Malcolm Burrows

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Jumping mechanisms in flatid planthoppers (Hemiptera, Flatidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 217:2590-600. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint Rapid swimming and escape movements in the aquatic larvae and pupae of the phantom midge Chaoborus crystallinus
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 217:2468-79. 2014
  3. doi request reprint Slowly contracting muscles power the rapid jumping of planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, England, UK
    Cell Tissue Res 355:213-22. 2014
  4. doi request reprint Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Science 341:1254-6. 2013
  5. doi request reprint Jumping mechanisms in gum treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Eurymelinae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 216:2682-90. 2013
  6. doi request reprint Jumping from the surface of water by the long-legged fly Hydrophorus (Diptera, Dolichopodidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 216:1973-81. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 216:788-99. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Pygmy mole crickets jump from water
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom, and School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UG, United Kingdom Electronic address
    Curr Biol 22:R990-1. 2012
  9. pmc Antibody labelling of resilin in energy stores for jumping in plant sucking insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e28456. 2011
  10. ncbi request reprint Jumping mechanisms in jumping plant lice (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Psyllidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 215:3612-21. 2012

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Jumping mechanisms in flatid planthoppers (Hemiptera, Flatidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 217:2590-600. 2014
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Rapid swimming and escape movements in the aquatic larvae and pupae of the phantom midge Chaoborus crystallinus
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 217:2468-79. 2014
    ..03±0.01 m s(-1). The pupal tail fan was membranous, oriented differently, had resilin at its articulations and its area could be changed. ..
  3. doi request reprint Slowly contracting muscles power the rapid jumping of planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, England, UK
    Cell Tissue Res 355:213-22. 2014
    ..A fast and powerful movement is thus generated by a slow muscle. ..
  4. doi request reprint Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Science 341:1254-6. 2013
    ..Close registration between the gears ensured that both hindlegs moved at the same angular velocities to propel the body without yaw rotation. At the final molt to adulthood, this synchronization mechanism is jettisoned. ..
  5. doi request reprint Jumping mechanisms in gum treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Eurymelinae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 216:2682-90. 2013
    ..This eurymelid therefore out-performs both leafhoppers and treehoppers in i ts faster acceleration and in its higher take-off velocity. ..
  6. doi request reprint Jumping from the surface of water by the long-legged fly Hydrophorus (Diptera, Dolichopodidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 216:1973-81. 2013
    ..Jumping can potentially therefore enhance survival when threatened by a potential predator...
  7. ncbi request reprint Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 216:788-99. 2013
    ..Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off...
  8. doi request reprint Pygmy mole crickets jump from water
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom, and School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UG, United Kingdom Electronic address
    Curr Biol 22:R990-1. 2012
    ..This enables these insects to propel a large volume of water downwards in a laminar flow, so that they are launched upwards into the air...
  9. pmc Antibody labelling of resilin in energy stores for jumping in plant sucking insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e28456. 2011
    ..The presence of resilin in these insects is thus now further supported by a molecular criterion that is immunohistochemically specific...
  10. ncbi request reprint Jumping mechanisms in jumping plant lice (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Psyllidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 215:3612-21. 2012
    ..In a rare jumping strategy seen in only two of 211 jumps analysed, the femoro-tibial joints extended further and resulted in the head pointing upwards at take-off and the spin rate being greatly reduced...
  11. ncbi request reprint Locusts use a composite of resilin and hard cuticle as an energy store for jumping and kicking
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 215:3501-12. 2012
    ..In this way all the stored energy is returned and the natural shape of the femur is restored rapidly so that a jump or kick can be repeated...
  12. pmc Epigenetic remodelling of brain, body and behaviour during phase change in locusts
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Neural Syst Circuits 1:11. 2011
    ..The analysis of phase change in locusts provides insights into a feedback circuit between the environment and epigenetic mechanisms and more generally into the neurobiology of social interaction...
  13. doi request reprint Jumping strategies and performance in shore bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Saldidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 212:106-15. 2009
    ..These jumps should propel it to a height of 105 mm or 30 times its body length and distances of 320 mm. The two jumping strategies achieve the same jumping performance...
  14. pmc Resilin and chitinous cuticle form a composite structure for energy storage in jumping by froghopper insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    BMC Biol 6:41. 2008
    ..How is this energy stored?..
  15. doi request reprint The effect of leg length on jumping performance of short- and long-legged leafhopper insects
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 211:1317-25. 2008
    ....
  16. doi request reprint Jumping in a wingless stick insect, Timema chumash (Phasmatodea, Timematodea, Timematidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 211:1021-8. 2008
    ..The jumping movements would appear to displace Timema in different directions away from a potential predator...
  17. pmc A single muscle moves a crustacean limb joint rhythmically by acting against a spring containing resilin
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK
    BMC Biol 7:27. 2009
    ..They play an integral part both in signalling by distributing urine odours, and in active chemosensation...
  18. doi request reprint Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 212:2844-55. 2009
    ..This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers...
  19. doi request reprint Energy storage and synchronisation of hind leg movements during jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 213:469-78. 2010
    ..These are key signatures of the rubber-like protein resilin. The remainder of a pleural arch consists of stiff cuticle. Bending these composite structures stores energy and their recoil powers jumping...
  20. doi request reprint Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England
    J Comp Neurol 518:1349-69. 2010
    ..Muscles 133b,c activated synchronously on both sides, are responsible for generating the power, and M133a and its giant neuron may play a role in triggering the release of a jump...
  21. doi request reprint Jumping mechanisms and performance of snow fleas (Mecoptera, Boreidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 214:2362-74. 2011
    ..This, therefore, provides a functional reference point for considerations about the phylogenetic relationships between snow fleas and true fleas...
  22. doi request reprint Jumping mechanisms and performance of pygmy mole crickets (Orthoptera, Tridactylidae)
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 213:2386-98. 2010
    ..Jumping on average uses 116 microJ of energy, requires a power output of 50 mW and exerts a force of 20 mN. In jumps powered by one hind leg the figures are about 40% less...
  23. ncbi request reprint The kinematics and neural control of high-speed kicking movements in the locust
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 204:3471-81. 2001
    ..When the tibia reaches full extension, inertial forces may cause it to bend by as much as 33 degrees at a plane of weakness in the proximal tibia, thus allowing further extension of the distal end...
  24. ncbi request reprint Kinematics of jumping in leafhopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:3579-89. 2007
    ..9 m s(-1) was achieved by an acceleration of 1055 m s(-2), equivalent to 108 times gravity. This jumping performance required an energy output of 77 microJ, a power output of 28 mW and exerted a force of 19 mN, or 100 times its body mass...
  25. ncbi request reprint Biomechanics: froghopper insects leap to new heights
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Nature 424:509. 2003
  26. ncbi request reprint Neural control and coordination of jumping in froghopper insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom
    J Neurophysiol 97:320-30. 2007
    ..These features of the motor pattern and the coupling between motor neurons to the two hind legs ensure powerful movements to propel rapid jumping...
  27. ncbi request reprint Jumping performance of froghopper insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 209:4607-21. 2006
    ..7 m s(-1) and involves an acceleration of 5400 m s(-2), equivalent to 550 times gravity. This jumping performance requires an energy output of 136 microJ, a power output of 155 mW and exerts a force of 66 mN...
  28. ncbi request reprint Morphology and action of the hind leg joints controlling jumping in froghopper insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 209:4622-37. 2006
    ..Larval Philaenus, which do not jump, lack a femoral protrusion and have no microtrichia in equivalent positions on either the coxa or femur...
  29. ncbi request reprint Jumping and kicking in bush crickets
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 206:1035-49. 2003
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Proprioceptors monitoring forces in a locust hind leg during kicking form negative feedback loops with flexor tibiae motor neurons
    Ken Sasaki
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 206:759-69. 2003
    ..It may also contribute to the inhibition of the flexors at the end of co-contraction that allows rapid kicking movements to occur...
  31. ncbi request reprint Jumping in a winged stick insect
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 205:2399-412. 2002
    ..Backward movements result in the insect falling with little horizontal displacement from its perch...
  32. ncbi request reprint Jumping and kicking in the false stick insect Prosarthria teretrirostris: kinematics and motor control
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 205:1519-30. 2002
    ..The jumping and kicking mechanisms of Prosarthria teretrirostris have features in common with those used by locusts but also have their own characteristics. The evolution of jumping in Orthoptera is discussed in this context...
  33. ncbi request reprint Jumping behaviour in a Gondwanan relict insect (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae)
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:3311-8. 2007
    ..When the time difference is larger, the rapid movement of just one hind leg results in the insect falling from its perch in an adaptive escape response...
  34. doi request reprint Serotonin mediates behavioral gregarization underlying swarm formation in desert locusts
    Michael L Anstey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 323:627-30. 2009
    ..Our data demonstrate a neurochemical mechanism linking interactions between individuals to large-scale changes in population structure and the onset of mass migration...
  35. doi request reprint Motor neurone responses during a postural reflex in solitarious and gregarious desert locusts
    Laura M Blackburn
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Insect Physiol 56:902-10. 2010
    ....
  36. pmc Spatiotemporal receptive field properties of a looming-sensitive neuron in solitarious and gregarious phases of the desert locust
    Stephen M Rogers
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Neurophysiol 103:779-92. 2010
    ..The DCMDs of both gregarious and solitarious locusts are able to detect approaching objects from across a wide expanse of visual space, but phase-specific changes in the spatiotemporal receptive field are linked to lifestyle changes...
  37. ncbi request reprint Anatomy of the hind legs and actions of their muscles during jumping in leafhopper insects
    Malcolm Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:3590-600. 2007
    ..These bursts of depressor spikes occur at the same time in the left and right muscles but none of the individual motor spikes appeared to be synchronous on the two sides...
  38. ncbi request reprint Substantial changes in central nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators accompany phase change in the locust
    Stephen M Rogers
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 207:3603-17. 2004
    ..Our data show that changes in levels of neuroactive substances are widespread in the central nervous system and reflect the time course of behavioural and physiological phase change...
  39. ncbi request reprint Compensatory plasticity at an identified synapse tunes a visuomotor pathway
    Stephen M Rogers
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 27:4621-33. 2007
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Processing of mechanosensory information from gustatory receptors on a hind leg of the locust
    P L Newland
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Comp Physiol A 174:399-410. 1994
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Mechanosensory-induced behavioural gregarization in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria
    Stephen M Rogers
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 206:3991-4002. 2003
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Output connections of a wind sensitive interneurone with motor neurones innervating flight steering muscles in the locust
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, England
    J Comp Physiol A 171:437-46. 1992
    ..These restricted output connections suggest a role for the A4I1 interneurones in flight steering...
  43. ncbi request reprint Synaptic activation of efferent neuromodulatory neurones in the locust Schistocerca gregaria
    S Baudoux
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 201:3339-54. 1998
    ..These results lend further support to the idea that there is a subdivision of action amongst this population of DUM neurones, with those supplying the same targets being driven by the same presynaptic local neurones...
  44. ncbi request reprint Spike width reduction modifies the dynamics of short-term depression at a central synapse in the locust
    J E Niven
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:7461-9. 2003
    ....
  45. doi request reprint Biomechanics of jumping in the flea
    Gregory P Sutton
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Exp Biol 214:836-47. 2011
    ..Based on these observations, we discount the hypothesis that fleas use their trochantera to apply forces to the ground and conclude that fleas jump by applying forces to the ground through the end of the tibiae...
  46. ncbi request reprint Motor patterns during kicking movements in the locust
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Comp Physiol A 176:289-305. 1995
    ..Flexibility in the networks producing the motor pattern therefore results in a range of movements suited to the fluctuating requirements of the animal...
  47. doi request reprint The mechanics of elevation control in locust jumping
    G P Sutton
    Zoology Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB23EJ, UK
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 194:557-63. 2008
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Responses of spiking local interneurones in the locust to proprioceptive signals from the femoral chordotonal organ
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, England
    J Comp Physiol A 164:207-17. 1988
    ..Some interneurones respond to repetitive movements with reliable bursts of spikes, whilst in others the frequency of spikes may be raised but may contain no cyclical information.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  49. ncbi request reprint GABA-like immunoreactivity in nonspiking interneurons of the locust metathoracic ganglion
    M Wildman
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 205:3651-9. 2002
    ..These nonspiking interneurons are therefore not an homogeneous population with regard to their putative transmitter...
  50. ncbi request reprint Effects of temperature on a central synapse between identified motor neurons in the locust
    M Burrows
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, England
    J Comp Physiol A 165:687-95. 1989
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  51. doi request reprint The mechanics of azimuth control in jumping by froghopper insects
    G P Sutton
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    J Exp Biol 213:1406-16. 2010
    ..This enables froghoppers to have a simple transform between initial body position and motion trajectory, therefore potentially simplifying neural control...
  52. ncbi request reprint Localisation of Even-skipped in the mature CNS of the locust, Schistocerca gregaria
    Sarah Bevan
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ, Cambridge, England
    Cell Tissue Res 313:237-44. 2003
    ..We suggest Eve helps maintain neural phenotype in the adult CNS, possibly by regulating the expression of cell adhesion molecules...
  53. ncbi request reprint Sensory afferents and motor neurons as targets for nitric oxide in the locust
    S R Ott
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 422:521-32. 2000
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Neurons controlling jumping in froghopper insects
    Peter Bräunig
    Institut f Biologie II Zoologie, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 507:1065-75. 2008
    ..The properties of the different motor neurons are discussed in the context of the neural patterns that generate jumping...
  55. ncbi request reprint Diversity and evolution of the insect ventral nerve cord
    Jeremy E Niven
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Republic of Panama
    Annu Rev Entomol 53:253-71. 2008
    ..The diversity in structure also shows that nervous systems may undergo dramatic morphological changes during evolution...
  56. ncbi request reprint Projection patterns of posterior dorsal unpaired median neurons of the locust subesophageal ganglion
    Peter Bräunig
    Institut Biologie II, RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 478:164-75. 2004
    ..Within this group of posterior DUM neurons, two additional cells were stained that have axons ascending to the brain...