Mark H Wilcox

Summary

Affiliation: St James's University Hospital
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis can yield DNA fingerprints of degradation-susceptible Clostridium difficile strains
    Warren N Fawley
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3546-7; author reply 3547. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of tigecycline in complicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, UK
    J Chemother 17:23-9. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Clostridium difficile: changing epidemiology and new treatment options
    Ed J Kuijper
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:376-83. 2007
  4. pmc Use of highly discriminatory fingerprinting to analyze clusters of Clostridium difficile infection cases due to epidemic ribotype 027 strains
    W N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 46:954-60. 2008
  5. pmc Development and validation of a chemostat gut model to study both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth of Clostridium difficile and human microbiota
    Grace S Crowther
    Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e88396. 2014
  6. pmc Differences in outcome according to Clostridium difficile testing method: a prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study of C difficile infection
    Timothy D Planche
    Centre for Infection and Immunity, Division of Clinical Medicine, St George s, University of London, London, UK Department of Medical Microbiology, St George s Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:936-45. 2013
  7. pmc The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design
    C Horner
    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK
    BMJ Open 2:e000423. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Overcoming barriers to effective recognition and diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:13-20. 2012
  9. ncbi request reprint Changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection following the introduction of a national ribotyping-based surveillance scheme in England
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Thoresby Place, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1056-63. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Policy development for Clostridium difficile
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, and Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:i19-22. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. pmc Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis can yield DNA fingerprints of degradation-susceptible Clostridium difficile strains
    Warren N Fawley
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3546-7; author reply 3547. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of tigecycline in complicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, UK
    J Chemother 17:23-9. 2005
    ..Tigecycline has the potential to be used as monotherapy for the treatment of cSSSI and cIAI...
  3. ncbi request reprint Clostridium difficile: changing epidemiology and new treatment options
    Ed J Kuijper
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:376-83. 2007
    ..The review summarizes changes in the epidemiology and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease...
  4. pmc Use of highly discriminatory fingerprinting to analyze clusters of Clostridium difficile infection cases due to epidemic ribotype 027 strains
    W N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 46:954-60. 2008
    ..MLVA was far superior to PFGE for analyzing clusters of CDI both within and between institutions. Further study is needed to examine whether subtypes of C. difficile ribotype 027 affect outcome...
  5. pmc Development and validation of a chemostat gut model to study both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth of Clostridium difficile and human microbiota
    Grace S Crowther
    Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e88396. 2014
    ..This model can be utilised for the analysis of sessile mixed species communities longitudinally, potentially providing information of the role of biofilms in CDI. ..
  6. pmc Differences in outcome according to Clostridium difficile testing method: a prospective multicentre diagnostic validation study of C difficile infection
    Timothy D Planche
    Centre for Infection and Immunity, Division of Clinical Medicine, St George s, University of London, London, UK Department of Medical Microbiology, St George s Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:936-45. 2013
    ..We aimed to validate the reference methods according to clinical outcomes and to derive an optimum laboratory diagnostic algorithm for C difficile infection...
  7. pmc The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design
    C Horner
    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK
    BMJ Open 2:e000423. 2012
    ..Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes...
  8. doi request reprint Overcoming barriers to effective recognition and diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:13-20. 2012
    ..This algorithm also identifies 'potential C. difficile excretors', individuals with diarrhoeal samples that contain C. difficile but without demonstrable toxin, who may be a source of transmission of C. difficile to susceptible patients...
  9. ncbi request reprint Changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection following the introduction of a national ribotyping-based surveillance scheme in England
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Thoresby Place, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1056-63. 2012
    ..Marked increases in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence, driven by epidemic strain spread, is a global phenomenon...
  10. doi request reprint Policy development for Clostridium difficile
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, and Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:i19-22. 2012
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint MRSA new treatments on the horizon: current status
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, UK
    Injury 42:S42-4. 2011
    ..This is particular true for infections occurring in orthopaedic patients where poorly vascularised tissue, trauma or implanted prosthetic material, pose specific challenges...
  12. ncbi request reprint Update on linezolid: the first oxazolidinone antibiotic
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 6:2315-26. 2005
    ....
  13. doi request reprint A case-control study of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:388-96. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Descriptive study of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:882-4. 2004
    ..Clostridium difficile diarrhoea (CDD) cases treated with intravenous immunoglobulin during a 2 year period were reviewed to determine disease severity and response to treatment...
  15. doi request reprint The tide of antimicrobial resistance and selection
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 34:S6-10. 2009
    ..Further studies are needed to confirm this potentially low selection pressure...
  16. doi request reprint Future gazing in the management of multiply drug-resistant Gram-positive infection
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Infect 59:S75-80. 2009
    ..Additional infection control methods must also be explored. This review discusses the challenges posed in particular by methicillin-resistant staphylococci and potential ways forward...
  17. ncbi request reprint Long-term surveillance of cefotaxime and piperacillin-tazobactam prescribing and incidence of Clostridium difficile diarrhoea
    Mark H Wilcox
    Departments of Microbiology and Elderly Medicine, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:168-72. 2004
    ....
  18. pmc What is the current role of algorithmic approaches for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection?
    Mark H Wilcox
    Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX, W Yorkshire, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 48:4347-53. 2010
    ..difficile infection?..
  19. doi request reprint CANVAS 2: the second Phase III, randomized, double-blind study evaluating ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:iv53-iv65. 2010
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Tigecycline and the need for a new broad-spectrum antibiotic class
    Mark H Wilcox
    Infection Prevention and Control, Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds, Leeds, U K
    Surg Infect (Larchmt) 7:69-80. 2006
    ..Lack of progress in developing new antimicrobials, particularly new classes, as opposed to variants of existing agents, has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens...
  21. ncbi request reprint Comparison of oritavancin versus vancomycin as treatments for clindamycin-induced Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 infection in a human gut model
    Simon D Baines
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:1078-85. 2008
    ..To compare the efficacy of oritavancin and vancomycin in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) using an in vitro human gut model...
  22. doi request reprint Are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus that produce Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) found among residents of care homes?
    Carolyne S Smith
    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:968-72. 2008
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Effect of metronidazole on growth and toxin production by epidemic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 027 in a human gut model
    Jane Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospital and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:83-91. 2007
    ..We compared the behaviour of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 027 in a human gut model, and compared the responses to metronidazole exposure...
  24. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibility of genotypically distinct and clonal Clostridium difficile strains to oritavancin
    Rachael O'Connor
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:762-5. 2008
    ..In agar incorporation methods, the impact of supplements on oritavancin MICs was tested to address oritavancin binding to surfaces...
  25. doi request reprint Emergence of reduced susceptibility to metronidazole in Clostridium difficile
    Simon D Baines
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:1046-52. 2008
    ..We screened recently isolated C. difficile (2005-06) for susceptibility to metronidazole and compared results for historic isolates (1995-2001)...
  26. doi request reprint The potential for airborne dispersal of Clostridium difficile from symptomatic patients
    Emma L Best
    Microbiology Department, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds Teaching Hospitals National Health Service Trust, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1450-7. 2010
    ..This may explain the widespread dissemination of epidemic strains. Our results emphasize the importance of single-room isolation as soon as possible after the onset of diarrhea to limit the dissemination of C. difficile...
  27. doi request reprint Evaluation of linezolid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection caused by epidemic strains using an in vitro human gut model
    Simon D Baines
    Microbiology, University of Leeds and Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1537-46. 2011
    ..Therapeutic options in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are limited. We examined linezolid activity in vitro and potential therapeutic efficacy using a gut model of CDI...
  28. ncbi request reprint Oritavancin does not induce Clostridium difficile germination and toxin production in hamsters or a human gut model
    Jane Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:2919-26. 2012
    ..To evaluate the relative propensities of oritavancin and vancomycin to induce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hamster and in vitro human gut models...
  29. pmc Effects of exposure of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 027 and 001 to fluoroquinolones in a human gut model
    Katie Saxton
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:412-20. 2009
    ..These in vitro results suggest that all fluoroquinolones have the propensity to induce C. difficile infection, regardless of their antianaerobe activities. Resistant mutants were seen only following moxifloxacin exposure...
  30. ncbi request reprint Measurement of ampicillin, vancomycin, linezolid and gentamicin activity against enterococcal biofilms
    Jonathan A T Sandoe
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary at Leeds, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:767-70. 2006
    ..We measured an alternative endpoint, the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and compared the results with MIC and MBC...
  31. doi request reprint Co-amoxiclav induces proliferation and cytotoxin production of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 in a human gut model
    Caroline H Chilton
    Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:951-4. 2012
    ..We have examined the propensity of co-amoxiclav to induce CDI using a human gut model...
  32. doi request reprint Evaluation of NVB302 versus vancomycin activity in an in vitro human gut model of Clostridium difficile infection
    Grace S Crowther
    Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 68:168-76. 2013
    ..NVB302 is a novel type B lantibiotic under evaluation for the treatment of CDI. We compared the responses to NVB302 and vancomycin when used to treat simulated CDI in an in vitro gut model...
  33. pmc An enhanced DNA fingerprinting service to investigate potential Clostridium difficile infection case clusters sharing the same PCR ribotype
    Warren N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 49:4333-7. 2011
    ..These findings emphasize the value of enhanced fingerprinting to confirm or refute suspected CDI case clusters...
  34. doi request reprint Activity of vancomycin against epidemic Clostridium difficile strains in a human gut model
    Simon D Baines
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:520-5. 2009
    ..There are few robust in vitro data of the effects of antibiotic treatment of CDI in a gut reflective setting...
  35. ncbi request reprint Tigecycline does not induce proliferation or cytotoxin production by epidemic Clostridium difficile strains in a human gut model
    Simon D Baines
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 58:1062-5. 2006
    ..It is particularly important to evaluate the propensity of new antibiotics to induce CDI. We have examined the propensity of tigecycline to induce CDI using a human gut model...
  36. pmc Molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile infection and the significance of subtypes of the United Kingdom epidemic strain (PCR ribotype 1)
    Warren N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2685-96. 2005
    ..difficile AP-PCR type Ia strain. Our findings emphasize the need to understand the epidemiology and virulence of clinically significant strains to determine successful control measures for C. difficile infections...
  37. pmc Tolevamer is not efficacious in the neutralization of cytotoxin in a human gut model of Clostridium difficile infection
    Simon D Baines
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2202-4. 2009
    ..Tolevamer reduced neither the duration nor magnitude of cytotoxin activity by C. difficile, reflecting poor efficacy observed in recent phase III clinical trials...
  38. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of hospital cleaning agents and germicides against epidemic Clostridium difficile strains
    Warren N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:920-5. 2007
    ..To compare the effects of hospital cleaning agents and germicides on the survival of epidemic Clostridium difficile strains...
  39. pmc Molecular epidemiology of endemic Clostridium difficile infection
    W N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 126:343-50. 2001
    ..In general, routine cleaning with detergent was unsuccessful at removing C. difficile from the environment. Understanding the epidemiology and virulence of prevalent strains is important if CDI is to be successfully controlled...
  40. ncbi request reprint In situ diagnosis of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection: a comparison of quantitative culture, differential time to positivity, and endoluminal brushing
    James A Catton
    Department of Microbiology, General Infirmary at Leeds and University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Crit Care Med 33:787-91. 2005
    ..To compare the accuracy of three techniques that do not require central venous catheter removal to diagnose catheter-related bloodstream infection...
  41. doi request reprint Complicated skin and skin-structure infections and catheter-related bloodstream infections: noninferiority of linezolid in a phase 3 study
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds, England
    Clin Infect Dis 48:203-12. 2009
    ..Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) causes substantial morbidity and mortality, but few randomized, controlled studies have been conducted to guide therapeutic interventions...
  42. ncbi request reprint Effects of piperacillin/tazobactam on Clostridium difficile growth and toxin production in a human gut model
    Simon D Baines
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:974-82. 2005
    ..Despite their broad spectrum of activity against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, the ureidopenicillins remain a class of antimicrobials infrequently associated with the development of CDI...
  43. pmc Delayed development of linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus following exposure to low levels of antimicrobial agents
    Keith Miller
    Antimicrobial Research Centre and Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1940-4. 2008
    ..We suggest that RIF or FUS in combination with LZD may have a role in preventing the emergence of LZD resistance...
  44. pmc Characterization of the sporulation initiation pathway of Clostridium difficile and its role in toxin production
    Sarah Underwood
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:7296-305. 2009
    ..difficile is controlled by a two-component signal transduction system rather than a multicomponent phosphorelay. The implications of these findings for C. difficile sporulation, virulence, and transmission are discussed...
  45. ncbi request reprint Comparison of planktonic and biofilm-associated communities of Clostridium difficile and indigenous gut microbiota in a triple-stage chemostat gut model
    Grace S Crowther
    Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 69:2137-47. 2014
    ..The presence and behaviour of C. difficile within intestinal biofilms remains largely unexplored, but may factor in recurrent infection...
  46. ncbi request reprint Correlation between enterococcal biofilm formation in vitro and medical-device-related infection potential in vivo
    Jonathan A T Sandoe
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary at Leeds and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Med Microbiol 52:547-50. 2003
    ..The ability of E. faecalis isolates to form biofilm in vitro appears to be a marker of a virulence trait that enhances the ability of isolates to cause CRBSI...
  47. ncbi request reprint Effects of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime upon Clostridium difficile proliferation and toxin production in a triple-stage chemostat model of the human gut
    Jane Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:96-102. 2003
    ..We believe that the gut model is a promising method for studying C. difficile pathogenesis in conditions analogous to the in vivo situation...
  48. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of linezolid versus comparator therapies in Gram-positive infections
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:ii27-35. 2003
    ..Intravenous/oral linezolid is a promising antimicrobial agent and provides the clinician with an additional treatment option, particularly among the limited therapies for resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections...
  49. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the efficacy of ramoplanin and vancomycin in both in vitro and in vivo models of clindamycin-induced Clostridium difficile infection
    Jane Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds, LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:717-25. 2005
    ..We compared vancomycin and a novel glycolipodepsipeptide, ramoplanin, in both hamster and in vitro gut models of clindamycin-induced CDI...
  50. ncbi request reprint Rapid spread of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among high-risk hospital inpatients and the role of molecular typing in outbreak confirmation
    D Subramanian
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Hosp Infect 54:99-103. 2003
    ..Implications for pneumococcal vaccination are discussed...
  51. ncbi request reprint Evidence to support the existence of subgroups within the UK epidemic Clostridium difficile strain (PCR ribotype 1)
    W N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Leeds and Leeds General Infirmary, Old Medical School, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Hosp Infect 54:74-7. 2003
    ..This observation may permit a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of C. difficile infection...
  52. ncbi request reprint Prospective evaluation of environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile in isolation side rooms
    P Verity
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    J Hosp Infect 49:204-9. 2001
    ..difficile. In particular, improved cleaning of frequently touched sites in the immediate bed space area is required...
  53. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the effect of detergent versus hypochlorite cleaning on environmental contamination and incidence of Clostridium difficile infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, General Infirmary at Leeds and University of Leeds, LS1 3EX, Leeds, UK
    J Hosp Infect 54:109-14. 2003
    ..These results provide some evidence that use of hypochlorite for environmental cleaning may significantly reduce incidence of CDI, but emphasize the potential for confounding factors...
  54. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic prescribing as a risk factor for MRSA
    Mark H Wilcox
    Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX
    Hosp Med 66:180-4. 2005
    ..Crucially, however, controlled studies of antimicrobial prescribing interventions are lacking. The evidence for the association between antimicrobial prescribing and expansion of MRSA is reviewed here...
  55. pmc Comparative analysis of prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus
    N J Asha
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2785-91. 2006
    ..perfringens AAD and S. aureus AAD, respectively. Risk factors for these AAD pathogens differed, highlighting the need to define specific control measures. There is evidence of nosocomial transmission in cases of C. perfringens AAD...
  56. pmc Models for the study of Clostridium difficile infection
    Emma L Best
    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Microbiology Department, Old Medical School, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK
    Gut Microbes 3:145-67. 2012
    ..difficile research. It is important for future study programs to carefully consider the approach to use and therefore be better placed to inform the design and interpretation of clinical studies...
  57. ncbi request reprint Recent initiatives to reduce the spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 70:399-401. 2009
    ..However, the relative effectiveness of prevention interventions is unclear. Initiatives to control meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have tended to ignore the benefits of altering antimicrobial prescribing...
  58. pmc Evidence for antibiotic induced Clostridium perfringens diarrhoea
    N Modi
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary and University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds, LS1 3EX, UK
    J Clin Pathol 54:748-51. 2001
    ..In addition, establishing the true burden of C perfringens antibiotic associated diarrhoea is important before optimum control and treatment measures can be defined...
  59. ncbi request reprint Role of environmental cleaning in controlling an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii on a neurosurgical intensive care unit
    M Denton
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Hosp Infect 56:106-10. 2004
    ..baumannii resulted in increases in patient colonization. This study showed that high standards of cleaning play an integral role in controlling outbreaks of A. baumannii in the intensive care unit setting...
  60. ncbi request reprint Role of environmental cleaning in controlling an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii on a neurosurgical intensive care unit
    M Denton
    Department of Microbiology, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    Intensive Crit Care Nurs 21:94-8. 2005
    ..baumannii resulted in increases in patient colonization. This study showed that high standards of cleaning play an integral role in controlling outbreaks of A. baumannii in the intensive care unit setting...
  61. pmc Increased rate of DNA recovery from United Kingdom epidemic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 1 strains stored cryogenically
    N J Asha
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary, The Old Medical School, Thoresby Place, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5794-5. 2005
    ..The recovery rate of C. difficile PCR ribotype 1 was statistically significantly greater than that of other strains. This observation has implications for C. difficile epidemiological studies...
  62. ncbi request reprint Prospective evaluation of hospital isolation room capacity
    N Wigglesworth
    Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, UK
    J Hosp Infect 63:156-61. 2006
    ..Either isolation capacity must be increased or evidence-based risk assessment must be applied to situations where demand for isolation exceeds availability. Further information is needed on the consequences of isolation failure...
  63. pmc DNA fingerprinting analysis of coagulase negative staphylococci implicated in catheter related bloodstream infections
    B M Dobbins
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Clin Pathol 55:824-8. 2002
    ..The epidemiological assessment of cases of coagulase negative staphylococcal catheter related bloodstream infection...
  64. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile: biological therapies
    Jessica Martin
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 26:454-60. 2013
    ..There is significant interest in their use in treating refractory/recurrent CDI. This review summarizes the latest evidence for these approaches...
  65. ncbi request reprint Gastrointestinal disorders and the critically ill. Clostridium difficile infection and pseudomembranous colitis
    Mark H Wilcox
    Leeds General Infirmary, Old Medical School, University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17:475-93. 2003
    ..Current treatment options are antibiotic-based, which is less than ideal. Although many biotherapeutic approaches have been tried few have shown real benefit...
  66. ncbi request reprint Each lumen is a potential source of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection
    Brian M Dobbins
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary at Leeds, University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    Crit Care Med 31:1688-90. 2003
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Clostridium difficile
    Bethan Stoddart
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary and University of Leeds, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:513-8. 2002
    ..difficile diarrhoea protects against recurrence, and trials are in progress to investigate immunization: a toxoid vaccine which is immunogenic and safe in healthy volunteers shows promise for the future...
  68. ncbi request reprint Use of perioperative mupirocin to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) orthopaedic surgical site infections
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Hosp Infect 54:196-201. 2003
    ..PPNMT can reduce the incidence of MRSA SSls after orthopaedic surgery, probably by reducing nasal MRSA carriage in the endemic setting, without selecting for mupirocin resistance...
  69. ncbi request reprint Surveillance for mupirocin resistance following introduction of routine peri-operative prophylaxis with nasal mupirocin
    W N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Hosp Infect 62:327-32. 2006
    ..aureus and MRSA in orthopaedic and vascular surgery patients. Despite four years of use of PPNMTT, there was no evidence of sustained emergence or spread of mupirocin resistance...
  70. ncbi request reprint A comparison of culture and PCR to determine the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the faecal flora of general practice patients
    J Heritage
    Division of Microbiology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:287-9. 2001
    ..This points to potential anomalies in the assessment of the prevalence of resistance when relying on recovery of resistant bacteria by culture...
  71. pmc The changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections
    J Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 23:529-49. 2010
    ..difficile, and the effect of the use of alcohol-based hand hygiene agents...
  72. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of new generation fluoroquinolones against genotypically distinct and indistinguishable Clostridium difficile isolates
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 46:551-6. 2000
    ..difficile is endemic requires further study, particularly given the reduced antibiotic susceptibility to all fluoroquinolones of the readily transmissible UK C. difficile clone...
  73. ncbi request reprint Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
    N J Asha
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary, University of Leeds
    J Med Microbiol 51:891-4. 2002
    ..C. perfringens is a potentially important cause of infective AAD and can be detected with the C. perfringens enterotoxin ELISA kit, although weak positive results should be considered with caution...
  74. ncbi request reprint Enterococcal intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection: management and outcome of 61 consecutive cases
    Jonathan A T Sandoe
    Department of Microbiology, The General Infirmary at Leeds, University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 50:577-82. 2002
    ..Although CVC removal was associated with a high cure rate, it did not guarantee treatment success...
  75. ncbi request reprint Health-care-associated infection: morbidity, mortality and costs
    Mark H Wilcox
    Leeds General Infirmary, University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX
    Hosp Med 65:88-91. 2004
    ..Not all infection is preventable. However, much is possible and is indeed obligatory to avoid unnecessary infection, and attendant morbidity, mortality and, increasingly, litigation...
  76. ncbi request reprint In situ endoluminal brushing: a safe technique for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection
    B M Dobbins
    Academic Unit of Surgery, Old Medical School, The General Infirmary at Leeds and The University of Leeds, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Hosp Infect 58:233-7. 2004
    ..The endoluminal brush technique can be safely used to diagnose CRBSI without the need for CVC removal, provided that the brush is not allowed to protrude beyond the tip of the catheter...
  77. pmc The effects of storage conditions on viability of Clostridium difficile vegetative cells and spores and toxin activity in human faeces
    J Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Clin Pathol 56:126-8. 2003
    ..This study investigated the effects of storage conditions upon the viability of this organism and its toxin...
  78. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of topical chlorhexidine powder as an alternative to hexachlorophane for the control of Staphylococcus aureus in neonates
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Hosp Infect 56:156-9. 2004
    ..aureus PT 53,85 isolates were recovered. Control of S. aureus in our regional neonatal unit, in particular an endemic MSSA strain, was maintained when topical umbilical hexachlorophane powder was substituted with 1% chlorhexidine powder...
  79. ncbi request reprint Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 41:41-6. 1998
    ..Vaccination to prevent C. difficile infection, particularly in high-risk elderly patients managed within institutions where C. difficile is endemic, is a worthwhile therapeutic goal...
  80. ncbi request reprint Effect of extended perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis on intravascular catheter colonization and infection in cardiothoracic surgery patients
    J A T Sandoe
    Departments of Microbiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:877-9. 2003
    ..05). In routine cardiothoracic surgery patients, extending routine perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis until all IVCs have been removed does not influence rates of IVC colonization...
  81. pmc Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, General Infirmary, Leeds
    Sex Transm Infect 76:177-8. 2000
    ..We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing...
  82. ncbi request reprint Glove powder: implications for infection control
    J Dave
    Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds
    J Hosp Infect 42:283-5. 1999
    ..In animal models, corn starch, the material used as glove powder, promotes wound infection. Infection control teams need to be aware of this evidence and should support switching from use of powdered to powder free gloves...
  83. ncbi request reprint Decreased effectiveness of metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection?
    Ed J Kuijper
    Clin Infect Dis 47:63-5. 2008
  84. ncbi request reprint Epidemic Clostridium difficile
    Mark H Wilcox
    N Engl J Med 354:1199-203; author reply 1199-203. 2006
  85. ncbi request reprint Surveillance for resistance to metronidazole and vancomycin in genotypically distinct and UK epidemic Clostridium difficile isolates in a large teaching hospital
    Jane Freeman
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:988-9. 2005
  86. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and odor
    Mark H Wilcox
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1110. 2007
  87. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization among older residents of care homes in the United Kingdom
    Benjamin Barr
    West Lancashire PCT, Ormskirk and District General Hospital, Ormskirk, Lancashire, L39 2JW, UK
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:853-9. 2007
    ..To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among older residents of care homes in Leeds, United Kingdom, and to identify resident and care home risk factors for carriage...
  88. doi request reprint Clostridium difficile and chlorine-releasing disinfectants
    Chris D Settle
    Lancet 371:810. 2008
  89. ncbi request reprint The use of a rapid in situ test in the detection of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: a prospective study
    Jin J Bong
    Division of Surgery, The University of Leeds, United Kingdom
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 27:146-50. 2003
    ..We evaluated the role of the AOLC test in early detection or exclusion of CRBSI and compared the cost of managing patients with suspected CRBSI...
  90. pmc Probiotics and diarrhea: Data are not widely applicable
    Mark H Wilcox
    BMJ 335:171. 2007