B Charlesworth

Summary

Affiliation: University of Edinburgh
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Stabilizing selection, purifying selection, and mutational bias in finite populations
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 194:955-71. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Why we are not dead one hundred times over
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 67:3354-61. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Background selection 20 years on: the Wilhelmine E. Key 2012 invitational lecture
    Brian Charlesworth
    the Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Hered 104:161-71. 2013
  4. pmc The role of background selection in shaping patterns of molecular evolution and variation: evidence from variability on the Drosophila X chromosome
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 191:233-46. 2012
  5. pmc The effects of deleterious mutations on evolution at linked sites
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 190:5-22. 2012
  6. pmc Patterns of intron sequence evolution in Drosophila are dependent upon length and GC content
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genome Biol 6:R67. 2005
  7. pmc Reduced efficacy of selection in regions of the Drosophila genome that lack crossing over
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    Genome Biol 8:R18. 2007
  8. pmc Patterns and rates of intron divergence between humans and chimpanzees
    Elodie Gazave
    Unitat de Biologia Evolutiva, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Carrer Dr Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Genome Biol 8:R21. 2007
  9. pmc Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster
    Takahiro Miyo
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Genet 5:31. 2004
  10. pmc The degeneration of Y chromosomes
    B Charlesworth
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1563-72. 2000

Detail Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Stabilizing selection, purifying selection, and mutational bias in finite populations
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 194:955-71. 2013
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Why we are not dead one hundred times over
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 67:3354-61. 2013
    ..Even when it produces a large genetic load, it is compatible with the observations on fitness variance when selection is soft. It may be very difficult to distinguish between these two possibilities. ..
  3. doi request reprint Background selection 20 years on: the Wilhelmine E. Key 2012 invitational lecture
    Brian Charlesworth
    the Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Hered 104:161-71. 2013
    ....
  4. pmc The role of background selection in shaping patterns of molecular evolution and variation: evidence from variability on the Drosophila X chromosome
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 191:233-46. 2012
    ..The results suggest that background selection may play a major role in shaping patterns of molecular evolution and variation...
  5. pmc The effects of deleterious mutations on evolution at linked sites
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 190:5-22. 2012
    ..Evidence is discussed that is consistent with the action of these processes in shaping genome-wide patterns of variation and evolution...
  6. pmc Patterns of intron sequence evolution in Drosophila are dependent upon length and GC content
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genome Biol 6:R67. 2005
    ..No consistent patterns have emerged from studies that have investigated general levels of evolutionary constraint in introns...
  7. pmc Reduced efficacy of selection in regions of the Drosophila genome that lack crossing over
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    Genome Biol 8:R18. 2007
    ..In freely recombining regions of the genome, selection should more effectively incorporate new beneficial mutations, and eliminate deleterious ones, than in regions with low rates of genetic recombination...
  8. pmc Patterns and rates of intron divergence between humans and chimpanzees
    Elodie Gazave
    Unitat de Biologia Evolutiva, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Carrer Dr Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Genome Biol 8:R21. 2007
    ..Several studies have investigated levels of evolutionary constraint along introns and across classes of introns of different length and location within genes. However, thus far these studies have yielded contradictory results...
  9. pmc Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster
    Takahiro Miyo
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    BMC Genet 5:31. 2004
    ....
  10. pmc The degeneration of Y chromosomes
    B Charlesworth
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1563-72. 2000
    ..It is, however, currently unclear which of the various processes is most important; some directions for future work to help to resolve this question are discussed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Genome analysis: More Drosophila Y chromosome genes
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 11:R182-4. 2001
    ..The D. melanogaster genome sequence has now allowed characterization of two more male fertility genes, shedding light on the function and evolution of Y chromosomes...
  12. ncbi request reprint Patterns of age-specific means and genetic variances of mortality rates predicted by the mutation-accumulation theory of ageing
    B Charlesworth
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    J Theor Biol 210:47-65. 2001
    ..Predictions concerning the additive genetic correlations in mortality rates between different ages are also developed. The predictions of the models are compared with data on humans and Drosophila...
  13. ncbi request reprint A model of the evolution of the unusual sex chromosome system of Microtus oregoni
    B Charlesworth
    ICAPB, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 86:387-94. 2001
    ..Under some conditions, however, the enhanced reproductive value of males, caused by the production of inviable Y0 embryos in X0 x X'Y matings, can outweigh any advantage to X'. Inbreeding also reduces any advantage to X'...
  14. ncbi request reprint Sex determination: primitive Y chromosomes in fish
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute for Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 14:R745-7. 2004
    ....
  15. pmc Estimates of the genomic mutation rate for detrimental alleles in Drosophila melanogaster
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 167:815-26. 2004
    ..Mutations with selection coefficients of at least a few percent must be the major contributors to the effects detected here and are likely to be caused mostly by transposable element insertions or indels...
  16. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary genetics: the evils of abstinence from sex
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, Edinburgh, UK
    Curr Biol 12:R56-8. 2002
    ..The evolutionary significance of sexual reproduction and genetic recombination is a long-standing puzzle. Some recent experiments on Drosophila show that a lack of recombination can impede adaptive evolution...
  17. pmc The organization and evolution of the human Y chromosome
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 2BR, UK
    Genome Biol 4:226. 2003
    ..The recent sequencing of a large chunk of euchromatin from the human Y chromosome is a technical tour de force. It answers some evolutionary questions about this unusual chromosome while raising others...
  18. ncbi request reprint The detection of shared and ancestral polymorphisms
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, UK
    Genet Res 86:149-57. 2005
    ..The results should be useful for tests of selection based on the levels of expected and observed ancestral polymorphisms...
  19. ncbi request reprint The effect of life-history and mode of inheritance on neutral genetic variability
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genet Res 77:153-66. 2001
    ..These effects need to be accounted for when trying to understand data on patterns of sequence variation for genes with different transmission modes...
  20. ncbi request reprint Selection responses of means and inbreeding depression for female fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster suggest contributions from intermediate-frequency alleles to quantitative trait variation
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genet Res 89:85-91. 2007
    ..The present experiment fails to support this prediction, suggesting that intermediate-frequency alleles contribute substantially to genetic variation in early fecundity...
  21. doi request reprint Molecular population genomics: a short history
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genet Res (Camb) 92:397-411. 2010
    ..Finally, the effects of deleterious mutations on population fitness and the possible role of Hill-Robertson interference in shaping patterns of sequence variability are discussed...
  22. doi request reprint Sex determination: a worm does it by elimination
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 20:R841-3. 2010
    ..Males of S. papillosus have now been shown to be produced by elimination of chromosomal material that constitutes the X chromosome in its close relatives...
  23. ncbi request reprint The effects of local selection, balanced polymorphism and background selection on equilibrium patterns of genetic diversity in subdivided populations
    B Charlesworth
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Genet Res 70:155-74. 1997
    ..We discuss how these theoretical results can be related to data on genetic diversity within and between local populations of a species...
  24. ncbi request reprint Measures of divergence between populations and the effect of forces that reduce variability
    B Charlesworth
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago
    Mol Biol Evol 15:538-43. 1998
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint The effect of synergistic epistasis on the inbreeding load
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Genet Res 71:85-9. 1998
    ..This model is used to show that deleterious mutations could account for the Drosophila data on the effects of inbreeding on components of fitness such as viability...
  26. ncbi request reprint Effective population size
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Building, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 12:R716-7. 2002
  27. doi request reprint Summary
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74:469-74. 2009
    ..Overall, the Symposium portrayed evolution as a field that, while retaining its Darwinian roots, is exploring ever-wider areas of biology as new techniques and ideas emerge...
  28. ncbi request reprint Sex chromosomes: evolving dosage compensation
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 2BR, UK
    Curr Biol 8:R931-3. 1998
    ..Inactivation of an X-linked copy of a gene in females appears to correlate with lack of an active homologue on the Y chromosome, implying that dosage compensation evolves in response to the loss of function of genes on the Y...
  29. pmc Darwin and genetics
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 183:757-66. 2009
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Genetic recombination and molecular evolution
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74:177-86. 2009
    ..We also show that HR effects of this type can produce an individual selection advantage to recombination, as well as greatly reduce the mean fitness of nonrecombining genomes and genomic regions...
  31. doi request reprint Fundamental concepts in genetics: effective population size and patterns of molecular evolution and variation
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 10:195-205. 2009
    ..In particular, the action of selection means that N(e) varies across the genome, and advances in genomic techniques are giving new insights into how selection shapes N(e)...
  32. ncbi request reprint The genetic basis of inbreeding depression
    B Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Genet Res 74:329-40. 1999
    ..Possible experimental approaches to resolving outstanding questions are discussed...
  33. pmc A selective sweep associated with a recent gene transposition in Drosophila miranda
    S Yi
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 1573, USA
    Genetics 156:1753-63. 2000
    ..This explanation is supported by the pattern of within-species sequence variation at exu1 and the nearby exu2 locus. The implications of this phenomenon for genome evolution are discussed...
  34. pmc Rates and patterns of chromosomal evolution in Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. miranda
    Carolina Bartolomé
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genetics 173:779-91. 2006
    ..pseudoobscura C chromosome, which are different from those in the current literature. We also describe a new method for correcting for rearrangements that are not detected with a limited set of markers...
  35. pmc A survey of chromosomal and nucleotide sequence variation in Drosophila miranda
    Soojin Yi
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 1573, USA
    Genetics 164:1369-81. 2003
    ..miranda. However, data on an additional region of period confirm population subdivision for this gene, suggesting that local selection is operating at or near period to promote differentiation between populations...
  36. pmc Evidence for selection at the fused locus of Drosophila virilis
    J Vieira
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 155:1701-9. 2000
    ..Our results suggest that the fused alanine haplotypes have recently increased in frequency in the D. virilis population...
  37. pmc Genetics of a pheromonal difference affecting sexual isolation between Drosophila mauritiana and D. sechellia
    J A Coyne
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Genetics 145:1015-30. 1997
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Unusual pattern of single nucleotide polymorphism at the exuperantia2 locus of Drosophila pseudoobscura
    Soojin Yi
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 1573, USA
    Genet Res 82:101-6. 2003
    ..Together, these and other characteristics of the exu2 locus suggest the action of selection on the pattern of SNP variation, consistent with a partial selective sweep associated with the newly derived haplotype...
  39. pmc X chromosome DNA variation in Drosophila virilis
    J Vieira
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 266:1905-12. 1999
    ..There is no reduction in variation at two loci close to the centromeric heterochromatin, in contrast to Drosophila melanogaster...
  40. ncbi request reprint The effect of recombination on background selection
    M Nordborg
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637 1573, USA
    Genet Res 67:159-74. 1996
    ..Large overall effects are less likely in species with higher levels of genetic recombination, such as mammals, although local reductions in regions of reduced recombination might be detectable...
  41. pmc Lack of degeneration of loci on the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana
    B Charlesworth
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637 1573, USA
    Genetics 145:989-1002. 1997
    ..This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work...
  42. ncbi request reprint Correlated evolution of synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in Drosophila
    Gabriel Marais
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK
    J Mol Evol 59:771-9. 2004
    ..However, our tests show that none of the hypotheses we consider seem to explain the data fully...
  43. ncbi request reprint Genome size: does bigger mean worse?
    Brian Charlesworth
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 14:R233-5. 2004
    ..On this view, the increased complexity of biological functions associated with large genomes partly reflects evolutionary degeneration...
  44. ncbi request reprint Rates of movement and distribution of transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster: in situ hybridization vs Southern blotting data
    X Maside
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genet Res 78:121-36. 2001
    ..Our in situ data are consistent with previous studies, and suggest that selection is the main force controlling element spread by transposition...
  45. ncbi request reprint Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes
    D Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 95:118-28. 2005
    ..We discuss how selection during the period when a chromosome is adapting to its role as a Y chromosome might drive such a process...
  46. pmc Evidence for selection at the fused1 locus of Drosophila americana
    J Vieira
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 158:279-90. 2001
    ..These patterns of variation are best explained as a result of selection acting on amino acid substitutions, with geographic variation in selection pressures...
  47. pmc Multilocus patterns of nucleotide variability and the demographic and selection history of Drosophila melanogaster populations
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 15:790-9. 2005
    ..Demographic departures from equilibrium expectations in both ancestral and derived populations thus represent a serious challenge to detecting positive selection in genome-wide scans using current methodologies...
  48. ncbi request reprint Genetic instability of C. elegans comes naturally
    Peter D Keightley
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK
    Trends Genet 21:67-70. 2005
    ..Phenotypic assays of the same lines detected only a small proportion of mutations that were predicted to have evolutionarily significant fitness effects...
  49. doi request reprint Effective population size and the faster-X effect: an extended model
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Evolution 63:2413-26. 2009
    ..We show that, when the rate of nonsynonymous evolution is normalized by the rate of neutral evolution, a sex difference in mutation rate has no influence on the conditions for faster-X evolution...
  50. pmc Estimating selection intensity on synonymous codon usage in a nonequilibrium population
    Kai Zeng
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Genetics 183:651-62, 1SI-23SI. 2009
    ..melanogaster...
  51. pmc Inferring the distribution of mutational effects on fitness in Drosophila
    Laurence Loewe
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Biol Lett 2:426-30. 2006
    ..Our results suggest that the majority of non-synonymous mutations in Drosophila are under effective purifying selection...
  52. ncbi request reprint Selection intensity on preferred codons correlates with overall codon usage bias in Caenorhabditis remanei
    Asher D Cutter
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 16:2053-7. 2006
    ..We therefore conclude that coincident patterns of current and ancient selection are responsible for shaping biased codon usage in the C. remanei genome...
  53. doi request reprint Studying patterns of recent evolution at synonymous sites and intronic sites in Drosophila melanogaster
    Kai Zeng
    Ashworth Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Mol Evol 70:116-28. 2010
    ..These results show that using inadequate selection (or demographic) models can result in incorrect estimates of demographic (or selection) parameters...
  54. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of inbreeding depression due to deleterious mutations in small populations: mutation parameters and inbreeding rate
    J Wang
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Genet Res 74:165-78. 1999
    ..The simulation results and their implications are discussed in the context of biological conservation and tests for purging...
  55. ncbi request reprint Mutation-selection balance and the evolutionary advantage of sex and recombination
    B Charlesworth
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637
    Genet Res 55:199-221. 1990
    ..Recombination is selectively disadvantageous when there is diminishing returns epistasis. These results are compared with the results of previous theoretical studies of this problem, and with experimental data...
  56. ncbi request reprint Recombination load associated with selection for increased recombination
    B Charlesworth
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637 1573, USA
    Genet Res 67:27-41. 1996
    ..Further experiments are needed to determine whether the selection against recombination due to the immediate load is outweighed by the increased additive variance in fitness produced by recombination...
  57. ncbi request reprint Why sex and recombination?
    N H Barton
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 281:1986-90. 1998
    ..Various processes that can cause such an effect have been studied theoretically. It has, however, so far proved hard to discriminate among them empirically...
  58. ncbi request reprint The speed of Muller's ratchet with background selection, and the degeneration of Y chromosomes
    I Gordo
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genet Res 78:149-61. 2001
    ..Its possible role in causing the degeneration of Y and neo-Y chromosomes is discussed in the light of our present knowledge of deleterious mutation rates and selection coefficients...
  59. pmc The effects of Hill-Robertson interference between weakly selected mutations on patterns of molecular evolution and variation
    G A McVean
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Genetics 155:929-44. 2000
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Contrasting patterns of molecular evolution of the genes on the new and old sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda
    S Yi
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 17:703-17. 2000
    ..This is not expected under a model where the faster evolution of the X chromosome is postulated to be the main force driving the degeneration of the Y chromosome...
  61. ncbi request reprint Fixation of transposable elements in the Drosophila melanogaster genome
    Xulio Maside
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Edinburgh University, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genet Res 85:195-203. 2005
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint High rate of horizontal transfer of transposable elements in Drosophila
    Alejandro Sanchez-Gracia
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK EH9 3JT
    Trends Genet 21:200-3. 2005
    ..This suggests that a large proportion of TEs in D. melanogaster had a recent origin as a result of interspecies movement...
  63. pmc Linkage disequilibrium and recombination rate estimates in the self-incompatibility region of Arabidopsis lyrata
    Esther Kamau
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, W Mains Road, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Genetics 176:2357-69. 2007
    ..Our estimates suggest that there is a small region of very low recombination surrounding the S-locus region...
  64. pmc Muller's ratchet and the degeneration of the Drosophila miranda neo-Y chromosome
    Vera B Kaiser
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Genetics 185:339-48. 2010
    ..We show that selection at nonsynonymous coding sites can accelerate the process of gene loss and that this effect varies with the number of genes still present on the degenerating neo-Y chromosome...
  65. pmc Patterns of genetic variation at a chromosome 4 locus of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans
    Mark A Jensen
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 1573, USA
    Genetics 160:493-507. 2002
    ..We find evidence for recombinational exchange at this locus, and both species appear to be fixed for an insertion of the transposable element HB in an intron of ankyrin...
  66. pmc The HKA test revisited: a maximum-likelihood-ratio test of the standard neutral model
    Stephen I Wright
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 168:1071-6. 2004
    ..The method is also applied to polymorphism data in maize, providing support for the hypothesis of directional selection on genes in the starch pathway...
  67. pmc The degeneration of asexual haploid populations and the speed of Muller's ratchet
    I Gordo
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 154:1379-87. 2000
    ..The relevance of this process for the degeneration of Y or neo-Y chromosomes is discussed...
  68. ncbi request reprint The effects of spontaneous mutation on quantitative traits. II. Dominance of mutations with effects on life-history traits
    D Houle
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, IL 60637 1573, USA
    Genet Res 70:27-34. 1997
    ..These results are consistent with those of many other studies that suggest that both unselected mutations and those found segregating in natural populations are partially recessive...
  69. ncbi request reprint Reduced levels of microsatellite variability on the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila miranda
    D Bachtrog
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 10:1025-31. 2000
    ..Because of a fusion of one of the autosomes to the Y chromosome, a neo-Y chromosome and a neo-X chromosome have been formed, resulting in the transmission of formerly autosomal genes in association with the sex chromosomes...
  70. doi request reprint Evolutionary biology: the origins of two sexes
    Deborah Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Lab King s Buildings, W Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 20:R519-21. 2010
    ..Evidence is accumulating that in the green algae the evolution of female and male gametes differing in size--anisogamy--involves genes linked to the mating-type locus, as was predicted theoretically...
  71. pmc Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium as a consequence of meiotic drive
    Kelly A Dyer
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1587-92. 2007
    ..Thus, the X(D) in D. recens appears to be in chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium and in the early stages of mutational degradation...
  72. ncbi request reprint Direct estimation of per nucleotide and genomic deleterious mutation rates in Drosophila
    Cathy Haag-Liautard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 445:82-5. 2007
    ..2 per diploid genome. This high rate suggests that selection against deleterious mutations may have a key role in explaining patterns of genetic variation in the genome, and help to maintain recombination and sexual reproduction...
  73. pmc Estimating the parameters of selection on nonsynonymous mutations in Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. miranda
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 185:1381-96. 2010
    ..Overall, the results show that both purifying selection and positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations are pervasive...
  74. doi request reprint Patterns of DNA-sequence divergence between Drosophila miranda and D. pseudoobscura
    Sophie Marion de Procé
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    J Mol Evol 69:601-11. 2009
    ....
  75. pmc The effects of recombination rate on the distribution and abundance of transposable elements
    Elie S Dolgin
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 178:2169-77. 2008
    ..These results have important implications for differentiating between the leading models of how selection acts on TEs and should help to interpret emerging population genetic and genomic data...
  76. ncbi request reprint Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in Caenorhabditis nematodes
    Elie S Dolgin
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    Evolution 61:1339-52. 2007
    ..elegans performed better than crosses between strains, indicating outbreeding depression. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of androdioecy and the effect of mating system on the level of inbreeding depression...
  77. doi request reprint Reduced effectiveness of selection caused by a lack of recombination
    Andrea J Betancourt
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh, UK
    Curr Biol 19:655-60. 2009
    ....
  78. pmc Non-neutral processes drive the nucleotide composition of non-coding sequences in Drosophila
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    Biol Lett 4:438-41. 2008
    ..The proportion of GC-->AT versus AT-->GC polymorphic mutations in a locus is correlated with its GC content. This implies the action of forces that favour GC over AT base pairs, which are apparently strongest in GC-rich sequences...
  79. pmc Elevated levels of expression associated with regions of the Drosophila genome that lack crossing over
    Penelope R Haddrill
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Biol Lett 4:758-61. 2008
    ..Alternatively, higher gene expression may be evolving to compensate for defective protein products or reduced translational efficiency...
  80. doi request reprint The deficit of male-biased genes on the D. melanogaster X chromosome is expression-dependent: a consequence of dosage compensation?
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    J Mol Evol 68:576-83. 2009
    ..melanogaster and to measure their expression levels. This is consistent with the idea that limitations in transcription rates may prevent male-biased genes from accumulating on the X chromosome...
  81. doi request reprint The effects of deleterious mutations on evolution in non-recombining genomes
    Vera B Kaiser
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, The King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Trends Genet 25:9-12. 2009
    ....
  82. doi request reprint Population frequencies of transposable elements in selfing and outcrossing Caenorhabditis nematodes
    Elie S Dolgin
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
    Genet Res (Camb) 90:317-29. 2008
    ..elegans, but subject to purifying selection in C. remanei. These results are consistent with a reduced efficacy of natural selection against TEs in selfing populations, but may in part be explained by non-equilibrium TE dynamics...
  83. pmc Background selection in single genes may explain patterns of codon bias
    Laurence Loewe
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 175:1381-93. 2007
    ..The model overpredicts the effects of background selection with large groups of nonrecombining genes, because it ignores Hill-Robertson interference among the mutations involved...
  84. doi request reprint A multispecies approach for comparing sequence evolution of X-linked and autosomal sites in Drosophila
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Genet Res (Camb) 90:421-31. 2008
    ..They also suggest that genes that have become X-linked have higher levels of codon bias and slower synonymous site evolution, consistent with more effective selection on codon usage at X-linked sites...
  85. pmc Patterns of selection on synonymous and nonsynonymous variants in Drosophila miranda
    Carolina Bartolomé
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Genetics 169:1495-507. 2005
    ..The joint intensity of selection and biased gene conversion, in terms of the product of effective population size and the sum of the selection and conversion coefficients, was estimated to be approximately 0.65...
  86. pmc Effective population size and population subdivision in demographically structured populations
    Valérie Laporte
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 162:501-19. 2002
    ..Data on DNA sequence variability in human and plant populations are discussed in the light of the results...
  87. ncbi request reprint Report on the 17(th) European Drosophila research conference
    Mary Bownes
    Division of Biological Science, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, Darwin Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JR, UK
    Bioessays 24:99-101. 2002
  88. ncbi request reprint Selection on codon usage in Drosophila americana
    Xulio Maside
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, EH9 3JT Edinburgh, UK
    Curr Biol 14:150-4. 2004
    ..americana lineage are in approximate equilibrium. Biased gene conversion may also contribute to the observed patterns...
  89. ncbi request reprint The comparison of intrinsic rates of increase among chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster
    Takahiro Miyo
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Genes Genet Syst 78:373-82. 2003
    ..Based on these results, a possible explanation for the seasonal fluctuations in resistance to the three organophosphates observed in the natural population was proposed...
  90. ncbi request reprint Reduced adaptation of a non-recombining neo-Y chromosome
    Doris Bachtrog
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nature 416:323-6. 2002
    ..Our results provide evidence for the importance of sexual recombination for increasing and maintaining the level of adaptation of a population...
  91. pmc On the genomic location of the exuperantia1 gene in Drosophila miranda: the limits of in situ hybridization experiments
    Doris Bachtrog
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 164:1237-40. 2003
    ..This suggests that flanking DNA should be used to confirm the positions of members of gene families...
  92. ncbi request reprint Inferences on the evolutionary history of the S-element family of Drosophila melanogaster
    Xulio Maside
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 20:1183-7. 2003
    ..The level of divergence between these clusters suggests that the S elements invaded the genome of the ancestor of D. melanogaster before the speciation of the D. melanogaster complex. However, other relevant scenarios are also discussed...
  93. ncbi request reprint Genome evolution: recombination speeds up adaptive evolution
    Gabriel Marais
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, EH9 3JT, Edinburgh, UK
    Curr Biol 13:R68-70. 2003
    ..Mutual interference among linked genetic sites subject to selection may reduce the level of adaptation. A recent study detected this effect using data on protein sequence evolution and codon usage in Drosophila...
  94. ncbi request reprint Biological and biomedical implications of the co-evolution of pathogens and their hosts
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Nat Genet 32:569-77. 2002
    ....
  95. ncbi request reprint S-element insertions are associated with the evolution of the Hsp70 genes in Drosophila melanogaster
    Xulio Maside
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 12:1686-91. 2002
    ..This was particularly strong for the S-element inverted repeats (IRs) and suggests that these are of functional significance for the host...
  96. pmc Age-specific mortality rates of reproducing and non-reproducing males of Drosophila melanogaster
    Takahiro Miyo
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 271:2517-22. 2004
    ..The results show that mortality levelling is strongly affected by the Gompertz initial mortality rate and exponential rate of increase parameters, probably through the effects of heterogeneity in mortality risks...
  97. ncbi request reprint Sex chromosomes: evolution of the weird and wonderful
    Deborah Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratory, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 15:R129-31. 2005
    ....
  98. pmc The fate of transposable elements in asexual populations
    Elie S Dolgin
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 174:817-27. 2006
    ..These results may have important consequences for newly arisen asexual lineages and may account for the lack of deleterious retrotransposons in the putatively ancient asexual bdelloid rotifers...
  99. ncbi request reprint No association between mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and a female-limited mimicry phenotype in Papilio glaucus
    Peter Andolfatto
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Scotland, EH9 3JT United Kingdom
    Evolution 57:305-16. 2003
    ..This finding suggests that genetic exchanges between maternal and paternal mitochondrial DNAs may have contributed to the lack of association we observe between phenotype and genotype...
  100. pmc Towards a complete sequence of the human Y chromosome
    D Bachtrog
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Genome Biol 2:REVIEWS1016. 2001
    ..A few dozen genes are known on the human Y chromosome. The completion of the human genome sequence will allow identification of the remaining loci, which should shed further light on the function and evolution of this peculiar chromosome...
  101. ncbi request reprint Genealogies and weak purifying selection
    M Przeworski
    University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 16:246-52. 1999
    ..We caution, however, that the effect of weak selection on the genealogy is specific to the model; a (more realistic) model of multiple linked sites could lead to a more distorted genealogy than is observed for a single site...