Simon Baron-Cohen

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Can Asperger syndrome be diagnosed at 26 months old? A genetic high-risk single-case study
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Child Neurol 21:351-6. 2006
  2. pmc Emotion word comprehension from 4 to 16 years old: a developmental survey
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University Cambridge, UK
    Front Evol Neurosci 2:109. 2010
  3. pmc DSM-5: the debate continues
    Joseph D Buxbaum
    Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Departments of Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York NY 10029, USA
    Mol Autism 4:11. 2013
  4. pmc Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xiang Sun
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0SR, UK
    Mol Autism 4:7. 2013
  5. pmc Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 3:17. 2012
  6. pmc Failure to deactivate the default mode network indicates a possible endophenotype of autism
    Michael D Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 3:15. 2012
  7. pmc Self-referential and social cognition in a case of autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 3:14. 2012
  8. pmc Variation in the autism candidate gene GABRB3 modulates tactile sensitivity in typically developing children
    Teresa Tavassoli
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Mol Autism 3:6. 2012
  9. pmc Variation in the human cannabinoid receptor CNR1 gene modulates gaze duration for happy faces
    Bhismadev Chakrabarti
    Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AL, UK
    Mol Autism 2:10. 2011
  10. pmc Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies
    Joseph D Buxbaum
    Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment and Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Mol Autism 1:6. 2010

Detail Information

Publications131 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Can Asperger syndrome be diagnosed at 26 months old? A genetic high-risk single-case study
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Child Neurol 21:351-6. 2006
    ..We conclude that low levels of eye contact are not predictive of later development of Asperger syndrome...
  2. pmc Emotion word comprehension from 4 to 16 years old: a developmental survey
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University Cambridge, UK
    Front Evol Neurosci 2:109. 2010
    ..This normative developmental data-set for emotion vocabulary comprehension may be useful when testing for delays in this ability, as might arise for environmental or neurodevelopmental reasons...
  3. pmc DSM-5: the debate continues
    Joseph D Buxbaum
    Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Departments of Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York NY 10029, USA
    Mol Autism 4:11. 2013
    ....
  4. pmc Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xiang Sun
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0SR, UK
    Mol Autism 4:7. 2013
    ..This study synthesizes evidence relating to the prevalence of ASC in these areas and assesses the effects of research methodology on prevalence estimates...
  5. pmc Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 3:17. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  6. pmc Failure to deactivate the default mode network indicates a possible endophenotype of autism
    Michael D Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 3:15. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  7. pmc Self-referential and social cognition in a case of autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 3:14. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  8. pmc Variation in the autism candidate gene GABRB3 modulates tactile sensitivity in typically developing children
    Teresa Tavassoli
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Mol Autism 3:6. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  9. pmc Variation in the human cannabinoid receptor CNR1 gene modulates gaze duration for happy faces
    Bhismadev Chakrabarti
    Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AL, UK
    Mol Autism 2:10. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  10. pmc Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies
    Joseph D Buxbaum
    Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment and Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Mol Autism 1:6. 2010
    ..We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data...
  11. pmc Foetal testosterone and autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 1:11. 2010
    ..In this study, we tested whether FT is positively correlated with autistic traits in toddlers aged 18-24 months...
  12. pmc Defining the broader, medium and narrow autism phenotype among parents using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)
    Sally Wheelwright
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    Mol Autism 1:10. 2010
    ..In this paper, the use of the AQ to define the broader, medium and narrow autism phenotypes (BAP, MAP, NAP) is reported, and the proportion of parents with each phenotype is compared between the two groups...
  13. pmc Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient
    Howard Ring
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Funct 4:11. 2008
    ..abstract:..
  14. pmc Can emotion recognition be taught to children with autism spectrum conditions?
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:3567-74. 2009
    ..The implications for the design of autism-friendly interventions are also explored...
  15. pmc Two new theories of autism: hyper-systemising and assortative mating
    S Baron-Cohen
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Arch Dis Child 91:2-5. 2006
  16. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Science 310:819-23. 2005
    ..Here we suggest that specific aspects of autistic neuroanatomy may also be extremes of typical male neuroanatomy...
  17. doi request reprint Autism: the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1156:68-80. 2009
    ..The E-S theory is also extended to the extreme male brain theory as a way of understanding the biased sex ratio in autism. Etiological predictions are discussed, as are the clinical applications arising from the E-S theory...
  18. ncbi request reprint The hyper-systemizing, assortative mating theory of autism
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 2AH, UK
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:865-72. 2006
    ..They appear 'change-resistant'. This proposal extends the extreme male brain theory of autism. Finally, evidence is reviewed for autism being the genetic result of assortative mating of two high systemizers...
  19. ncbi request reprint Autism: a window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 2AH, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:109-26. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)--adolescent version
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, CB2 2AH, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 36:343-50. 2006
    ..none of the controls. Among the controls, boys scored higher than girls. The AQ can rapidly quantify where an adolescent is situated on the continuum from autism to normality...
  21. pmc Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:1377-83. 2009
    ..We conclude that the origins of the association between autism and talent begin at the sensory level, include excellent attention to detail and end with hyper-systemizing...
  22. doi request reprint Prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    University of Cambridge, Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 194:500-9. 2009
    ..Recent reports estimate the prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions in the UK to be 1%...
  23. doi request reprint Empathizing, systemizing, and the extreme male brain theory of autism
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University, Douglas House, Cambridge, UK
    Prog Brain Res 186:167-75. 2010
    ..People with autism spectrum conditions have below average empathy alongside intact or even above average interest in systems. As such, they can be conceptualized as an extreme of the typical male brain...
  24. pmc Why are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in males?
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001081. 2011
    ..Ultimately, as these theories are not mutually exclusive and ASC is multi-factorial, they may help explain the male prevalence of ASC...
  25. pmc The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358:361-74. 2003
    ..These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism...
  26. ncbi request reprint fMRI of parents of children with Asperger Syndrome: a pilot study
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Brain Cogn 61:122-30. 2006
    ..People with autism or Asperger Syndrome (AS) show altered patterns of brain activity during visual search and emotion recognition tasks. Autism and AS are genetic conditions and parents may show the 'broader autism phenotype.'..
  27. pmc Fetal programming effects of testosterone on the reward system and behavioral approach tendencies in humans
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 72:839-47. 2012
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Shared neural circuits for mentalizing about the self and others
    Michael V Lombardo
    University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Cogn Neurosci 22:1623-35. 2010
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Specialization of right temporo-parietal junction for mentalizing and its relation to social impairments in autism
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuroimage 56:1832-8. 2011
    ....
  30. pmc Psychological correlates of handedness and corpus callosum asymmetry in autism: the left hemisphere dysfunction theory revisited
    Dorothea L Floris
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 43:1758-72. 2013
    ..We found the opposite pattern for the isthmus and rostrum with better cognitive and less severe clinical scores associated with rightward lateralization. ..
  31. doi request reprint Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    Arch Sex Behav 41:571-81. 2012
    ..These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability...
  32. pmc Cognition in males and females with autism: similarities and differences
    Meng Chuan Lai
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e47198. 2012
    ..However, in specific non-social cognitive domains, performance within ASC depends on sex. This suggests that in specific domains, cognitive profiles in ASC are modulated by sex...
  33. ncbi request reprint Attention bias to faces in Asperger Syndrome: a pictorial emotion Stroop study
    Chris Ashwin
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Psychol Med 36:835-43. 2006
    ..Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neuropsychiatric condition with social and communication deficits, repetitive behaviours and narrow interests. Social deficits are particularly striking, including difficulties in understanding others...
  34. pmc A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions
    Meng Chuan Lai
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e20835. 2011
    ..We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males...
  35. ncbi request reprint Fetal testosterone and empathy
    Rebecca Knickmeyer
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, UK
    Horm Behav 49:282-92. 2006
    ..In humans, exposure to atypical levels of prenatal androgens may result in masculine behavior and ability patterns. Normal inter-individual variation in fT levels has also been correlated with later sex-typed behavior...
  36. ncbi request reprint The 'Reading the Mind in the Voice' test-revised: a study of complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions
    Ofer Golan
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, CB2 2AH, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 37:1096-106. 2007
    ..Verbal IQ was positively correlated with performance, and females performed worse than males in the AS/HFA group. Results are discussed with regard to multi modal empathizing deficits in autism spectrum conditions (ASC)...
  37. doi request reprint Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: an intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces
    Ofer Golan
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 40:269-79. 2010
    ..We conclude that using The Transporters significantly improves emotion recognition in children with ASC. Future research should evaluate the series' effectiveness with lower-functioning individuals...
  38. doi request reprint Fetal testosterone and autistic traits
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Br J Psychol 100:1-22. 2009
    ..These results need to be followed up in a much larger sample to test if clinical cases of ASC have elevated fT...
  39. pmc Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism
    Meng Chuan Lai
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18B, Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Brain 136:2799-815. 2013
    ..Future research should stratify by biological sex to reduce heterogeneity and to provide greater insight into the neurobiology of autism. ..
  40. pmc Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in male adults
    Meng Chuan Lai
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge Douglas House, 18B, Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Neuroimage 61:1347-54. 2012
    ..These results suggest an underlying neuroanatomical basis linked to the discrepancy between these two important dimensions of individual differences in cognitive style...
  41. doi request reprint Atypical neural self-representation in autism
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Douglas House, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Brain 133:611-24. 2010
    ..These observations reveal that the atypical organization of neural circuitry preferentially coding for self-information is a key mechanism at the heart of both self-referential and social impairments in autism...
  42. ncbi request reprint Reading the mind in the voice: a study with normal adults and adults with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism
    M D Rutherford
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 32:189-94. 2002
    ..These results are consistent with previous results suggesting that people with HFA and AS have difficulties drawing ToM inferences...
  43. doi request reprint Service provision for autism in mainland China: preliminary mapping of service pathways
    Xiang Sun
    Institute of Public Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, University of Cambridge, CB2 0SR, UK Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, University of Cambridge, CB2 2AH, UK Electronic address
    Soc Sci Med 98:87-94. 2013
    ..Delays in recognising ASC and a lack of support are also considered to be associated with the considerable financial burden placed on parents of children with ASC in mainland China. ..
  44. ncbi request reprint The Mandarin Chinese version of the childhood autism spectrum test (CAST): test-retest reliability
    Xiang Sun
    Cambridge Institute of Public Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, University of Cambridge, CB2 0SR, UK Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, University of Cambridge, CB2 2AH, UK Electronic address
    Res Dev Disabil 34:3267-75. 2013
    ..The correlation between the scores at CAST-1 and CAST-2 was good (Spearman rho=0.73). The Mandarin CAST demonstrated moderate to good test-retest reliability as a screening instrument for ASC in an assessment sample in mainland China...
  45. pmc Fetal testosterone influences sexually dimorphic gray matter in the human brain
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    J Neurosci 32:674-80. 2012
    ..These results bridge a long-standing gap between human and nonhuman species by showing that FT acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain...
  46. doi request reprint Fetal testosterone and empathy: evidence from the empathy quotient (EQ) and the "reading the mind in the eyes" test
    Emma Chapman
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Soc Neurosci 1:135-48. 2006
    ..These results also have implications for the causes of disabilities involving empathy, such as autism spectrum conditions, and may explain the increased rate of such conditions among males...
  47. doi request reprint Organizational effects of fetal testosterone on human corpus callosum size and asymmetry
    Lindsay R Chura
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:122-32. 2010
    ..We suggest that this possible organizational effect of FT on callosal asymmetry may also play a role in shaping sexual dimorphism in functional and structural brain development, cognition, and behavior...
  48. ncbi request reprint Differential activation of the amygdala and the 'social brain' during fearful face-processing in Asperger Syndrome
    Chris Ashwin
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Neuropsychologia 45:2-14. 2007
    ..HFA/AS are associated with different patterns of activation of social brain areas during fearful emotion processing, and the absence in the HFA/AS brain of a response to varying emotional intensity...
  49. ncbi request reprint Laterality biases to chimeric faces in Asperger syndrome: what is 'right' about face-processing?
    Chris Ashwin
    Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 35:183-96. 2005
    ..Further, the AS group showed an LVF bias in the non-social condition. These results show a differential pattern of hemispheric processing of faces in AS...
  50. pmc Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task as a functional magnetic resonance imaging endophenotype of autism
    Michael D Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Autism Research Centre, Douglas House, 18 b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Brain 135:3469-80. 2012
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): a normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits at 18-24 months of age: preliminary report
    Carrie Allison
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:1414-25. 2008
    ..8 (7.7)). The intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability was 0.82 (n = 330). The distribution in the control group was close to normal. Full examination of the clinical validity of the Q-CHAT and test properties is underway...
  52. ncbi request reprint The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children's Version (AQ-Child)
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:1230-40. 2008
    ..Factor analysis provided support for four of the five AQ-Child design subscales. Future studies should evaluate how the AQ-C performs in population screening...
  53. ncbi request reprint The development of perceptual expertise for faces and objects in autism spectrum conditions
    Cara Damiano
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Autism Res 4:297-301. 2011
    ..Although exploratory, these findings have implications for understanding the nature of the face processing deficit in ASC as well as offering potential insights into face processing interventions for individuals with ASC...
  54. ncbi request reprint Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children
    Rebecca Knickmeyer
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:198-210. 2005
    ..In animals, foetal testosterone (fT) plays a central role in organising the brain and in later social behaviour. fT has also been implicated in language development, eye-contact, and spatial ability in humans...
  55. doi request reprint A shift to randomness of brain oscillations in people with autism
    Meng Chuan Lai
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 68:1092-9. 2010
    ..5) to ordered (H = 1). Shifts in fractal scaling of physiological time series have been associated with neurological and cardiac conditions...
  56. ncbi request reprint The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing complex emotion recognition in adults with and without Asperger syndrome
    Ofer Golan
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, CB2 2AH, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 36:169-83. 2006
    ..The implications of these results are discussed in relation to social functioning in AS...
  57. doi request reprint Savant memory for digits in a case of synaesthesia and Asperger syndrome is related to hyperactivity in the lateral prefrontal cortex
    Daniel Bor
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Neurocase 13:311-9. 2007
    ..Further more, DT also has Asperger syndrome (AS). We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish whether these conditions may contribute to his savant abilities...
  58. doi request reprint Fetal testosterone and autistic traits: a response to three fascinating commentaries
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Br J Psychol 100:39-47. 2009
    ..This article is an author response to three previous commentaries on 'Fetal testosterone and autistic traits' (Auyeung et al., 2009)...
  59. doi request reprint The "reading the mind in films" task: complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions
    Ofer Golan
    Autism Research Centre, Psychiatry Dept, Cambridge University, UK
    Soc Neurosci 1:111-23. 2006
    ..The film format arguably is more challenging and ecologically closer to real social situations...
  60. doi request reprint The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): sex differences
    Joanna G Williams
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:1731-9. 2008
    ..We conclude that different profiles of social and communication skills in boys and girls must be taken into account when measuring these skills in the general population...
  61. ncbi request reprint The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): test accuracy
    Jo Williams
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, UK
    Autism 9:45-68. 2005
    ..There is not currently enough evidence to recommend the use of the CAST as a screening test within a public health screening programme in the general population...
  62. ncbi request reprint Positive and negative gaze perception in autism spectrum conditions
    Chris Ashwin
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Soc Neurosci 4:153-64. 2009
    ..This latter finding is consistent with the extreme male brain theory of autism, and with the idea that people with ASC have less gaze expertise...
  63. ncbi request reprint Gender-typed play and amniotic testosterone
    Rebecca Christine Knickmeyer
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Dev Psychol 41:517-28. 2005
    ..A critique of explanations for this finding is presented...
  64. ncbi request reprint Change detection in children with autism: an auditory event-related fMRI study
    Marie Gomot
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK
    Neuroimage 29:475-84. 2006
    ..Abnormalities involved a cortical network known to have a role in attention switching and attentional resource distribution. These results throw light on the neurophysiological processes underlying autistic 'resistance to change'...
  65. ncbi request reprint The Friendship Questionnaire: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Department of Experimental Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 33:509-17. 2003
    ..The FQ thus reveals both a sex difference in the style of friendship in the general population, and provides support for the extreme male brain theory of autism...
  66. ncbi request reprint The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): test-retest reliability
    Jo Williams
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK
    Autism 10:415-27. 2006
    ..The correlation between the two test scores was 0.83 (Spearman's rho). The CAST has shown good test-retest reliability, and now requires further investigation in a high-scoring sample...
  67. ncbi request reprint Finding a face in the crowd: testing the anger superiority effect in Asperger Syndrome
    Chris Ashwin
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Brain Cogn 61:78-95. 2006
    ..We conclude there are intact threat detection mechanisms in AS, under simple and predictable conditions, but that like other face-perception tasks, the visual search of threat faces task reveals atypical face-processing in HFA/AS...
  68. doi request reprint Autism
    Meng Chuan Lai
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Electronic address
    Lancet 383:896-910. 2014
    ..Drugs can reduce comorbid symptoms, but do not directly improve social communication. Creation of a supportive environment that accepts and respects that the individual is different is crucial. ..
  69. doi request reprint Service provision for autism in mainland China: a service providers' perspective
    Xiang Sun
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Forvie Site, Robinson Way CB2 0SR, UK
    Res Dev Disabil 34:440-51. 2013
    ..The structure of service provision for ASC is under-developed. There is an important need to establish coherent healthcare and education policies to support children with ASC and their families...
  70. doi request reprint Are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in an information-technology region? A school-based study of three regions in the Netherlands
    Martine T Roelfsema
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, CB2 8AH Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:734-9. 2012
    ..Phase two is planned to validate school-reported cases using standardized diagnostic methods and to explore the possible causes for these differences...
  71. ncbi request reprint Empathising and systemising in adults with and without Asperger Syndrome
    John Lawson
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge, CB2 2AH, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 34:301-10. 2004
    ..Alternative explanations of the results are also explored, including an interpretation through the idea of open and closed systems...
  72. ncbi request reprint Systemizing empathy: teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia
    Ofer Golan
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge, UK
    Dev Psychopathol 18:591-617. 2006
    ..Using Mind Reading for a relatively short period of time allows users to learn to recognize a variety of complex emotions and mental states. However, additional methods are required to enhance generalization...
  73. ncbi request reprint The N170 is not modulated by attention in autism spectrum conditions
    Owen Churches
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuroreport 21:399-403. 2010
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint The children's Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: sex differences in typical development and in autism spectrum conditions
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 39:1509-21. 2009
    ..Empathy and systemizing in children show similar patterns of sex differences to those observed in adults. Children with ASC tend towards a 'hyper-masculinized' profile, irrespective of sex...
  75. ncbi request reprint The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, CB2 2AH United Kingdom
    J Autism Dev Disord 34:163-75. 2004
    ..This confirmed that women scored significantly higher than men. The EQ reveals both a sex difference in empathy in the general population and an empathy deficit in AS/HFA...
  76. doi request reprint Empathizing with basic emotions: common and discrete neural substrates
    Bhismadev Chakrabarti
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK
    Soc Neurosci 1:364-84. 2006
    ..This pattern of results is interpreted using a modification of Haxby et al.'s model of face perception...
  77. doi request reprint The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian version: a cross-cultural confirmation of the broader autism phenotype
    Liliana Ruta
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:625-33. 2012
    ..To understand the molecular basis of these phenotypes will require its use in genetic association studies...
  78. doi request reprint Toward brief “Red Flags” for autism screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist for Autism in toddlers in 1,000 cases and 3,000 controls [corrected]
    Carrie Allison
    Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University, Department of Psychiatry, UK
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51:202-212.e7. 2012
    ..91, specificity was 0.89, and PPV was 0.58. Internal consistency was >0.85 on all measures. Conclusions: The short measures have potential to aid referral decision making for specialist assessment and should be further evaluated...
  79. ncbi request reprint Empathizing: neurocognitive developmental mechanisms and individual differences
    Bhismadev Chakrabarti
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Psychiatry Department, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Prog Brain Res 156:403-17. 2006
    ....
  80. doi request reprint Moral dilemmas film task: A study of spontaneous narratives by individuals with autism spectrum conditions
    Jennifer L Barnes
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, UK
    Autism Res 2:148-56. 2009
    ..This new film task has the potential to assay different aspects of how the social world is represented differently in ASC, including during moral comprehension...
  81. ncbi request reprint Diagnosing and phenotyping visual synaesthesia: a preliminary evaluation of the revised test of genuineness (TOG-R)
    Julian E Asher
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Cortex 42:137-46. 2006
    ..They were further sub-phenotyped based on responses to sub-groups of stimuli into word-colour (WC) and music-colour (MC). Development of this instrument has important implications for the diagnosis and phenotyping of visual synaesthesia...
  82. doi request reprint The role of the self in mindblindness in autism
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Conscious Cogn 20:130-40. 2011
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Brief report: prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in children aged 5-11 years in Cambridgeshire, UK
    Fiona J Scott
    Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, UK
    Autism 6:231-7. 2002
    ..5 percent. The overall sex ratio of the children with ASC replicated findings for classical autism of 4:1 (M:F), but in those children being educated in mainstream schools the sex ratio was 8:1 (M:F)...
  84. pmc Fetal testosterone predicts sexually differentiated childhood behavior in girls and in boys
    Bonnie Auyeung
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Psychol Sci 20:144-8. 2009
    ....
  85. pmc Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism
    Michael V Lombardo
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e883. 2007
    ..We aimed to evaluate across several well validated measures in both domains, whether both self-referential cognition and empathy are impaired in ASC and whether these two domains are related to each other...
  86. ncbi request reprint The 'Reading the Mind in Films' Task [child version]: complex emotion and mental state recognition in children with and without autism spectrum conditions
    Ofer Golan
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Autism Dev Disord 38:1534-41. 2008
    ..Our findings reveal that children with ASC have residual difficulties in this aspect of empathy. The use of language-based compensatory strategies for emotion recognition is discussed...
  87. ncbi request reprint Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions
    Erin Ingudomnukul
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Rd, Cambridge, CB2 8AH, UK
    Horm Behav 51:597-604. 2007
    ..The relationship between FT and current testosterone levels also needs to be clarified. The present results may be relevant to understanding the increased male risk to developing autism...
  88. ncbi request reprint The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): test-retest reliability in a high scoring sample
    Carrie Allison
    University of Cambridge, UK
    Autism 11:173-85. 2007
    ..The correlation between the two test scores was 0.67 (Spearman's rho). The CAST shows moderate test-retest reliability in a high scoring sample, further evidence that it is a relatively robust screening tool for epidemiological research...
  89. doi request reprint Eagle-eyed visual acuity: an experimental investigation of enhanced perception in autism
    Emma Ashwin
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 65:17-21. 2009
    ..However, it remains unclear whether these abilities are specifically the result of differences in sensory thresholds (low-level processing), rather than higher-level cognitive processes...
  90. ncbi request reprint Functional disconnectivity of the medial temporal lobe in Asperger's syndrome
    David E Welchew
    Brain Mapping Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 57:991-8. 2005
    ..Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental conditions that may be caused by abnormal connectivity between brain regions constituting neurocognitive networks for specific aspects of social cognition...
  91. ncbi request reprint Autism, hypersystemizing, and truth
    Simon Baron-Cohen
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 61:64-75. 2008
    ..If "truth" is defined as lawful patterns in data then, according to the hypersystemizing theory, people with ASC are strongly driven to discover the "truth"...
  92. ncbi request reprint Variations in the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene modulate striatal responses to happy faces
    Bhismadev Chakrabarti
    Autism Research Centre, Douglas House, 18 B, Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:1944-8. 2006
    ..This has implications for medical conditions involving hypo-responsivity to emotional and social stimuli, such as autism...
  93. ncbi request reprint Increased serum androstenedione in adults with autism spectrum conditions
    Liliana Ruta
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 36:1154-63. 2011
    ..02). This result is discussed in terms of androstenedione being the immediate precursor of, and being converted into, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estrogens in hormone-sensitive tissues and organs...
  94. ncbi request reprint Theory of mind in patients with frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease: theoretical and practical implications
    Carol Gregory
    Fulbourn Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Brain 125:752-64. 2002
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that patients with fvFTD, but not those with Alzheimer's disease, are impaired on tests of ToM, and may explain some of the abnormalities in interpersonal behaviour that characterize fvFTD...
  95. doi request reprint Psychophysical measures of visual acuity in autism spectrum conditions
    Teresa Tavassoli
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK
    Vision Res 51:1778-80. 2011
    ..Future research should examine at which level of visual processing sensory differences emerge...
  96. doi request reprint Real-time evaluation of experimental variation in large-scale LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics of complex samples
    Yishai Levin
    Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT, UK
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:1299-305. 2009
    ..This concept is shown for two types of complex biological samples: serum samples and fibroblast samples. In both studies QC samples were added among dozens of clinical ones and analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomic platform...
  97. ncbi request reprint Systemizing influences attentional processes during the Navon task: an fMRI study
    Jac Billington
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK
    Neuropsychologia 46:511-20. 2008
    ..Results are discussed in terms of a heightened ability to maintain an attentional set in those with a high systemizing cognitive style...
  98. doi request reprint Seeing face-like objects: an event-related potential study
    Owen Churches
    Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuroreport 20:1290-4. 2009
    ..The N170 was larger (more negative) to objects classified as face like than to those classified as non-face like. These data suggest that the amplitude of the N170 to objects is affected by the face-likeness of the objects...