D A Basketter

Summary

Affiliation: Unilever Research
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The impact of exposure variables on the induction of skin sensitization
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1PR, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:178-85. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Cross-reactions among hair dye allergens
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:104-6. 2009
  3. doi request reprint Skin sensitization, false positives and false negatives: experience with guinea pig assays
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 30:381-6. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint Skin sensitisation, vehicle effects and the local lymph node assay
    D A Basketter
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, MK44 1LQ, Bedford, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:621-7. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Reproducible prediction of contact allergenic potency using the local lymph node assay
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 50:15-7. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Strong irritants masquerading as skin allergens: the case of benzalkonium chloride
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 50:213-7. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Determination of skin irritation potential in the human 4-h patch test
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 51:1-4. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Contact allergy: the local lymph node assay for the prediction of hazard and risk
    D A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Clin Exp Dermatol 28:218-21. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potency of chemicals by using the existing methods and considerations of relevance for elicitation
    David A Basketter
    Applied Science and Technology, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 52:39-43. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Predictive identification of human skin sensitization thresholds
    David A Basketter
    Unilever, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 53:260-7. 2005

Detail Information

Publications78

  1. ncbi request reprint The impact of exposure variables on the induction of skin sensitization
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1PR, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:178-85. 2006
    ..Detailed statistical analysis of the results indicated that the most important factor driving the induction of skin sensitization was the number of exposures...
  2. doi request reprint Cross-reactions among hair dye allergens
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:104-6. 2009
    ..p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an important hair dye allergen, but there remains a reasonable suspicion that other hair dye chemicals may also be responsible for a proportion of the clinical burden of hair dye allergy...
  3. doi request reprint Skin sensitization, false positives and false negatives: experience with guinea pig assays
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 30:381-6. 2010
    ..These and other examples are discussed with particular reference to the fabrication of a gold standard dataset that is required for the validation of in vitro alternatives...
  4. ncbi request reprint Skin sensitisation, vehicle effects and the local lymph node assay
    D A Basketter
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, MK44 1LQ, Bedford, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:621-7. 2001
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Reproducible prediction of contact allergenic potency using the local lymph node assay
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 50:15-7. 2004
    ..2 +/- 0.6%. Given that EC3 values for a variety of contact allergens range over several orders of magnitude, these results further endorse the utility of EC3 values as a reliable indicator of human contact allergenic potency...
  6. ncbi request reprint Strong irritants masquerading as skin allergens: the case of benzalkonium chloride
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 50:213-7. 2004
    ..As a consequence, this substance should not normally be regarded as, or classified as, a significant skin sensitizer...
  7. ncbi request reprint Determination of skin irritation potential in the human 4-h patch test
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 51:1-4. 2004
    ..Consequently, in vitro or in silico alternatives which can identify the significant acute human skin irritants in this group may well represent suitable alternatives to the rabbit...
  8. ncbi request reprint Contact allergy: the local lymph node assay for the prediction of hazard and risk
    D A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Clin Exp Dermatol 28:218-21. 2003
    ..How this can be achieved using the LLNA and employed in safety evaluation is discussed in detail, together with practical suggestions for the deployment of such processes in regulatory toxicology...
  9. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potency of chemicals by using the existing methods and considerations of relevance for elicitation
    David A Basketter
    Applied Science and Technology, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 52:39-43. 2005
    ..Examples are given for substances falling into various potency groups for skin sensitization relating to results from the local lymph node assay, the guinea pig maximization test, the Buehler method and human experience...
  10. ncbi request reprint Predictive identification of human skin sensitization thresholds
    David A Basketter
    Unilever, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 53:260-7. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Identification and classification of skin sensitizers: identifying false positives and false negatives
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:268-73. 2006
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting thresholds in allergic contact dermatitis: safety and regulatory considerations
    David A Basketter
    SEAC, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 47:1-6. 2002
    ..Thus, recommendations can be made concerning how these considerations can be embraced by those responsible for safety evaluation and for the shaping of regulations for skin sensitizing chemicals/formulations...
  13. ncbi request reprint Information derived from sensitization test methods: test sensitivity, false positives and false negatives
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:1-4. 2007
    ..A key perspective is that no predictive test is without limitations; having a good appreciation of these limitations is necessary for making the best use of the information derived from these methods...
  14. ncbi request reprint Does irritation potency contribute to the skin sensitization potency of contact allergens?
    D A Basketter
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:279-86. 2007
    ..In addition, it is possible that irritancy alone does not represent a complete surrogate marker for the ability of a chemical to produce danger signals relevant to the induction of skin sensitization...
  15. ncbi request reprint Measurement of allergenic potency using the local lymph node assay
    D A Basketter
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK MK441LQ
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:264-5. 2001
    ..A new method, the local lymph node assay, replaces the guinea-pig as a tool for hazard identification and offers the real prospect of accurate prediction of allergen potency, the missing link in skin sensitization risk assessment...
  16. ncbi request reprint Utility of historical vehicle-control data in the interpretation of the local lymph node assay
    D A Basketter
    SEAC, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 49:37-41. 2003
    ..To explore critically the potential merits of this approach, one specific example is examined in detail...
  17. ncbi request reprint The local lymph node assay and the assessment of relative potency: status of validation
    David A Basketter
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 57:70-5. 2007
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint The skin sensitization potential of resorcinol: experience with the local lymph node assay
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:196-200. 2007
    ..These data show the importance of adherence to test guidelines and aligns the clinical experience with resorcinol with that obtained in predictive animal methods...
  19. ncbi request reprint Local lymph node assay - validation, conduct and use in practice
    D A Basketter
    SEAC, Unilever Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Beds MK44 1LQ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:593-8. 2002
    ..It is concluded that the OECD Guideline as currently written embodies the necessary flexibility to permit conduct of the LLNA in a manner necessary to meet the varying needs of regulatory agencies and toxicologists around the world...
  20. ncbi request reprint Human potency predictions for aldehydes using the local lymph node assay
    D A Basketter
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 45:89-94. 2001
    ..These results support further the utility of EC3 determinations in the LLNA as a measure of the relative potency of a contact allergen...
  21. doi request reprint Proliferative responses in the local lymph node assay associated with concomitant exposure to 1,4-phenylenediamine and methyldibromo glutaronitrile: evidence for synergy?
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 59:90-5. 2008
    ..A key consideration when undertaking risk assessments should be the potential for synergy between contact allergens. Previously, this concept has only been investigated during elicitation in contact allergic individuals...
  22. doi request reprint The impact of vehicle on the relative potency of skin-sensitizing chemicals in the local lymph node assay
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 27:67-75. 2008
    ..These data underscore the need to consider vehicle effects in the context of skin-sensitization risk assessments...
  23. doi request reprint Methyldibromoglutaronitrile: skin sensitization and quantitative risk assessment
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 29:4-9. 2010
    ..Thus, proactive use of QRA, used conservatively and in combination with expert judgment, would have limited the problem of ACD to this new preservative that is known to have caused problems on the consumer market...
  24. ncbi request reprint Contact allergy: the role of skin chemistry and metabolism
    C K Smith Pease
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Clin Exp Dermatol 28:177-83. 2003
    ..The Deductive Estimation of Risk from Existing Knowledge (DEREK) is one such expert system which is described in further detail...
  25. ncbi request reprint Gene expression analysis of EpiDerm following exposure to SLS using cDNA microarrays
    S T Fletcher
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 15:393-8. 2001
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Preservatives and skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment
    David A Basketter
    Unilever, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Dermatitis 19:20-7. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Structure-activity relationships for selected fragrance allergens
    G Y Patlewicz
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Research and Development, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 47:219-26. 2002
    ..Accordingly, the evaluation of an additional group of similar aldehydes is now underway to assess the robustness of these models, with some emphasis being based on ensuring a wider spread of chemical reactivity...
  28. doi request reprint Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies
    D A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy, Sharnbrook, Beds, UK
    Br J Dermatol 158:1177-81. 2008
    ..Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board...
  29. doi request reprint Updating the skin sensitization in vitro data assessment paradigm in 2009
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 29:545-50. 2009
    ..In addition to this, the need for performance standards and an agreed 'gold standard' dataset against which to validate both alternatives and new prediction models is discussed...
  30. doi request reprint Fragrance allergy: assessing the safety of washed fabrics
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1PR, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 62:349-54. 2010
    ..Previously, a quantitative risk assessment suggested there was no risk of induction of fragrance allergy from minor residues of fragrance chemicals on washed fabrics...
  31. ncbi request reprint Ethnic variation in the skin irritation response
    V Foy
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Edgewater, New Jersey, USA
    Contact Dermatitis 45:346-9. 2001
    ..Nevertheless, where risk assessment for skin irritation was critical, then at the population level, these differences might be relevant, both for safety in use of substances and products and for skin acceptability...
  32. ncbi request reprint Fragrance allergy: assessing the risk from washed fabrics
    Namali V Corea
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:48-53. 2006
    ..Clinically, clothing pattern dermatitis associated with fragrance allergy is almost never observed, although this could be investigated clinically by exposing sensitized individuals to the relevant fragrance allergen...
  33. ncbi request reprint A future approach to measuring relative skin sensitising potency: a proposal
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 26:341-50. 2006
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Mass spectrometric identification of covalent adducts of the skin allergen 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene and model skin proteins
    Maja Aleksic
    Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 22:1169-76. 2008
    ..It is envisaged that the data from such assays will be integrated with outputs from other in vitro assays in the future to give a prediction of the sensitisation potential of novel chemicals...
  35. ncbi request reprint The role of non-covalent protein binding in skin sensitisation potency of chemicals
    Maja Aleksic
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:161-9. 2007
    ..Therefore, at least for this model protein, non-covalent interactions appear not to be a key determinant of allergen potency...
  36. ncbi request reprint Facial variations in sensory responses
    Marie Marriott
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 49:227-31. 2003
    ..A positive stinging response on the nasolabial fold may not necessarily predict subjective responses to a product when used on other areas of the face...
  37. ncbi request reprint The complex problem of sensitive skin
    Marie Marriott
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 53:93-9. 2005
    ..Whether such individuals are those who experience problems with skin care products remains to be addressed...
  38. ncbi request reprint Investigating protein haptenation mechanisms of skin sensitisers using human serum albumin as a model protein
    Maja Aleksic
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 21:723-33. 2007
    ..Deriving such information is relevant to our understanding of antigen formation in the immunobiology of skin sensitisation and in the development of in vitro protein haptenation assays...
  39. ncbi request reprint Evidence that two alkyl ester quaternary ammonium compounds lack substantial human skin-sensitizing potential
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedforshire, UK
    Dermatitis 18:32-9. 2007
    ..It is important to document in the literature the outcome of historical studies that were performed to assess the risk of adverse skin effects associated with their use...
  40. ncbi request reprint Elicitation response characteristics to permanent hair dye in paraphenylenediamine-allergic volunteers
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:330-4. 2006
    ..Elicitation response characteristics to complete permanent hair dye products in paraphenylenediamine (PPD)-allergic volunteers have not previously been explored in detail...
  41. ncbi request reprint Further evaluation of quantitative structure--activity relationship models for the prediction of the skin sensitization potency of selected fragrance allergens
    Grace Y Patlewicz
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 50:91-7. 2004
    ..Knowledge generated from this work is being incorporated into new/improved rules for sensitization in the expert toxicity prediction system, deductive estimation of risk from existing knowledge (DEREK)...
  42. ncbi request reprint Hapten-protein binding: from theory to practical application in the in vitro prediction of skin sensitization
    Maja Divkovic
    Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 53:189-200. 2005
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Skin-sensitization structure-activity relationships for aldehydes
    G Patlewicz
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford UK
    Contact Dermatitis 44:331-6. 2001
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Defining occupational and consumer exposure limits for enzyme protein respiratory allergens under REACH
    D A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, UK
    Toxicology 268:165-70. 2010
    ..g. 0.01 ng/m(3)) are commonly associated with other types of safe exposure. Consumer limits typically will lie between these values and depend on the actual exposure associated with product use...
  45. ncbi request reprint Skin as a route of exposure to protein allergens
    C K Smith Pease
    SEAC, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ, UK
    Clin Exp Dermatol 27:296-300. 2002
    ..As a result, risk assessment for contact of protein with skin must take into account potential barrier impairment and thus the possibility of both the induction and the elicitation of allergic skin reactions...
  46. ncbi request reprint Proteomic analysis of the response of EpiDerm cultures to sodium lauryl sulphate
    S T Fletcher
    SEAC Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 20:975-85. 2006
    ..The use of proteomics has identified a number of proteins which could be used as general markers for skin irritation and which may in particular be of value for the development of in vitro predictive models...
  47. doi request reprint Pre-testing in hair dye users: an assessment of the Colourstart system
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Eur J Dermatol 19:232-7. 2009
    ..However, its proper use and interpretation are necessary if those consumers most at risk are to have the information necessary to avoid serious adverse reactions to hair dyes...
  48. doi request reprint The human repeated insult patch test in the 21st century: a commentary
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:49-53. 2009
    ..However, for the very large majority of HRIPTs conducted concerning the risk of skin sensitization, there is neither scientific justification nor any other merit...
  49. ncbi request reprint Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 49:1-7. 2003
    ..p.m. Then, where consumer products meet this guideline fully, modern quantitative risk assessment shows clearly that elicitation of ACD is highly improbable, and the chance of the induction of sensitization is even lower...
  50. ncbi request reprint Investigation of the skin sensitizing activity of linalool
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 47:161-4. 2002
    ..Both possibilities are consistent with what is understood of the chemistry and composition of commercially available linalool...
  51. doi request reprint The impact of LLNA group size on the identification and potency classification of skin sensitizers: a review of published data
    David A Basketter
    DABMEB Consultancy Ltd, Sharnbrook, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:19-22. 2009
    ..Consequently, it is concluded that there is no scientific justification for removing the option to use a 4-animal version of the LLNA...
  52. ncbi request reprint The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization: a cut-down screen to reduce animal requirements?
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 54:181-5. 2006
    ..However, a detailed evaluation will be necessary to provide reassurance that a reduction in group size would provide adequate sensitivity across a range of skin sensitization potencies...
  53. ncbi request reprint Compilation of historical local lymph node data for evaluation of skin sensitization alternative methods
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Dermatitis 16:157-202. 2005
    ..In addition to accurately identifying skin sensitizers, the LLNA can also provide a reliable measure of relative sensitization potency, information that is pivotal to the successful management of human health risks...
  54. ncbi request reprint A chemical dataset for evaluation of alternative approaches to skin-sensitization testing
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Contact Dermatitis 50:274-88. 2004
    ..It is hoped that this dataset will accelerate the development, evaluation and eventual validation of new approaches to skin-sensitization testing...
  55. ncbi request reprint Skin sensitization potency of methyl methacrylate in the local lymph node assay: comparisons with guinea-pig data and human experience
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:140-7. 2006
    ..Results of LLNA studies have been interpreted in the context of historical clinical data on occupational allergic contact dermatitis associated with exposure to MMA...
  56. ncbi request reprint Chemical allergy: considerations for the practical application of cytokine profiling
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 71:137-45. 2003
    ..The purpose of this brief review article is to consider the approaches available and to highlight key procedural issues...
  57. doi request reprint Reduced allergy rates in atopic eczema to contact allergens used in both skin products and foods: atopy and the 'hapten-atopy hypothesis'
    John P McFadden
    Department of Cutaneous Allergy, St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 58:156-8. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Application of the risk assessment paradigm to the induction of allergic contact dermatitis
    Susan P Felter
    The Procter and Gamble Co, Miami Valley Laboratories, 11810 E Miami River Rd, Cincinnati, OH 45061, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 37:1-10. 2003
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint High frequency of simultaneous sensitivity to Disperse Orange 3 in patients with positive patch tests to para-phenylenediamine
    Anthony T J Goon
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 48:248-50. 2003
    ..06%), Disperse Blue 3 (1.56%) and Disperse Red 11 (2.13%). We interpreted the simultaneous patch test reactions to PPD and DO3 as due either to cross-sensitivity proper, or to metabolic conversion of textile dyes in the skin to PPD...
  60. ncbi request reprint Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study
    Siri Heydorn
    Department of Dermatology, University of Copenhagen, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark
    Contact Dermatitis 48:317-23. 2003
    ..This observation is the basis for the hypothesis concerning cross-reactivity and the effect of simultaneous exposure. The study found that fragrance allergy could be a common problem in patients with eczema on the hands...
  61. ncbi request reprint In vitro skin irritation: facts and future. State of the art review of mechanisms and models
    Thomas Welss
    VTB Skin Biochemistry, Henkel KGaA, Building Z33, Henkelstrasse 67, D 40191, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:231-43. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Protein binding and metabolism influence the relative skin sensitization potential of cinnamic compounds
    Eiram N Elahi
    Biological Chemistry Section, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Imperial College School of Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom, SW7 2AZ
    Chem Res Toxicol 17:301-10. 2004
    ..Such knowledge can then be used in order that effective and appropriate in vitro/in silico tools for predicting sensitization potential, with a high confidence, can be developed...
  63. ncbi request reprint Dendritic cells as a tool for the predictive identification of skin sensitisation hazard
    Silvia Casati
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 33:47-62. 2005
  64. ncbi request reprint Nonanimal alternatives for skin sensitization: a step forward?
    David A Basketter
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
    Toxicol Sci 102:1-2. 2008
  65. ncbi request reprint Oral tolerance to contact allergens: a common occurrence? A review
    Jonathan M L White
    Department of Cutaneous Allergy, St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:247-54. 2007
    ..Existing data on formaldehyde may conflict with this theory, though this could be explained by allergen specificity. We propose that further work in this area is needed...
  66. ncbi request reprint Intermittent exposure to low-concentration paraphenylenediamine can be equivalent to single, higher-dose exposure
    Jonathan M L White
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:262-5. 2007
    ..Hence, intermittent exposure to lower concentrations of PPD may be equivalent to higher concentration, one-off exposure...
  67. ncbi request reprint Dendritic cells and skin sensitization: biological roles and uses in hazard identification
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 221:384-94. 2007
    ..This paper reports information that was presented during the Workshop...
  68. ncbi request reprint Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization
    David W Roberts
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1019-30. 2007
    ..This understanding is necessary if reliable non-animal approaches, including (quantitative) structure-activity relationships (Q)SARs, read-across, and experimental chemistry based models, are to be developed...
  69. ncbi request reprint Chemical respiratory allergy: opportunities for hazard identification and characterisation. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 60
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 35:243-65. 2007
  70. ncbi request reprint Extrapolating local lymph node assay EC3 values to estimate relative sensitizing potency
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:135-45. 2007
    ..Judicious use of this approach for extrapolating EC3 values can provide information on a likely potency classification for use in risk assessment and may avoid the need for repeat animal testing...
  71. ncbi request reprint Patch test frequency to p-phenylenediamine: follow up over the last 6 years
    Sheena Patel
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:35-7. 2007
    ..An alternative explanation may be the increasing use of permanent hair dyes...
  72. ncbi request reprint Allergic contact dermatitis
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Int Immunopharmacol 2:201-11. 2002
    ..This article seeks to consider skin sensitization and ACD in holistic fashion, bridging experimental observations with clinical disease and basic mechanisms with practical toxicology...
  73. ncbi request reprint Activation of human dendritic cells by p-phenylenediamine
    Eve M Coulter
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:885-92. 2007
    ..Collectively, these studies show that pPD, but not BB, selectively activates human dendritic cells in vitro...
  74. ncbi request reprint Structure-activity relationships for skin sensitization: recent improvements to Derek for Windows
    Kate Langton
    LHASA Limited, 22 23 Blenheim Terrace, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:342-7. 2006
    ..The outcomes from this collaboration demonstrate the importance of updating and refining computer models for the prediction of skin sensitization as new information from experimental and theoretical studies becomes available...
  75. ncbi request reprint The local lymph node assay: current position in the regulatory classification of skin sensitizing chemicals
    David A Basketter
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:293-301. 2007
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint The reduced local lymph node assay: the impact of group size
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 28:518-23. 2008
    ..It is concluded that a rLLNA with two mice/group would display decreased sensitivity and is inappropriate for use in hazard identification...
  77. ncbi request reprint A review of the scientific basis for uncertainty factors for use in quantitative risk assessment for the induction of allergic contact dermatitis
    Susan P Felter
    The Procter and Gamble Co, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Contact Dermatitis 47:257-66. 2002
    ..This paper provides an overview of each of these areas with an evaluation of the available scientific database to support an uncertainty factor in the range of 1-10 for each area...
  78. ncbi request reprint The biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide remains an uncommon contact allergen
    Axel Schnuch
    Information Network of Departments of Dermatology IVDK, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Contact Dermatitis 56:235-9. 2007
    ..Further risk factors included leg dermatitis and old age. The frequency of sensitization remains low. It is very unlikely that exposure to cosmetics or personal care products may have played a role in the few cases sensitized...