Phillip C Calder


Affiliation: University of Southampton
Country: UK


  1. Baker E, Yusof M, Yaqoob P, Miles E, Calder P. Omega-3 fatty acids and leukocyte-endothelium adhesion: Novel anti-atherosclerotic actions. Mol Aspects Med. 2018;64:169-181 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that n-3 PUFAs may lower leukocyte infiltration into the vascular wall, which could contribute to reduced atherosclerosis and lowered risk of cardiovascular disease. ..
  2. Calder P. Rationale and use of n-3 fatty acids in artificial nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69:565-73 pubmed publisher
  3. Miles E, Calder P. Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic diseases in infancy and childhood. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20:946-53 pubmed
    ..Whether fish oil is a useful therapy in children with asthma receiving standard therapy is not clear from studies performed to date and this requires further exploration. ..
  4. Calder P. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851:469-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance". ..
  5. Bird J, Calder P, Eggersdorfer M. The Role of n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and Interactions with Statins. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical and mechanistic study results show both synergistic and antagonistic effects of statins and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids when used in combination. ..
  6. Calder P. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids. 2003;38:343-52 pubmed
    ..There are indications that the inclusion of fish oil in enteral and parenteral formulae is beneficial to patients. ..
  7. Innes J, Calder P. Omega-6 fatty acids and inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2018;132:41-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the interaction of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and their lipid mediators in the context of inflammation is complex and still not properly understood. ..
  8. Troesch B, Biesalski H, Bos R, Buskens E, Calder P, Saris W, et al. Increased Intake of Foods with High Nutrient Density Can Help to Break the Intergenerational Cycle of Malnutrition and Obesity. Nutrients. 2015;7:6016-37 pubmed publisher
  9. Calder P. n-3 fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: new mechanisms to explain old actions. Proc Nutr Soc. 2013;72:326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, recent research has identified a number of new mechanisms of action that help to explain previously identified effects of n-3 fatty acids on inflammation and immunity. ..

More Information


  1. Calder P. n-3 fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity--relevance to postsurgical and critically ill patients. Lipids. 2004;39:1147-61 pubmed
    ..Studies to date are suggestive of clinical benefits from these approaches, especially in postsurgical patients. ..
  2. Phillips M, Childs C, Calder P, Rogers P. No Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition and Mood in Individuals with Cognitive Impairment and Probable Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:24600-13 pubmed publisher
    ..More intervention studies need to be undertaken with longer study durations and larger sample sizes. It may prove fruitful to examine effects of different doses as well as effects in other dementia subtypes. ..
  3. de Castro G, Cardoso J, Calder P, Jordão A, Vannucchi H. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet. Nutrients. 2015;7:1644-56 pubmed publisher
    ..n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. ..
  4. Calder P. Session 3: Joint Nutrition Society and Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute Symposium on 'Nutrition and autoimmune disease' PUFA, inflammatory processes and rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008;67:409-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Randomised clinical trials have demonstrated a range of clinical benefits in patients with RA that include reducing pain, duration of morning stiffness and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ..
  5. Calder P. A Matter of Fat. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2015;39:756-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, it is concluded that high-fat enteral formulas should not be used in this patient group. ..
  6. Walker C, West A, Browning L, Madden J, Gambell J, Jebb S, et al. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions. Nutrients. 2015;7:6281-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. ..
  7. Calder P. The 2008 ESPEN Sir David Cuthbertson Lecture: Fatty acids and inflammation--from the membrane to the nucleus and from the laboratory bench to the clinic. Clin Nutr. 2010;29:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies to date are suggestive of clinical benefits from these approaches, although more robust data are needed especially in critically ill patients. ..
  8. de Castro G, Deminice R, Simões Ambrosio L, Calder P, Jordão A, Vannucchi H. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid influence liver triacylglycerol and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:1864-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet. ..
  9. Calder P. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammatory processes and inflammatory bowel diseases. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52:885-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical outcomes have been variably affected by fish oil, although some trials report improved gut histology, decreased disease activity, use of corticosteroids and relapse. ..
  10. Calder P. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75:645-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. ..
  11. Calder P. The relationship between the fatty acid composition of immune cells and their function. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008;79:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fatty acids influence immune cell function through a variety of complex mechanisms and these mechanisms are now beginning to be unraveled. ..
  12. Fuller R, Moore M, Lewith G, Stuart B, Ormiston R, Fisk H, et al. Yeast-derived β-1,3/1,6 glucan, upper respiratory tract infection and innate immunity in older adults. Nutrition. 2017;39-40:30-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be linked to effects on innate immune function. Larger studies are needed to confirm the benefits of β-1,3/1,6 glucan on URTIs in this older population. ..
  13. Calder P. Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668 Suppl 1:S50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 fatty acids may contribute to their protective actions towards atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and cardiovascular mortality. The therapeutic dose of n-3 fatty acids is not clear. ..
  14. Calder P, Jensen G, Koletzko B, Singer P, Wanten G. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:735-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient's physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements. ..
  15. Calder P. Functional Roles of Fatty Acids and Their Effects on Human Health. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2015;39:18S-32S pubmed publisher
  16. Calder P. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: New twists in an old tale. Biochimie. 2009;91:791-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed effects on transcription factors that regulate inflammatory gene expression (e.g. nuclear factor kappaB) seem to be important. ..
  17. Jones C, Calder P. Influence of different intravenous lipid emulsions on fatty acid status and laboratory and clinical outcomes in adult patients receiving home parenteral nutrition: A systematic review. Clin Nutr. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..Liver function was improved with SMOF. There may be benefits in using alternative IVLEs rather than pure SO in adults on HPN, but there are currently too few RCTs to reach a firm conclusion. ..
  18. Calder P, Yaqoob P. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes. Biofactors. 2009;35:266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the recognized health improvements brought about by long chain omega-3 fatty acids, recommendations have been made to increase their intake. ..
  19. de Castro G, Calder P. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Clin Nutr. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Marine n-3 PUFAs are likely to be an important tool for NAFLD treatment, although further studies are required to confirm this. ..
  20. Baker E, Miles E, Burdge G, Yaqoob P, Calder P. Metabolism and functional effects of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Prog Lipid Res. 2016;64:30-56 pubmed publisher
    ..SDA is more readily converted to EPA and appears to offer better potential for health improvement than ALA. However, conversion of both ALA and SDA to DHA is limited in most humans. ..
  21. Calder P. Lipids for intravenous nutrition in hospitalised adult patients: a multiple choice of options. Proc Nutr Soc. 2013;72:263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..More and better trials are needed in patient groups in which parenteral nutrition is used and where fish oil may offer benefits. ..
  22. Abdulrazaq M, Innes J, Calder P. Effect of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on arthritic pain: A systematic review. Nutrition. 2017;39-40:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the limitations identified in the RCTs included in this review, more research is needed to investigate ω-3 PUFAs in larger populations and over extended periods of time. ..
  23. Innes J, Calder P. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. ..
  24. Calder P. Long chain fatty acids and gene expression in inflammation and immunity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013;16:425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A wide range of fatty acids alter expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and function of cells involved in inflammation and immunity. ..
  25. Calder P. Long-chain fatty acids and inflammation. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012;71:284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the exposure of inflammatory cells to different types of fatty acids can influence their function and so has the potential to modify inflammatory processes. ..
  26. Calder P. Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids. J Nutr. 2012;142:592S-599S pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing the contents of EPA and DHA in membranes modifies the pattern of production of these different lipid mediators. ..
  27. Calder P. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes. Nutrients. 2010;2:355-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component. ..
  28. Edward R, Innes J, Marino L, Calder P. Influence of different intravenous lipid emulsions on growth, development and laboratory and clinical outcomes in hospitalised paediatric patients: A systematic review. Clin Nutr. 2018;37:765-783 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for larger trials to fully evaluate the effects of the available LE types in hospitalised paediatric patients. ..
  29. Calder P. Feeding the immune system. Proc Nutr Soc. 2013;72:299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain probiotic bacteria which modify the gut microbiota enhance immune function in laboratory animals and may do so in human subjects. ..
  30. Miles E, Calder P. Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease. ..
  31. Miles E, Calder P. The influence of the position of palmitate in infant formula triacylglycerols on health outcomes. Nutr Res. 2017;44:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies showing altered gut microbiota (human infants) and tissue endocannabinoids (rodent model) suggest the potential for marked physiological impact of high sn-2 palmitate that needs to be explored further in human trials. ..
  32. Calder P. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man. Biochem Soc Trans. 2017;45:1105-1115 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravenous n-3 fatty acids may have benefits in critically ill patients through reduced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving actions of EPA, DHA and their derivatives are of clinical relevance. ..
  33. Barros K, Flor Silveira V, Laranjeira M, Wandalsen N, Passeti S, de Oliveira R, et al. Evidence for Involvement of IL-9 and IL-22 in Cows' Milk Allergy in Infants. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
  34. Calder P, Adolph M, Deutz N, Grau T, Innes J, Klek S, et al. Lipids in the intensive care unit: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clin Nutr. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The ESPEN Expert Group supports the use of olive oil and FO in nutrition support in surgical and non-surgical ICU patients but considers that further research is required to provide a more robust evidence base. ..