R J Dearman

Summary

Affiliation: Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Local lymph node assay responses to paraphenylenediamine: intra- and inter-laboratory evaluations
    E V Warbrick
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 19:255-60. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Influence of plant lipids on immune responses in mice to the major Brazil nut allergen Ber e 1
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 37:582-91. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Determination of protein allergenicity: studies in mice
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicol Lett 120:181-6. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Characterization of antibody responses induced in rodents by exposure to food proteins: influence of route of exposure
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicology 167:217-31. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Immunogenic properties of rapidly digested food proteins following gavage exposure of mice: a comparison of ovalbumin with a potato acid phosphatase preparation
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:625-33. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Induction of IgE antibody responses by protein allergens: inter-laboratory comparisons
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:1509-16. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Interleukins 5 and 13 characterize immune responses to respiratory sensitizing acid anhydrides
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 22:317-25. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Chemical allergy: considerations for the practical application of cytokine profiling
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 71:137-45. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Cytokine fingerprinting of chemical allergens: species comparisons and statistical analyses
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley ParkMacclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1881-92. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Cytokine fingerprinting and hazard assessment of chemical respiratory allergy
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 21:153-63. 2001

Detail Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Local lymph node assay responses to paraphenylenediamine: intra- and inter-laboratory evaluations
    E V Warbrick
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 19:255-60. 1999
    ..Taken together, these data confirm the stability of LLNA responses both with time and between laboratories and provide additional support for the use of derived EC3 values in the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency...
  2. ncbi request reprint Influence of plant lipids on immune responses in mice to the major Brazil nut allergen Ber e 1
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 37:582-91. 2007
    ..Lipids, particularly bacterial lipopolysaccharide, can impact on immune responses to proteins, with low doses enhancing type 2 responses...
  3. ncbi request reprint Determination of protein allergenicity: studies in mice
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicol Lett 120:181-6. 2001
    ..On this basis it is proposed that the inherent sensitizing potential of novel proteins can be evaluated as a function of IgE antibody responses stimulated by parenteral (i.p.) exposure of BALB/c mice...
  4. ncbi request reprint Characterization of antibody responses induced in rodents by exposure to food proteins: influence of route of exposure
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicology 167:217-31. 2001
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Immunogenic properties of rapidly digested food proteins following gavage exposure of mice: a comparison of ovalbumin with a potato acid phosphatase preparation
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:625-33. 2002
    ..The strong association reported by others between stability in SGF and allergenic potential is unlikely to be solely due to orally-ingested labile proteins failing to provoke immune responses due to degradation in the stomach...
  6. ncbi request reprint Induction of IgE antibody responses by protein allergens: inter-laboratory comparisons
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:1509-16. 2003
    ..Furthermore, these results provide additional evidence that the measurement of antibody (IgE) responses in BALB/c mice may allow discrimination between allergens and those materials that apparently lack allergenicity...
  7. ncbi request reprint Interleukins 5 and 13 characterize immune responses to respiratory sensitizing acid anhydrides
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 22:317-25. 2002
    ..These data provide additional support for the use of cytokine secretion profiling for the prospective identification of chemical respiratory allergens...
  8. ncbi request reprint Chemical allergy: considerations for the practical application of cytokine profiling
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 71:137-45. 2003
    ..The purpose of this brief review article is to consider the approaches available and to highlight key procedural issues...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cytokine fingerprinting of chemical allergens: species comparisons and statistical analyses
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley ParkMacclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1881-92. 2002
    ..For the prospective assessment of chemical respiratory allergens as a function of induced cytokine secretion profiles, however, these data suggest that the use of the BALB/c strain mouse will provide the more robust method...
  10. ncbi request reprint Cytokine fingerprinting and hazard assessment of chemical respiratory allergy
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 21:153-63. 2001
    ..In this article the immunobiological basis for cytokine fingerprinting is considered and the development, evaluation and practical application of the assay are reviewed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Allergen-induced cytokine phenotypes in mice: role of CD4 and CD8 T cell populations
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 35:498-505. 2005
    ..Topical exposure of BALB/c strain mice to low-molecular-weight chemical contact and respiratory allergens stimulates type 1 and type 2 cytokine secretion phenotypes, respectively...
  12. ncbi request reprint Characterisation of immune responses to food allergens in mice
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 64:426-33. 2005
    ..Collectively these data suggest that characterisation of the nature of immune response induced in mice by proteins may provide a useful adjunct or alternative to current strategies for the assessment of allergenic potential...
  13. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of an in vitro method for the measurement of specific IgE antibody responses: the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicology 206:195-205. 2005
    ..These data indicate that this assay is inappropriate for the routine analysis of specific polyclonal IgE antibody responses such as those that are induced by exposure to complex protein allergens...
  14. ncbi request reprint Measurement of cytokine expression and Langerhans cell migration in human skin following suction blister formation
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Exp Dermatol 13:452-60. 2004
    ..In conclusion, the suction blister technique appears to be a powerful tool for measurement of induced changes in cutaneous cytokines...
  15. ncbi request reprint Factors influencing the induction phase of skin sensitization
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Am J Contact Dermat 14:188-94. 2003
  16. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of protein allergenic potential in mice: dose-response analyses
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 33:1586-94. 2003
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Methods for the identification of chemical respiratory allergens in rodents: comparisons of cytokine profiling with induced changes in serum IgE
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 23:199-207. 2003
    ..Cytokine profiling using the BALB/c strain mouse apparently provides a more robust method for the hazard assessment of chemical respiratory allergens...
  18. ncbi request reprint A mouse model for food allergy using intraperitoneal sensitization
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Methods 41:91-8. 2007
    ..Progress to date with this method is summarized, and comparisons are made with other experimental models, including considerations of route of exposure, use of adjuvants and selection of appropriate end points...
  19. ncbi request reprint Induced changes in total serum IgE concentration in the Brown Norway rat: potential for identification of chemical respiratory allergens
    E V Warbrick
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 22:1-11. 2002
    ..Given the inter-animal variation in IgE production, it would be prudent to incorporate a concurrent assessment of responses induced by treatment with TMA as a positive control against which to assess the activity of other test materials...
  20. ncbi request reprint Characterization in mice of the immunological properties of five allergenic acid anhydrides
    R J Dearman
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 20:221-30. 2000
    ....
  21. pmc IL-1beta-induced Langerhans' cell migration and TNF-alpha production in human skin: regulation by lactoferrin
    M Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 132:352-9. 2003
    ..Topical treatment with LF compromises both these responses. These data suggest that topical LF may potentially represent a novel therapeutic in the treatment of skin inflammation where TNF-alpha is an important mediator...
  22. pmc Interleukin (IL)-18 induces Langerhans cell migration by a tumour necrosis factor-alpha- and IL-1beta-dependent mechanism
    M Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK and Centre for Dermatology, University College London, UK
    Immunology 102:323-30. 2001
    ..Importantly, not only was IL-18 able to contribute to the regulation of LC migration, it was found to be essential for the manifestation of these processes in response to topical sensitization with the contact allergen oxazolone...
  23. ncbi request reprint Analysis of interleukin 12 protein production and mRNA expression in mice exposed topically to chemical allergens
    E V Warbrick
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Toxicology 132:57-66. 1999
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Assessment of the skin sensitization potential of topical medicaments using the local lymph node assay: an interlaboratory evaluation
    I Kimber
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 53:563-79. 1998
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Divergent antibody isotype responses induced in mice by systemic exposure to proteins: a comparison of ovalbumin with bovine serum albumin
    R J Dearman
    AstraZeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 38:351-60. 2000
    ..These data indicate that proteins can provoke in mice characteristic antibody (IgE and IgG) isotype profiles suggestive of discrete T lymphocyte responses and that such differences may be associated with variable allergenic activity...
  26. ncbi request reprint Assessment of cumulative allergen-activated lymph node cell proliferation using flow cytometry
    Neil E Humphreys
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 73:80-9. 2003
    ..These preliminary data suggest that this method may be applied to provide the basis of a nonradioisotopic end point for the LLNA, particularly for the identification of potent contact allergens...
  27. ncbi request reprint Induction by tumour necrosis factor alpha of dose-related changes in Langerhans cell frequency in mice
    M Cumberbatch
    Astra Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Arch Dermatol Res 291:453-8. 1999
    ..It is suggested that TNF-alpha may influence not only the tempo of LC migration, but also the kinetics of epidermal repopulation...
  28. pmc Differential stimulation of immune function by respiratory and contact chemical allergens
    R J Dearman
    ICI Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, U K
    Immunology 72:563-70. 1991
    ..The possibility that the responses induced by these chemicals reflect a differential stimulation of T-helper cell subsets (Th1 and Th2) is discussed...
  29. pmc Differential cytokine production following chronic exposure of mice to chemical respiratory and contact allergens
    R J Dearman
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK
    Immunology 86:545-50. 1995
    ..It is proposed that these divergent cytokine production patterns reflect the selective stimulation of Th1- and Th2-type responses by contact and respiratory chemical allergens...
  30. ncbi request reprint Cytokine fingerprinting: characterization of chemical allergens
    R J Dearman
    Astra Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Methods 19:56-63. 1999
    ..It is proposed that cytokine fingerprinting may permit the simultaneous identification and characterization of those chemicals that have the potential to cause allergic sensitization...
  31. ncbi request reprint Alternative approaches to the identification and characterization of chemical allergens
    I Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 15:307-12. 2001
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Inhibition by dexamethasone of Langerhans cell migration: influence of epidermal cytokine signals
    M Cumberbatch
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Immunopharmacology 41:235-43. 1999
    ..The proposal is that impaired LC migration results from the regulation by DEX of the de novo synthesis and/or release of TNF-alpha, an inducible epidermal cytokine that provides one important signal for LC to traffic from the skin...
  33. pmc Contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets to the cytokine secretion patterns induced in mice during sensitization to contact and respiratory chemical allergens
    R J Dearman
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Immunology 89:502-10. 1996
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Immune responses to contact allergens: novel approaches to hazard evaluation
    I Kimber
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicol Lett 106:237-46. 1999
    ..These novel approaches to skin sensitization testing and their potential utility in the context of toxicological evaluations are reviewed in this article...
  35. ncbi request reprint Lactoferrin: influences on Langerhans cells, epidermal cytokines, and cutaneous inflammation
    I Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Biochem Cell Biol 80:103-7. 2002
    ..Collectively, these results support the view that LF is able to influence cutaneous immune and inflammatory processes secondary to regulation of the production of TNF-alpha and possibly other cytokines...
  36. ncbi request reprint Proteomic analysis of suction blister fluid isolated from human skin
    N Macdonald
    Syngenta CTL, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK
    Clin Exp Dermatol 31:445-8. 2006
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Cytokine endpoints for the local lymph node assay: consideration of interferon-gamma and interleukin 12
    R J Dearman
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 19:149-55. 1999
    ..These data indicate that expression by allergen-activated LNC of IFN-gamma or IL-12 does not provide a reliable or sufficiently sensitive endpoint for the LLNA compared with [3H]thymidine incorporation in situ...
  38. ncbi request reprint Cytokines and chemokines in the initiation and regulation of epidermal Langerhans cell mobilization
    I Kimber
    AstraZeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, U K
    Br J Dermatol 142:401-12. 2000
    ..We here consider the parts played by these molecules, and how collectively they induce and direct LC migration...
  39. ncbi request reprint The suitability of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde as a calibrant for the murine local lymph node assay
    R J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 44:357-61. 2001
    ..These data confirm that HCA responses in the LLNA are very stable and demonstrate that HCA provides a suitable calibrant for determining assay sensitivity and performance...
  40. ncbi request reprint Allergen-induced changes in interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) mRNA expression by human blood-derived dendritic cells: inter-individual differences and relevance for sensitization testing
    J S Pichowski
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 21:115-21. 2001
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint The use of ethanol:diethylphthalate as a vehicle for the local lymph node assay
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:70-5. 2007
    ..The conclusion drawn is that EtOH:DEP provides a suitable vehicle for use in the LLNA and that the approach described provides a basis for future evaluation of novel vehicles...
  42. ncbi request reprint Characteristics and regulation of the expression on interleukin 1 receptors by murine Langerhans cells and keratinocytes
    M Cumberbatch
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Arch Dermatol Res 290:688-95. 1998
    ..Furthermore, the regulation of IL-1R expression by epidermal cells and DC will undoubtedly influence the development of cutaneous immune responses...
  43. ncbi request reprint Tumour necrosis factor-alpha induces Langerhans cell migration in humans
    M Cumberbatch
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Br J Dermatol 141:192-200. 1999
    ..These results demonstrate that TNF-alpha provides an important signal for LC migration in humans and is likely therefore to play a crucial part in the induction of cutaneous immune responses...
  44. ncbi request reprint The local lymph node assay: past, present and future
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 47:315-28. 2002
    ..In addition, we consider what new applications and modifications are currently being investigated...
  45. ncbi request reprint Intracellular phosphotyrosine induction by major histocompatibility complex class II requires co-aggregation with membrane rafts
    R D Huby
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 274:22591-6. 1999
    ..Together, these results show that the induced association of class II molecules with membrane rafts can contribute to their aggregation on the cell surface and mediate an association with intracellular protein-tyrosine kinases...
  46. ncbi request reprint Designation of substances as skin sensitizing chemicals: a commentary
    I Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclestield, Cheshire, UK
    Hum Exp Toxicol 22:439-43. 2003
    ..This new scheme we believe provides a realistic framework within which informed decisions can be reached about likely skin sensitizing activity based upon judicious consideration of clinical and experimental information...
  47. ncbi request reprint Langerhans cell migration
    M Cumberbatch
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire, and Dermatology Centre, University of Manchester, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK
    Clin Exp Dermatol 25:413-8. 2000
    ..Described here are the phenotypic changes induced during the activation of LC and the mechanisms through which their migration is regulated...
  48. ncbi request reprint Dendritic cells and skin sensitisation hazard assessment
    I Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:195-202. 2004
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Local lymph node assay: use in hazard and risk assessment
    R J Dearman
    Astra Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 19:299-306. 1999
    ..Finally, the current regulatory status of the LLNA is summarized and the application of the method for the purposes of defining relative potency and developing risk assessments is reviewed...
  50. ncbi request reprint Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Immunology, Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 57:242-7. 2007
    ..7% is on the borderline between moderate (<10%) and weak (>10%) categories. Thus, the judicious view is that all 4 chemicals possess relatively weak skin sensitizing potential...
  51. ncbi request reprint Prediction of drug allergenicity: possible use of the local lymph node assay
    E V Warbrick
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, UK
    Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 4:60-5. 2001
    ..However, these assays have not been validated systematically and the potential utility of a modified LLNA for use in the identification of such compounds is discussed...
  52. ncbi request reprint Toxicology of protein allergenicity: prediction and characterization
    I Kimber
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 48:157-62. 1999
    ..The subject of protein allergenicity is considered here in the context of presentations made at that workshop...
  53. ncbi request reprint Food allergy: what are the issues?
    I Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicol Lett 120:165-70. 2001
    ..Progress in these areas is reviewed briefly in the context of what is known of food allergy and some of the important issues, which must be addressed in designing safety assessment strategies identified...
  54. ncbi request reprint Preliminary assessment of the skin sensitizing activity of selected rodent carcinogens using the local lymph node assay
    E V Warbrick
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, SK10 4TJ, Cheshire, UK
    Toxicology 163:63-9. 2001
    ..Collectively these data suggest that it is inappropriate currently to recommend the use of skin sensitization tests as an adjunct to conventional approaches to the evaluation of potential carcinogenicity...
  55. ncbi request reprint Protein allergenicity in mice: a potential approach for hazard identification
    Keith T Atherton
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 964:163-71. 2002
    ..Experience to date indicates that the inherent sensitizing potential of novel food proteins can be evaluated on the basis of antibody responses stimulated by parenteral exposure of BALB/c strain mice...
  56. pmc Impaired Langerhans cell migration in psoriasis
    Marie Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, England, UK
    J Exp Med 203:953-60. 2006
    ..Although a role for altered dynamics of LC migration/turnover has not been formally excluded, these data reveal a very consistent decrement of LC function in psoriasis that may play a decisive role in disease pathogenesis...
  57. ncbi request reprint IgG and IgE antibody responses following exposure of Brown Norway rats to trimellitic anhydride: comparison of inhalation and topical exposure
    E Vicky Warbrick
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicology 172:157-68. 2002
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Why are some proteins allergens?
    R D Huby
    AstraZeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 55:235-46. 2000
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Inhalation exposure to methylene chloride does not induce systemic immunotoxicity in rats
    E V Warbrick
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 66:1207-19. 2003
    ..Exposure to methylene chloride did not affect antibody production. Evidence indicates that under these conditions of exposure, methylene chloride did not compromise immune function...
  60. pmc Constitutive and inducible expression of interleukin-6 by Langerhans cells and lymph node dendritic cells
    M Cumberbatch
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Immunology 87:513-8. 1996
    ..Their constitutive and inducible expression of this cytokine will facilitate the induction of cutaneous immune responses...
  61. ncbi request reprint Allergic contact dermatitis
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Int Immunopharmacol 2:201-11. 2002
    ..This article seeks to consider skin sensitization and ACD in holistic fashion, bridging experimental observations with clinical disease and basic mechanisms with practical toxicology...
  62. ncbi request reprint B220 analysis with the local lymph node assay: proposal for a more flexible prediction model
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 27:506-10. 2007
    ..As a result a new prediction model is proposed in which reliance on the use of absolute thresholds is reduced, and in which small changes in control values can be better accommodated...
  63. ncbi request reprint Allergic contact dermatitis: the cellular effectors
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 46:1-5. 2002
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint What makes a chemical a respiratory sensitizer?
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 5:119-24. 2005
    ..In this article we consider the characteristics that are associated with chemical respiratory allergens, and that may be essential for effective sensitization of the respiratory tract...
  65. ncbi request reprint Potency and risk assessment of a skin-sensitizing disperse dye using the local lymph node assay
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 52:268-72. 2005
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Impact of cutaneous IL-10 on resident epidermal Langerhans' cells and the development of polarized immune responses
    Marie Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:43-50. 2005
    ..Thus, TMA-exposed dendritic cells that have been conditioned in vivo with IL-10 (a potent inhibitor of the type 1-polarizing cytokine IL-12) are effective APCs for the development of a Th2-type response...
  67. ncbi request reprint Immune responses: adverse versus non-adverse effects
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Toxicol Pathol 30:54-8. 2002
    ..The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which distinctions can be drawn between adverse and nonadverse effects in the context of immunotoxicity and allergy...
  68. ncbi request reprint Intradermal exposure of BALB/c strain mice to peanut protein elicits a type 2 cytokine response
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:1589-99. 2004
    ..These data demonstrate that exposure of mice to peanut allergen results in the selective stimulation of a Th2-type response...
  69. ncbi request reprint Chemical respiratory allergy: opportunities for hazard identification and characterisation. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 60
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 35:243-65. 2007
  70. ncbi request reprint Skin sensitization potency of methyl methacrylate in the local lymph node assay: comparisons with guinea-pig data and human experience
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:140-7. 2006
    ..Results of LLNA studies have been interpreted in the context of historical clinical data on occupational allergic contact dermatitis associated with exposure to MMA...
  71. ncbi request reprint The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization: a cut-down screen to reduce animal requirements?
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 54:181-5. 2006
    ..However, a detailed evaluation will be necessary to provide reassurance that a reduction in group size would provide adequate sensitivity across a range of skin sensitization potencies...
  72. pmc Assessment of protein allergenicity on the basis of immune reactivity: animal models
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 111:1125-30. 2003
    ..Progress made in the design and evaluation of models in the rat, the mouse, the dog and in swine is reviewed and discussed...
  73. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting the development of food allergy
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 61:435-9. 2002
    ..The purpose here is to discuss the relevance of some of these variables in the context of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated allergic responses...
  74. ncbi request reprint What makes a chemical an allergen?
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, England
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 90:28-31. 2003
    ..To consider the factors that confer on chemicals the ability to cause allergic sensitization, with particular emphasis on the induction of skin sensitization...
  75. ncbi request reprint Assessment of the allergenic potential of proteins
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, Macclesfield, UK
    Toxicol Lett 140:297-302. 2003
    ..Experience to date is encouraging and the data available reveal that this method is able to distinguish between proteins of different allergenic potential...
  76. ncbi request reprint Temporal changes in cytokine gene expression profiles induced in mice by trimellitic anhydride
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Toxicol Lett 136:121-32. 2002
    ..These data show that as the immune response to TMA develops, the cytokine gene expression profile of allergen-activated lymph node cells evolves from a mixed Th1/Th2 phenotype to a more polarized Th2 profile...
  77. ncbi request reprint Assessment of glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 as a correlate of allergen-stimulated lymph node activation
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicology 185:103-17. 2003
    ....
  78. pmc Influence of ageing on Langerhans cell migration in mice: identification of a putative deficiency of epidermal interleukin-1beta
    Marie Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, UK
    Immunology 105:466-77. 2002
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Chemical respiratory allergy: role of IgE antibody and relevance of route of exposure
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicology 181:311-5. 2002
    ..The significance of IgE antibody and dermal exposure in the context of occupational respiratory allergy to chemicals is discussed...
  80. pmc Assessment of the inherent allergenic potential of proteins in mice
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 111:227-31. 2003
    ..In this article we summarize progress to date in the context of the scientific background against which such methods are being developed...
  81. ncbi request reprint Epidermal Langerhans cell migration and sensitisation to chemical allergens
    Marie Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire and The Dermatology Centre, University of Manchester, Hope Hospital, Salford, Manchester, UK
    APMIS 111:797-804. 2003
    ..The second is examination of the ways in which LC may influence the polarity of induced T lymphocytes, and thereby the quality of immune responses...
  82. ncbi request reprint Immunologic basis for autoimmunity and the potential influences of xenobiotics
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicol Lett 127:77-81. 2002
    ..In this article we introduce the adaptive immune system and the concepts of tolerance to 'self' and autoimmunity. In addition, the mechanisms through which immunological tolerance may be compromised are considered...
  83. ncbi request reprint Approaches to assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in food from genetically modified crops
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 68:4-8. 2002
    ..Our intention is rather to look more broadly at the strategy for assessment of allergenic potential, the challenges such assessments pose for the practicing toxicologist, and how some of these might best be addressed...
  84. ncbi request reprint Differential regulation of epidermal langerhans cell migration by interleukins (IL)-1alpha and IL-1beta during irritant- and allergen-induced cutaneous immune responses
    Marie Cumberbatch
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 182:126-35. 2002
    ..The proposal is that different forms of cutaneous trauma may achieve LC migration through distinct molecular mechanisms...
  85. doi request reprint Dose metrics in the acquisition of skin sensitization: thresholds and importance of dose per unit area
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Cheshire, UK
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 52:39-45. 2008
    ..Here we review in detail the evidence which supports dose per unit area as being the critical exposure metric in the induction of skin sensitization, and the mechanistic bases for this relationship...
  86. ncbi request reprint Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization
    David W Roberts
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1019-30. 2007
    ..This understanding is necessary if reliable non-animal approaches, including (quantitative) structure-activity relationships (Q)SARs, read-across, and experimental chemistry based models, are to be developed...
  87. ncbi request reprint The reduced local lymph node assay: the impact of group size
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 28:518-23. 2008
    ..It is concluded that a rLLNA with two mice/group would display decreased sensitivity and is inappropriate for use in hazard identification...
  88. ncbi request reprint IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of contact hypersensitivity and allergen-induced Langerhans cell migration in murine epidermis
    Christos Antonopoulos
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Leukoc Biol 83:361-7. 2008
    ..These data indicate that IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of LC migration and CHS, acting upstream of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, and may play a central role in regulation of cutaneous immune responses...
  89. ncbi request reprint The effects of acute social stress on epidermal Langerhans' cell frequency and expression of cutaneous neuropeptides
    C Elise Kleyn
    Dermatological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 128:1273-9. 2008
    ..These data suggest that acute social stress reduces epidermal LC frequency and modulates cutaneous neuropeptide expression thereby supporting the concept of a "brain-skin" axis...
  90. ncbi request reprint Extrapolating local lymph node assay EC3 values to estimate relative sensitizing potency
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:135-45. 2007
    ..Judicious use of this approach for extrapolating EC3 values can provide information on a likely potency classification for use in risk assessment and may avoid the need for repeat animal testing...
  91. ncbi request reprint Cytokine profiling and chemical allergy
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 185:228-9; author reply 229-30. 2002
  92. ncbi request reprint Gene expression changes in peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells following exposure to a contact allergen
    Cindy A Ryan
    Miami Valley Laboratories, Central Product Safety Department, The Procter and Gamble Company, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Toxicol Lett 150:301-16. 2004
    ..Additionally, it is hoped that some of the transcript changes identified through this approach will be shown to be suitable for use in the development of an in vitro predictive assay for contact sensitization...
  93. ncbi request reprint Exposure of mice to the nitroso metabolite of sulfamethoxazole stimulates interleukin 5 production by CD4+ T-cells
    Josephine E Hopkins
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, P O Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
    Toxicology 206:221-31. 2005
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint Selective haptenation of cellular or extracellular protein by chemical allergens: association with cytokine polarization
    Josephine E Hopkins
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, P O Box 147, Liverpool L69 3GE, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:375-81. 2005
    ..Chemical allergens that stimulate type 1 cytokine secretion profiles bind selectively to cellular proteins, whereas others that provoke type 2 cytokine profiles bind preferentially to serum proteins...
  95. ncbi request reprint Interactions of contact allergens with dendritic cells: opportunities and challenges for the development of novel approaches to hazard assessment
    Cindy A Ryan
    Miami Valley Innovation Center, Central Product Safety Department, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 88:4-11. 2005
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint Predictive identification of human skin sensitization thresholds
    David A Basketter
    Unilever, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 53:260-7. 2005
    ....
  97. ncbi request reprint Compilation of historical local lymph node data for evaluation of skin sensitization alternative methods
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Dermatitis 16:157-202. 2005
    ..In addition to accurately identifying skin sensitizers, the LLNA can also provide a reliable measure of relative sensitization potency, information that is pivotal to the successful management of human health risks...
  98. ncbi request reprint Use of a B cell marker (B220) to discriminate between allergens and irritants in the local lymph node assay
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, Ohio 4523 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:420-8. 2002
    ..25. These data demonstrate that analysis of B220 expression in DLN may be useful in differentiating between allergen and irritant responses induced in chemically treated mice...
  99. ncbi request reprint Identification of gene expression changes induced by chemical allergens in dendritic cells: opportunities for skin sensitization testing
    Lucy A Gildea
    Central Product Safety Department, Miami Valley Innovation Center, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253 8707, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 126:1813-22. 2006
    ....
  100. ncbi request reprint A chemical dataset for evaluation of alternative approaches to skin-sensitization testing
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Contact Dermatitis 50:274-88. 2004
    ..It is hoped that this dataset will accelerate the development, evaluation and eventual validation of new approaches to skin-sensitization testing...
  101. ncbi request reprint Local lymph node assay (LLNA) for detection of sensitization capacity of chemicals
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety Department, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Methods 41:54-60. 2007
    ....