James Alexander

Summary

Affiliation: University of Strathclyde
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc T helper1/t helper2 cells and resistance/susceptibility to leishmania infection: is this paradigm still relevant?
    James Alexander
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde Glasgow, UK
    Front Immunol 3:80. 2012
  2. pmc Endogenous IL-13 plays a crucial role in liver granuloma maturation during Leishmania donovani infection, independent of IL-4Rα-responsive macrophages and neutrophils
    Emma McFarlane
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    J Infect Dis 204:36-43. 2011
  3. pmc BALB/c mice deficient in CD4 T cell IL-4Rα expression control Leishmania mexicana Load although female but not male mice develop a healer phenotype
    Karen J Bryson
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e930. 2011
  4. ncbi request reprint T helper (h)1/Th2 and Leishmania: paradox rather than paradigm
    James Alexander
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The Todd Wing, John Arbuthnott Building, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Immunol Lett 99:17-23. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint An essential role for IL-13 in maintaining a non-healing response following Leishmania mexicana infection
    James Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland, GB, UK
    Eur J Immunol 32:2923-33. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Endogenous IL-4 is necessary for effective drug therapy against visceral leishmaniasis
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, GB
    Eur J Immunol 30:2935-43. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Leishmania species: models of intracellular parasitism
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Todd Centre, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    J Cell Sci 112:2993-3002. 1999
  8. doi request reprint Can type-1 responses against intracellular pathogens be T helper 2 cytokine dependent?
    James Alexander
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONR, UK
    Microbes Infect 10:953-9. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint The role of IL-4 in adult acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Int J Parasitol 28:113-20. 1998
  10. pmc Overexpression of the natural inhibitor of cysteine peptidases in Leishmania mexicana leads to reduced virulence and a Th1 response
    Karen Bryson
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 77:2971-8. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. pmc T helper1/t helper2 cells and resistance/susceptibility to leishmania infection: is this paradigm still relevant?
    James Alexander
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde Glasgow, UK
    Front Immunol 3:80. 2012
    ..In particular we update on our studies using conditional IL-4Rα gene-deficient mice that have allowed dissection of the cell interplay dictating the disease outcomes of the major Leishmania species infecting humans...
  2. pmc Endogenous IL-13 plays a crucial role in liver granuloma maturation during Leishmania donovani infection, independent of IL-4Rα-responsive macrophages and neutrophils
    Emma McFarlane
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    J Infect Dis 204:36-43. 2011
    ..Consequently, in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice, IL-13 promotes hepatic granuloma formation and controls parasite burdens independently of direct effects on macrophages/neutrophils...
  3. pmc BALB/c mice deficient in CD4 T cell IL-4Rα expression control Leishmania mexicana Load although female but not male mice develop a healer phenotype
    Karen J Bryson
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e930. 2011
    ..mexicana, initial lesion growth in BALB/c mice is dependent on non-T cell population(s) responsive to IL-4/IL-13 while progressive infection is dependent on CD4(+) T cells responsive to IL-4...
  4. ncbi request reprint T helper (h)1/Th2 and Leishmania: paradox rather than paradigm
    James Alexander
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The Todd Wing, John Arbuthnott Building, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Immunol Lett 99:17-23. 2005
    ..Clearly a reappraisal of our current understanding of the role of IL-4 and the Th2 response in the immunobiology of leishmaniasis is required and this review seeks to address this issue...
  5. ncbi request reprint An essential role for IL-13 in maintaining a non-healing response following Leishmania mexicana infection
    James Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland, GB, UK
    Eur J Immunol 32:2923-33. 2002
    ..Collectively our results suggest that IL-4 plays a critical role in early lesion development, and that IL-13 plays a crucial part in maintaining a chronic non-healing infection...
  6. ncbi request reprint Endogenous IL-4 is necessary for effective drug therapy against visceral leishmaniasis
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, GB
    Eur J Immunol 30:2935-43. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that IL-4 has an important role in effective anti-leishmanial chemotherapy which seems to be related to modulation of IFN-gamma production...
  7. ncbi request reprint Leishmania species: models of intracellular parasitism
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Todd Centre, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    J Cell Sci 112:2993-3002. 1999
    ..Furthermore, characterization of immunological pathways that are responsible for resistance or susceptibility to Leishmania has given rise to the Th1/Th2 paradigm of cellular/humoral dominance of the immune response...
  8. doi request reprint Can type-1 responses against intracellular pathogens be T helper 2 cytokine dependent?
    James Alexander
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONR, UK
    Microbes Infect 10:953-9. 2008
    ..This article reviews, using Leishmania species in particular, the circumstances under which these cytokines can promote protective type-1 immunity...
  9. ncbi request reprint The role of IL-4 in adult acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Int J Parasitol 28:113-20. 1998
    ..These studies demonstrate a role for IL-4 in pregnancy-induced immunosuppression and the associated increased susceptibility to T. gondii infection...
  10. pmc Overexpression of the natural inhibitor of cysteine peptidases in Leishmania mexicana leads to reduced virulence and a Th1 response
    Karen Bryson
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 77:2971-8. 2009
    ..This study confirms that L. mexicana CPs are virulence factors and that ICPs have therapeutic potential...
  11. pmc Neutrophils contribute to development of a protective immune response during onset of infection with Leishmania donovani
    Emma McFarlane
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 76:532-41. 2008
    ..donovani, both as effector cells involved in the killing of the parasites and as significant players influencing the development of a protective Th1 immune response...
  12. doi request reprint Lipid vesicle size of an oral influenza vaccine delivery vehicle influences the Th1/Th2 bias in the immune response and protection against infection
    Jamie F S Mann
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland, UK
    Vaccine 27:3643-9. 2009
    ....
  13. pmc Selective inhibition and augmentation of alternative macrophage activation by progesterone
    Fiona M Menzies
    Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Immunology 134:281-91. 2011
    ..Our data demonstrate for the first time that a hormone has the ability to regulate selectively the expression of different genes associated with alternative macrophage activation...
  14. doi request reprint IL-33 receptor (T1/ST2) signalling is necessary to prevent the development of encephalitis in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii
    Leigh A Jones
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Immunol 40:426-36. 2010
    ..This study provides the first evidence of a specific role for IL-33 receptor signalling in the brain as well as highlighting the requirement of this mechanism in limiting infection with an intracellular parasite...
  15. pmc MAP kinase phosphatase-2 plays a key role in the control of infection with Toxoplasma gondii by modulating iNOS and arginase-1 activities in mice
    Stuart Woods
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003535. 2013
    ..However, the effects of arginase-1 were transient and ultimately the role of iNOS was paramount in facilitating long-term inhibition of parasite multiplication within macrophages...
  16. pmc MAP kinase phosphatase-2 plays a critical role in response to infection by Leishmania mexicana
    Mashael S Al-Mutairi
    Division of Physiology and Pharmacology, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001192. 2010
    ..These findings show for the first time a role for MKP-2 in vivo and demonstrate that MKP-2 may be essential in orchestrating protection against intracellular infection at the level of the macrophage...
  17. doi request reprint Interleukin-18 enhances a Th2 biased response and susceptibility to Leishmania mexicana in BALB/c mice
    Karen Jane Bryson
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Microbes Infect 10:834-9. 2008
    ..Consequently IL-18 during L. mexicana infection of BALB/c mice promotes a Th2 biased response and thereby has a disease exacerbating role...
  18. pmc Neither interleukin-4 receptor alpha expression on CD4+ T cells, or macrophages and neutrophils is required for protective immunity to Trichinella spiralis
    Chesney E Michels
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Immunology 128:e385-94. 2009
    ..Together, this shows that the development of host protective Th2 responses accompanied by parasite loss is independent of IL-4Ralpha expression on CD4(+) T cells and macrophages/neutrophils...
  19. doi request reprint Differential modulation of TLR3- and TLR4-mediated dendritic cell maturation and function by progesterone
    Leigh A Jones
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 185:4525-34. 2010
    ..Overall, these studies demonstrate that progesterone can differentially regulate the signaling pathways employed by TLR3 and TLR4 agonists to affect costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine production...
  20. pmc Leishmania mexicana promastigotes inhibit macrophage IL-12 production via TLR-4 dependent COX-2, iNOS and arginase-1 expression
    Muhannad Shweash
    Division of Physiology and Pharmacology, Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Mol Immunol 48:1800-8. 2011
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint The Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease, CPB2.8, induces potent Th2 responses
    Kevin G J Pollock
    Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:1746-53. 2003
    ..8 resulted in a degree of protection associated with inhibition of lesion growth and a Th1 response. Thus, CPB2.8 is a potent Th2-inducing molecule capable of significant vaccine potential if administered with a suitable adjuvant...
  22. ncbi request reprint Oral delivery of tetanus toxoid using vesicles containing bile salts (bilosomes) induces significant systemic and mucosal immunity
    Jamie F S Mann
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, John Arbuthnott Building, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Methods 38:90-5. 2006
    ..However, both bilosome formulations (BV-TT, low, and high doses), though not un-entrapped TT, caused a rise in the numbers of IgA positive plasma cells observed in the small intestine, primarily in the first 15 cm of the small intestine...
  23. pmc Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin M limits parasite dissemination by preventing host cell invasion
    Kevin N Couper
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 73:8060-8. 2005
    ..gondii infection. Our results highlight an important role for parasite-specific IgM in limiting systemic dissemination of tachyzoites during early acute T. gondii infection...
  24. pmc Toll-like receptor-4-mediated macrophage activation is differentially regulated by progesterone via the glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors
    Leigh A Jones
    Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Immunology 125:59-69. 2008
    ..gondii during pregnancy is more likely to be related to the ability of the hormone to downregulate IL-12 production and a type-1 response utilizing the progesterone as well as the glucocorticoid receptors...
  25. ncbi request reprint Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling
    J M Brewer
    Department of Immunology, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 163:6448-54. 1999
    ..We conclude that alum adjuvants can induce IL-4 production and Th2 responses independently of IL-4 or IL-13, negating the requirement for an early source of IL-4 in the Th2 response induced by this adjuvant...
  26. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage IL-12 production by Leishmania mexicana amastigotes: the role of cysteine peptidases and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway
    Pamela Cameron
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 173:3297-304. 2004
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that the amastigote-specific cysteine peptidases of L. mexicana are central to the ability of the parasite to modulate signaling via NF-kappaB and consequently inhibit IL-12 production...
  27. pmc Interleukin-33 exacerbates acute colitis via interleukin-4 in mice
    Peter N Pushparaj
    Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Immunology 140:70-7. 2013
    ..Hence, IL-33 signalling via ST2, by inducing an IL-4-dependent immune response, may be a major pathogenic factor in the exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. ..
  28. pmc Biochemical and immunological characterization of Toxoplasma gondii macrophage migration inhibitory factor
    Caroline Sommerville
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 288:12733-41. 2013
    ..TgMIF may therefore play an immunomodulatory role during T. gondii infection in mammals...
  29. ncbi request reprint In interleukin-4-deficient mice, alum not only generates T helper 1 responses equivalent to freund's complete adjuvant, but continues to induce T helper 2 cytokine production
    J M Brewer
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
    Eur J Immunol 26:2062-6. 1996
    ..However, although production of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 was totally inhibited in IL-4-deficient mice inoculated with FCA/OVA, there was no significant difference in IL-5 production between the two strains when alum was used as adjuvant...
  30. ncbi request reprint Intestinal pathology during acute toxoplasmosis is IL-4 dependent and unrelated to parasite burden
    M B Nickdel
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Parasite Immunol 26:75-82. 2004
    ..The exacerbatory role of IL-4 in the intestine was found by competitive RT-PCR not to be associated with increased parasite burdens but was related to comparative expression of IL-10...
  31. pmc T cell hypo-responsiveness against Leishmania major in MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) 2 deficient C57BL/6 mice does not alter the healer disease phenotype
    Juliane Schroeder
    Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2064. 2013
    ..Consequently, in the absence of any switch in the T(H)1/T(H)2 balance in MKP-2(-/-) mice, no significant change in disease phenotype was observed...
  32. pmc Imaging of the host/parasite interplay in cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Owain R Millington
    Centre for Biophotonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Exp Parasitol 126:310-7. 2010
    ..Here, we review some of the recent developments and discuss how these observations can be further developed to understand the immunology of cutaneous Leishmania infection in vivo...
  33. ncbi request reprint CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice
    Damo Xu
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:394-9. 2003
    ..Our results therefore document that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress both Th1 and Th2 cells and that these regulatory T cells have a profound therapeutic potential against diseases induced by both Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo...
  34. pmc Interleukin-18 plays a role in both the alum-induced T helper 2 response and the T helper 1 response induced by alum-adsorbed interleukin-12
    Kevin G J Pollock
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Immunology 108:137-43. 2003
    ..These results indicate that while alum-induced IL-18 can facilitate Th2 induction, the addition of exogenous IL-18 cannot further enhance the alum-induced Th2 response...
  35. pmc Disruption of the murine interleukin-4 gene inhibits disease progression during Leishmania mexicana infection but does not increase control of Leishmania donovani infection
    A Satoskar
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 63:4894-9. 1995
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words)..
  36. pmc Neither interleukin-6 nor signalling via tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 contribute to the adjuvant activity of Alum and Freund's adjuvant
    J M Brewer
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Immunology 93:41-8. 1998
    ..Furthermore, the results also imply that immunopotentiating effects of FCA or Alum adjuvant are both inhibited by IL-6...
  37. doi request reprint Analysis of intracellular enzyme activity by surface enhanced Raman scattering
    Ross Stevenson
    Centre for Molecular Nanometrology, WestCHEM, Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G1 1XL, UK
    Analyst 138:6331-6. 2013
    ....
  38. pmc Sex-associated hormones and immunity to protozoan parasites
    C W Roberts
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor St, Glasgow G4 ONR, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:476-88. 2001
    ..In this article we review the impact of sex-associated hormones on the immune system and the development and maintenance of immunity to the intracellular protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., and Leishmania spp...
  39. ncbi request reprint Cytokines and the mechanisms of action of vaccine adjuvants
    J M Brewer
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Todd Centre, Glasgow, UK
    Cytokines Cell Mol Ther 3:233-46. 1997
    ..The initial studies described in this review indicate that cytokines play an important, if not the central, role in the ability of adjuvants to influence both the quantity and quality of immune responses...
  40. ncbi request reprint DNA vaccination with the immunodominant tachyzoite surface antigen (SAG-1) protects against adult acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection but does not prevent maternofoetal transmission
    Kevin N Couper
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, John Arbuthnott Building, Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland, UK
    Vaccine 21:2813-20. 2003
    ..The results indicate differences in the protective mechanisms operating between adult acquired disease and congenital transmission and have significant implications for future vaccine development...
  41. ncbi request reprint Optimisation of a lipid based oral delivery system containing A/Panama influenza haemagglutinin
    Jamie F S Mann
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Arbuthnott Building, SIBS, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, G4 0NR, Scotland, UK
    Vaccine 22:2425-9. 2004
    ..009) and was equivalent to antigen administration by the subcutaneous route. No IgG2a was induced, indicating the generation of a TH2 response. Significant mucosal IgA levels were also observed with this treatment group (P=0.05)...
  42. ncbi request reprint Lipid vesicle size determines the Th1 or Th2 response to entrapped antigen
    J M Brewer
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
    J Immunol 161:4000-7. 1998
    ..Our results therefore indicate that macrophages respond to endocytosis of large or small vesicles by producing different patterns of cytokines that can subsequently direct the immune response toward a Th1 or a Th2 phenotype...
  43. doi request reprint Rapid cell mapping using nanoparticles and SERRS
    Robert J Stokes
    Centre for Molecular Nanometrology, WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, UKG1 1XL
    Analyst 134:170-5. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Ocular toxoplasmosis: in the storm of the eye
    L A Jones
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Parasite Immunol 28:635-42. 2006
    ..Taking into account the opposing needs of limiting parasite multiplication and minimizing tissue destruction we review the pathogenesis of OT in the murine model...
  45. ncbi request reprint Parasite-specific IgM plays a significant role in the protective immune response to asexual erythrocytic stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection
    K N Couper
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, UK
    Parasite Immunol 27:171-80. 2005
    ..Specific IgM therefore plays an important role in the limitation of parasite replication during asexual erythrocytic P. chabaudi AS infection...
  46. doi request reprint Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection
    S A Henriquez
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, UK
    Neuroimmunomodulation 16:122-33. 2009
    ..Potential mechanisms responsible for these changes in behaviour including the role of tryptophan metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed...
  47. pmc Sequential expression of macrophage anti-microbial/inflammatory and wound healing markers following innate, alternative and classical activation
    F M Menzies
    Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 160:369-79. 2010
    ....
  48. pmc Immunological studies of chronic ocular toxoplasmosis: up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and transforming growth factor beta and a protective role for interleukin-6
    R E Lyons
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
    Infect Immun 69:2589-95. 2001
    ..These results demonstrate alterations to components of immune privilege as a result of ocular toxoplasmosis and a role for IL-6 in controlling parasite numbers and inflammation in the eye...
  49. ncbi request reprint Translation of an experimental oral vaccine formulation into a commercial product
    K C Carter
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Methods 38:65-8. 2006
    ..The review is intended as a practical guide that will allow other researchers to adopt effective strategies to permit the translation of an effective experimental formulation to a viable commercial product...
  50. ncbi request reprint Protection against the early acute phase of Cryptosporidium parvum infection conferred by interleukin-4-induced expression of T helper 1 cytokines
    Stuart A C McDonald
    Department of Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Digestive Diseases Research Centre, Barts and the London School of Medicine, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 190:1019-25. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that, early during C. parvum infection of BALB/c mice, there is production of IL-4 that promotes Th1-mediated immunity...
  51. ncbi request reprint Cysteine peptidases as virulence factors of Leishmania
    Jeremy C Mottram
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 7:375-81. 2004
    ..These topics are the focus of this review...
  52. ncbi request reprint Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral disease?
    Diane McMahon-Pratt
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Immunol Rev 201:206-24. 2004
    ..These variations not only point to interesting features of the host-pathogen interaction and immunobiology of this genus of parasitic protozoa, but also have important implications for immunotherapy and vaccine development...
  53. ncbi request reprint Pinpointing IL-4-independent acquisition and IL-4-influenced maintenance of Th2 activity by CD4 T cells
    Adam F Cunningham
    The Medical Research Council Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, GB
    Eur J Immunol 34:686-94. 2004
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint The role of interleukin-10 in susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania amazonensis
    Udaikumar M Padigel
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 171:3705-10. 2003
    ..amazonensis, does play a significant role in regulating the development of a protective Th1-type response. However, effective resolution of infection with these New World parasites requires neutralization of both IL-4 and IL-10...
  55. ncbi request reprint Natural antibodies and complement are endogenous adjuvants for vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses
    Simona Stager
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK
    Nat Med 9:1287-92. 2003
    ..We propose that this function of natural antibodies could be exploited when developing new vaccines for infectious diseases...
  56. pmc Deletion of IL-4Ralpha on CD4 T cells renders BALB/c mice resistant to Leishmania major infection
    Magdalena Radwanska
    PLoS Pathog 3:e68. 2007
    ..Furthermore, a beneficial role for IL-4Ralpha signaling in L. major infection is revealed in which IL-4/IL-13-responsive non-CD4+ T cells induce protective responses...
  57. ncbi request reprint Cysteine protease B of Leishmania mexicana inhibits host Th1 responses and protective immunity
    Laurence U Buxbaum
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Immunol 171:3711-7. 2003
    ..major. These data indicate that cysteine proteases of L. mexicana are critical in suppressing protective immune responses and that inhibition of CPB may prove to be a valuable immunomodulatory strategy for chronic forms of leishmaniasis...
  58. pmc Both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4 receptor alpha signaling contribute to the development of hepatic granulomas with optimal antileishmanial activity
    Simona Stager
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 71:4804-7. 2003
    ..IL-4 and IL-13 appear to play little role in regulating collagen deposition in L. donovani-induced granulomas...
  59. pmc Expression of multiple CPB genes encoding cysteine proteases is required for Leishmania mexicana virulence in vivo
    Hubert Denise
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, The Anderson College, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 71:3190-5. 2003
    ..These studies confirm that L. mexicana cysteine proteases are important virulence factors and provide an explanation for the presence in L. mexicana of a multicopy tandem array of CPB genes...