responsible for the enhanced dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase by PP1G and its allosteric inhibition by phosphorylase a...
  44. ncbi request reprint Amino acid sequence and expression of the hepatic glycogen-binding (GL)-subunit of protein phosphatase-1
    M J Doherty
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 375:294-8. 1995
    ..The cDNA was expressed in E. coli, and the expressed protein transformed the properties of PP1 to those characteristic of the hepatic glycogen-associated enzyme. These experiments establish that the cloned protein is GL...
  45. ncbi request reprint Glycogen synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Amino acid sequence at the sites phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3, and extension of the N-terminal sequence containing the site phosphorylated by phosphorylase kinase
    D B Rylatt
    Eur J Biochem 107:529-37. 1980
    ..The relationship of glycogen synthase kinase-3 to glycogen synthase kinases that have been described by other laboratories is discussed...
  46. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5
    B A Hemmings
    Eur J Biochem 127:473-81. 1982
  47. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the in vivo phosphorylation state of protein phosphatase inhibitor-2 from rabbit skeletal muscle by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry
    C F Holmes
    Biochim Biophys Acta 929:208-19. 1987
    ..FABMS also demonstrated the presence of an additional serine residue at the C-terminus, and showed that 50% of isolated inhibitor-2 molecules lack the C-terminal Ser-Ser dipeptide...
  48. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the in vivo phosphorylation state of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry
    L Poulter
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge
    Eur J Biochem 175:497-510. 1988
    ..Residue N3, a major site phosphorylated by casein kinase-I in vitro is not phosphorylated in vivo. This and other evidence indicates that casein kinase-I is not a glycogen synthase kinase in vivo...
  49. ncbi request reprint Regulation of protein phosphatase-1G from rabbit skeletal muscle. 1. Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase at site 2 releases catalytic subunit from the glycogen-bound holoenzyme
    M J Hubbard
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland
    Eur J Biochem 186:701-9. 1989
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Multisite phosphorylation of the glycogen-binding subunit of protein phosphatase-1G by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3
    P Dent
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences Institute, University of Dundee, Scotland
    FEBS Lett 248:67-72. 1989
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint MAP kinase kinase from rabbit skeletal muscle. A novel dual specificity enzyme showing homology to yeast protein kinases involved in pheromone-dependent signal transduction
    S Nakielny
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 308:183-9. 1992
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Identification of MAPKAP kinase 2 as a major enzyme responsible for the phosphorylation of the small mammalian heat shock proteins
    D Stokoe
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 313:307-13. 1992
    ..These results suggest that MAPKAP kinase-2 is the enzyme responsible for the phosphorylation of these small heat shock proteins in mammalian cells...
  53. ncbi request reprint p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation sites in microtubule-associated protein tau are dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A1. Implications for Alzheimer's disease [corrected]
    M Goedert
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    FEBS Lett 312:95-9. 1992
    ..Of the major serine/threonine protein phosphatases found in mammalian tissues only protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) could dephosphorylate tau phosphorylated in this manner, with PP2A1 being the most effective form of the enzyme...
  54. pmc MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase
    D Stokoe
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    EMBO J 11:3985-94. 1992
    ..These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates...
  55. pmc Identification of the sites in MAP kinase kinase-1 phosphorylated by p74raf-1
    D R Alessi
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland
    EMBO J 13:1610-9. 1994
    ....
  56. pmc The substrate specificity and structure of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2
    D Stokoe
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Biochem J 296:843-9. 1993
    ..The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus...
  57. ncbi request reprint Purification and characterisation of p99, a nuclear modulator of protein phosphatase 1 activity
    J P Kreivi
    Medical Immunology and Microbiology, BMC, Uppsala University, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 420:57-62. 1997
    ..Recombinant p99 suppresses the phosphorylase phosphatase activity of PP1 by > 90% and the canonical PP1-binding motif on p99 (residues 396-401) is unusual in that the phenylalanine residue is replaced by tryptophan...
  58. ncbi request reprint Identification of regulatory phosphorylation sites in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-1a/p90rsk that are inducible by MAPK
    K N Dalby
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 273:1496-505. 1998
    ..Ser222, Ser364, and Ser381 are situated in analogous positions to phosphorylation sites in protein kinase B, protein kinase C, and p70S6K, suggesting a common mechanism of activation for these growth factor-stimulated protein kinases...
  59. ncbi request reprint PPP1R6, a novel member of the family of glycogen-targetting subunits of protein phosphatase 1
    C G Armstrong
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 418:210-4. 1997
    ..The PPP1R6 is associated with glycogen in muscle but is not subject to the same modes of covalent and allosteric regulation as G(M) and G(L)...
  60. ncbi request reprint Role of translocation in the activation and function of protein kinase B
    M Andjelkovic
    Friedrich Miescher Institut, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 272:31515-24. 1997
    ..Following activation the kinase detached from the membrane and translocated to the nucleus...
  61. ncbi request reprint The p38/reactivating kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade mediates the activation of the transcription factor insulin upstream factor 1 and insulin gene transcription by high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells
    W M Macfarlane
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 272:20936-44. 1997
    ..SAPK2 then activates IUF1 indirectly by activating a novel IUF1-activating enzyme...
  62. ncbi request reprint Characterisation of neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11) S2' subsite
    N Dion
    Departement de Biochimie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, C P Succ Centre Ville Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    FEBS Lett 411:140-4. 1997
    ....
  63. pmc Activation of the novel stress-activated protein kinase SAPK4 by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated by SKK3 (MKK6); comparison of its substrate specificity with that of other SAP kinases
    M Goedert
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    EMBO J 16:3563-71. 1997
    ..Unlike SAPK2a and SAPK2b, SAPK4 and SAPK3 were not inhibited by the drugs SB 203580 and SB 202190. Our results suggest that cellular functions previously attributed to SAPK1 and/or SAPK2 may be mediated by SAPK3 or SAPK4...
  64. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau by stress-activated protein kinases
    M Goedert
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    FEBS Lett 409:57-62. 1997
    ..These findings double the number of candidate protein kinases for the hyperphosphorylation of tau in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders...
  65. ncbi request reprint Characterization of a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Balpha
    D R Alessi
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN, Scotland
    Curr Biol 7:261-9. 1997
    ..The phosphorylation of both residues is required for maximal activation of PKB. The kinases that phosphorylate PKB are, however, unknown...
  66. pmc Mechanism of activation of protein kinase B by insulin and IGF-1
    D R Alessi
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    EMBO J 15:6541-51. 1996
    ..We propose a model whereby PKBalpha becomes phosphorylated and activated in insulin/IGF-1-stimulated cells by an upstream kinase(s)...
  67. pmc FGF and stress regulate CREB and ATF-1 via a pathway involving p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase-2
    Y Tan
    Cell Signaling Laboratory, New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA 01915, USA
    EMBO J 15:4629-42. 1996
    ..These findings identify a new growth factor and stress-activated signaling pathway that regulates gene expression at the CRE...
  68. pmc Purification and cDNA cloning of SAPKK3, the major activator of RK/p38 in stress- and cytokine-stimulated monocytes and epithelial cells
    A Cuenda
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    EMBO J 15:4156-64. 1996
    ..The murine and human SAPKK3 were 97% identical in their amino acid sequences. We also cloned a different murine cDNA that appears to encode a SAPKK3 protein truncated at the N-terminus. SAPKK3 is identical to the recently cloned MKK6...
  69. pmc Identification of novel phosphorylation sites required for activation of MAPKAP kinase-2
    R Ben-Levy
    CRC Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute for Cancer Research, London, UK
    EMBO J 14:5920-30. 1995
    ..The mutant Asp222/Asp334 was 20% as active as phosphorylated MAPKAP kinase-2, and this constitutively active form may be useful for studying its physiological roles...
  70. ncbi request reprint A comparison of the substrate specificity of MAPKAP kinase-2 and MAPKAP kinase-3 and their activation by cytokines and cellular stress
    A D Clifton
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    FEBS Lett 392:209-14. 1996
    ..These results establish that MAPKAP kinase-3 lies 'downstream' of SAPK-2 and that it is likely to have overlapping or identical substrates to MAPKAP kinase-2 in vivo...
  71. ncbi request reprint Identification of anisomycin-activated kinases p45 and p55 in murine cells as MAPKAP kinase-2
    E Cano
    Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Randall Institute, King s College, London, U K
    Oncogene 12:805-12. 1996
    ..Thus, EGF- and anisomycin-activated p45 and p55 are not JNK/SAPKs but MAPKAP K-2, implying that both these agents activate the p38/RK MAP kinase cascade...
  72. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B
    D A Cross
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK
    Nature 378:785-9. 1995
    ..Like the inhibition of GSK3 (refs 10, 14), the activation of PKB is prevented by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase...
  73. ncbi request reprint The hormonal control of activity of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. Amino-acid sequences at the two sites of action of adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase
    P Cohen
    Eur J Biochem 51:79-92. 1975
    ..The molecular basis of this specificity is discussed...