Hugh S Markus

Summary

Affiliation: St George's
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Unravelling the genetics of ischaemic stroke
    Hugh S Markus
    St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 7:e1000225. 2010
  2. pmc Genome-wide association study identifies a variant in HDAC9 associated with large vessel ischemic stroke
    Celine Bellenguez
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
    Nat Genet 44:328-33. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Evidence HDAC9 genetic variant associated with ischemic stroke increases risk via promoting carotid atherosclerosis
    Hugh S Markus
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London SW19 3QZ, United Kingdom
    Stroke 44:1220-5. 2013
  4. ncbi request reprint Stroke risk after posterior circulation stroke/transient ischemic attack and its relationship to site of vertebrobasilar stenosis: pooled data analysis from prospective studies
    Giosué Gulli
    St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 44:598-604. 2013
  5. pmc Stroke genetics: prospects for personalized medicine
    Hugh S Markus
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St, Georges University of London, London, UK
    BMC Med 10:113. 2012
  6. doi request reprint Stroke genetics
    Hugh S Markus
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St Georges University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 20:R124-31. 2011
  7. doi request reprint The von Willebrand inhibitor ARC1779 reduces cerebral embolization after carotid endarterectomy: a randomized trial
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London SW170RE, UK
    Stroke 42:2149-53. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Genetics: What is relevant for the stroke physician?
    Hugh S Markus
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Int J Stroke 2:114-7. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Genes, endothelial function and cerebral small vessel disease in man
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE, UK
    Exp Physiol 93:121-7. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Genetic and acquired inflammatory conditions are synergistically associated with early carotid atherosclerosis
    Hugh S Markus
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George s University of London, UK
    Stroke 37:2253-9. 2006

Detail Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Unravelling the genetics of ischaemic stroke
    Hugh S Markus
    St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 7:e1000225. 2010
    ..Hugh Markus discusses genetic factors in stroke risk, and emphasizes the importance of large sample studies and rigorous replication of results in genetic stroke research...
  2. pmc Genome-wide association study identifies a variant in HDAC9 associated with large vessel ischemic stroke
    Celine Bellenguez
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
    Nat Genet 44:328-33. 2012
    ..28-1.57). All four loci exhibited evidence for heterogeneity of effect across the stroke subtypes, with some and possibly all affecting risk for only one subtype. This suggests distinct genetic architectures for different stroke subtypes...
  3. doi request reprint Evidence HDAC9 genetic variant associated with ischemic stroke increases risk via promoting carotid atherosclerosis
    Hugh S Markus
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London SW19 3QZ, United Kingdom
    Stroke 44:1220-5. 2013
    ..The most likely underlying gene is histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9). The mechanism by which HDAC9 increases stroke risk is not clear; both vascular and neuronal mechanisms have been proposed...
  4. ncbi request reprint Stroke risk after posterior circulation stroke/transient ischemic attack and its relationship to site of vertebrobasilar stenosis: pooled data analysis from prospective studies
    Giosué Gulli
    St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 44:598-604. 2013
    ..It is unclear whether this association is independent of other risk factors, and whether intracranial or extracranial stenosis confers different risks...
  5. pmc Stroke genetics: prospects for personalized medicine
    Hugh S Markus
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St, Georges University of London, London, UK
    BMC Med 10:113. 2012
    ..Genetic variants affecting clopidogrel and warfarin metabolism may identify non-responders and reduce side-effects, but these approaches have not yet been widely adopted in clinical practice...
  6. doi request reprint Stroke genetics
    Hugh S Markus
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St Georges University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 20:R124-31. 2011
    ..Identifying these is likely to require much larger sample sizes...
  7. doi request reprint The von Willebrand inhibitor ARC1779 reduces cerebral embolization after carotid endarterectomy: a randomized trial
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London SW170RE, UK
    Stroke 42:2149-53. 2011
    ..The effect of ARC 1779 on cerebral emboli immediately after carotid endarterectomy was investigated in a randomized clinical trial...
  8. ncbi request reprint Genetics: What is relevant for the stroke physician?
    Hugh S Markus
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Int J Stroke 2:114-7. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Genes, endothelial function and cerebral small vessel disease in man
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE, UK
    Exp Physiol 93:121-7. 2008
    ..However, not all results have been replicated and there are few robust replicable associations. Larger studies are required to determine definitively which associations represent important risk factors...
  10. ncbi request reprint Genetic and acquired inflammatory conditions are synergistically associated with early carotid atherosclerosis
    Hugh S Markus
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George s University of London, UK
    Stroke 37:2253-9. 2006
    ..We replicated this finding in a second large population and extended the analysis by inclusion of other inflammatory conditions (chronic infection and obesity/abnormal glucose tolerance)...
  11. ncbi request reprint Differences in stroke subtypes between black and white patients with stroke: the South London Ethnicity and Stroke Study
    Hugh S Markus
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, SW17 ORE, UK
    Circulation 116:2157-64. 2007
    ..Determining whether the distribution of stroke subtypes differs between ethnic groups is important in understanding the mechanisms of the increased stroke incidence in black patients...
  12. ncbi request reprint Promoter polymorphism in the endotoxin receptor (CD14) is associated with increased carotid atherosclerosis only in smokers: the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS)
    Paul Risley
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terr, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 34:600-4. 2003
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Polymorphisms in MMP family and TIMP genes and carotid artery intima-media thickness
    Christine Armstrong
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London, UK
    Stroke 38:2895-9. 2007
    ..We have therefore sought to address this issue in a large, well-phenotyped community population to assess the effect of a number of polymorphisms in both MMP and TIMP genes on carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT)...
  14. doi request reprint Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy in hypertension and presumed cerebral small vessel disease
    Arani Nitkunan
    Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, St George s, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Magn Reson Med 59:528-34. 2008
    ..457, controls -0.317). NAA is a marker of axonal loss/dysfunction. These findings are consistent with axonal loss/dysfunction being the principal process causing the DTI changes found in cerebral SVD and ageing...
  15. ncbi request reprint Toll receptor polymorphisms and carotid artery intima-media thickness
    Robyn Labrum
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 38:1179-84. 2007
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Ethnic differences in markers of thrombophilia: implications for the investigation of ischemic stroke in multiethnic populations: the South London Ethnicity and Stroke Study
    Paula Jerrard-Dunne
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 34:1821-6. 2003
    ..This study estimated ethnic-specific reference ranges in a community population to determine the prevalence of thrombophilic states in a multiethnic stroke population...
  17. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism modulates the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on early carotid artery atherosclerosis: the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS)
    Paula Jerrard-Dunne
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St Georges Hospital Medical School, Tooting, London, UK
    Stroke 34:402-7. 2003
    ..If inflammation were on the intermediate causal pathway between alcohol intake and atherosclerosis, then genetic determinants of enhanced inflammation would be expected to modify this relationship...
  18. ncbi request reprint Genetic variation in the leukotriene pathway and carotid intima-media thickness: a 2-stage replication study
    Steve Bevan
    Clinical Neuroscience, St Georges University of London, UK
    Stroke 40:696-701. 2009
    ..Using a 2-stage replication design, we have examined whether polymorphisms in 8 genes related to this pathway are associated with early atherosclerosis and remodeling as measured by carotid artery intima-media thickness...
  19. ncbi request reprint Inflammatory gene load is associated with enhanced inflammation and early carotid atherosclerosis in smokers
    Paula Jerrard-Dunne
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW170RE
    Stroke 35:2438-43. 2004
    ..This study examined the impact of inflammatory gene polymorphisms and gene-smoking interactions on common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of early atherosclerosis...
  20. ncbi request reprint Rates and determinants of site-specific progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness: the carotid atherosclerosis progression study
    Andrew D Mackinnon
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London, United Kingdom
    Stroke 35:2150-4. 2004
    ..The study aim was to evaluate site-specific IMT progression rates and their relationships to vascular risk factors compared with baseline IMT measurements...
  21. pmc Multilocus genetic risk score associates with ischemic stroke in case-control and prospective cohort studies
    Rainer Malik
    From the Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, Klinikum der Universitat Munchen, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munich, Germany R M, M D Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom S B, H S M Laboratory of Neurogenetics M A N and Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences L J L, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health E G H and Center for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health Research C L, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Center for Bioinformatics, Biomarker Discovery and Information Based Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW, Australia E G H Department of Neurology, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA W J D, J R Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Y C C, B D M Department of Veterans Affairs and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center GRECC, Baltimore, MD Y C C, B D M Department of Epidemiology C A I V, B F J V, Baltimore
    Stroke 45:394-402. 2014
    ..We aimed to generate a multilocus genetic risk score (GRS) for IS based on genome-wide association studies data from clinical-based samples and to establish its external validity in prospective population-based cohorts...
  22. ncbi request reprint Homocysteine is a risk factor for cerebral small vessel disease, acting via endothelial dysfunction
    Ahamad Hassan
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, London SW17 ORE, UK
    Brain 127:212-9. 2004
    ..Homocysteine-lowering therapy may be particularly effective in this subgroup...
  23. pmc Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial
    Leo H Bonati
    Stroke Research Group, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 8:908-17. 2009
    ..We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS...
  24. ncbi request reprint Evaluating the genetic component of ischemic stroke subtypes: a family history study
    Paula Jerrard-Dunne
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 34:1364-9. 2003
    ..We determined the familial aggregation of stroke risk in different stroke phenotypes and used the results to model estimated sample size requirements for case-control studies...
  25. ncbi request reprint Early carotid atherosclerosis and family history of vascular disease: specific effects on arterial sites have implications for genetic studies
    Paula Jerrard-Dunne
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St Georges Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:302-6. 2003
    ..In a community population (n=5400), we determined whether a parental history of myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke is associated with increased IMT and whether associations differ at specific sites in the carotid arterial tree...
  26. ncbi request reprint Genetic heritability of ischemic stroke and the contribution of previously reported candidate gene and genomewide associations
    Steve Bevan
    Stroke and Dementia Research Group, St Georges, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London, SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 43:3161-7. 2012
    ..Previous candidate gene studies have identified many associations with stoke but whether these are important requires replication in large independent data sets. GWAS data sets provide a powerful resource to perform replication studies...
  27. doi request reprint Cerebral microbleeds and cognition in patients with symptomatic small vessel disease
    Bhavini Patel
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s, University of London, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom
    Stroke 44:356-61. 2013
    ..We determined whether CMB number and location are associated with impaired cognition in symptomatic small vessel disease and whether any association was independent of other magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease...
  28. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive function and cerebral emboli: randomized study of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery
    Reza Motallebzadeh
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Thorac Surg 83:475-82. 2007
    ..Cardiopulmonary bypass, in particular, cerebral emboli, has been implicated. We compared neurocognitive function and cerebral emboli in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump CABG...
  29. pmc Risk factor profile of cerebral small vessel disease and its subtypes
    Usman Khan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78:702-6. 2007
    ..If atherosclerosis were important in SVD as a whole or in one particular subtype, one would expect the risk factor profile to be similar to that of cerebral large vessel disease (LVD)...
  30. doi request reprint Reduced N-acetylaspartate is consistent with axonal dysfunction in cerebral small vessel disease
    Arani Nitkunan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, London, UK
    NMR Biomed 22:285-91. 2009
    ..We used (1)H MRS to investigate brain metabolic differences between patients with SVD and controls and correlated this with cognition...
  31. doi request reprint Homocysteine and its relationship to stroke subtypes in a UK black population: the south London ethnicity and stroke study
    Usman Khan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 39:2943-9. 2008
    ..We determined the association between homocysteine and stroke subtypes, especially SVD, in a well-phenotyped UK cohort of black stroke patients compared to community controls...
  32. pmc Genetic risk factors for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (the METASTROKE collaboration): a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
    Matthew Traylor
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 11:951-62. 2012
    ..We established the METASTROKE collaboration with the aim of validating associations from previous GWAS and identifying novel genetic associations through meta-analysis of GWAS datasets for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes...
  33. ncbi request reprint The spatial distribution of MR imaging abnormalities in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and their relationship to age and clinical features
    Sumeet Singhal
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, St George s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:2481-7. 2005
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Multimodal MRI in cerebral small vessel disease: its relationship with cognition and sensitivity to change over time
    Arani Nitkunan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 39:1999-2005. 2008
    ..In patients with symptomatic sporadic small vessel disease, we determined which MRI parameters best correlated with cognitive function on cross-sectional analysis and which changed over a period of 1 year...
  35. pmc Asymptomatic embolisation for prediction of stroke in the Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES): a prospective observational study
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 9:663-71. 2010
    ..We aimed to investigate whether detection of asymptomatic embolic signals by use of transcranial doppler (TCD) could predict stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis...
  36. ncbi request reprint NADPH oxidase polymorphisms in cerebral small vessel disease
    Usman Khan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Cerebrovasc Dis 24:135-8. 2007
  37. doi request reprint Adiponectin level as a consequence of genetic variation, but not leptin level or leptin: adiponectin ratio, is a risk factor for carotid intima-media thickness
    Steve Bevan
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, Clinical Sciences, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 42:1510-4. 2011
    ..We also examined association between genetic variants in the leptin and adiponectin genes and IMT...
  38. ncbi request reprint Variation in the PDE4D gene and ischemic stroke risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis on 5200 cases and 6600 controls
    Steve Bevan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London, SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 39:1966-71. 2008
    ..Meta-analysis provides a method to combine this data and determine in a larger sample size whether the association with PDE4D can be replicated...
  39. pmc Mechanisms of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease: multimodal MRI results from the St George's cognition and neuroimaging in stroke (SCANS) study
    Andrew J Lawrence
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e61014. 2013
    ..Our study provides information on the mechanism of cognitive impairment in SVD...
  40. doi request reprint Clinical spectrum of CADASIL and the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on phenotype: study in 200 consecutively recruited individuals
    Poneh Adib-Samii
    Clinical Neurosciences, St George s University of London, London, England
    Stroke 41:630-4. 2010
    ..This study examined the clinical phenotype as well as any associations with risk factors and genotype in a large, prospective cohort...
  41. ncbi request reprint Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using doppler embolic signal detection: the Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial
    Hugh S Markus
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Circulation 111:2233-40. 2005
    ..They offer a surrogate marker to evaluate antiplatelet therapy, but no multicenter study has evaluated the feasibility of this approach...
  42. ncbi request reprint Markers of endothelial and hemostatic activation and progression of cerebral white matter hyperintensities: longitudinal results of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 36:1410-4. 2005
    ..In a prospective study, we determined whether circulating markers of endothelial activation predicted progression of WMH...
  43. doi request reprint Genetic variation in members of the leukotriene biosynthesis pathway confer an increased risk of ischemic stroke: a replication study in two independent populations
    Steve Bevan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St Georges University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London, SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 39:1109-14. 2008
    ..Using a case control replication methodology, all members of the leukotriene synthesis pathway and their receptors were examined for genetic variants, which may act as risk factors for all ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes...
  44. ncbi request reprint S-nitrosoglutathione reduces asymptomatic embolization after carotid angioplasty
    Zoltan Kaposzta
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Circulation 106:3057-62. 2002
    ..S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a nitric oxide donor that appears to have relative platelet specificity. We evaluated its effectiveness in reducing embolization after carotid angioplasty...
  45. ncbi request reprint Using phenotypic heterogeneity to increase the power of genome-wide association studies: application to age at onset of ischaemic stroke subphenotypes
    Matthew Traylor
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Genet Epidemiol 37:495-503. 2013
    ....
  46. doi request reprint Theory of mind associations with other cognitive functions and brain imaging in normal aging
    Rebecca A Charlton
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Psychol Aging 24:338-48. 2009
    ..Theory of mind age-related decline may not be independent of other cognitive functions; it may also be particularly susceptible to changes in white matter integrity...
  47. ncbi request reprint The influence of genetic and cardiovascular risk factors on the CADASIL phenotype
    Sumeet Singhal
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Brain 127:2031-8. 2004
    ..This implies that modulating factors influence phenotype. Smoking appears to increase the risk of stroke, while high homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of migraine...
  48. ncbi request reprint C-reactive protein and carotid intimal medial thickness in a community population
    Matthias Sitzer
    Department of Neurology, J W Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Germany, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    J Cardiovasc Risk 9:97-103. 2002
    ..Nevertheless, the question whether serum CRP itself is an independent indicator of the atherosclerotic process remains unanswered...
  49. pmc Depressive symptoms as a predictor of quality of life in cerebral small vessel disease, acting independently of disability; a study in both sporadic small vessel disease and CADASIL
    Rebecca L Brookes
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s, University of London, London, UK
    Int J Stroke 8:510-7. 2013
    ..Factors causing reduced quality of life in small vessel disease, including the relative contributions of disability and depressive symptoms, remain uncertain...
  50. doi request reprint Lack of awareness of neuropsychological deficit in cerebral small vessel disease: the relationship with executive and episodic memory functions
    Rebecca L Brookes
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s, University of London, UK
    J Neuropsychol 7:19-28. 2013
    ..The results show that lack of awareness of deficit is a clinical feature of SVD and indicate that there are distinct neuropsychological associations with awareness deficit for SVD and AD...
  51. doi request reprint Brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease: a prospective follow-up study
    Arani Nitkunan
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 42:133-8. 2011
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Ambulatory transcranial Doppler cerebral embolic signal detection in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis
    Andrew D Mackinnon
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St Georges Hospital Medical School, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom
    Stroke 36:1726-30. 2005
    ..A novel ambulatory TCD system allows prolonged recording. We applied this to patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis to determine patterns of embolization in the 2 conditions and optimal recording protocols...
  53. ncbi request reprint Cerebrovascular reactivity and dynamic autoregulation in nondemented patients with CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy)
    Sumeet Singhal
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    J Neurol 252:163-7. 2005
    ..TCD is unlikely to be useful for disease monitoring in patients without advanced disease...
  54. pmc Brief Memory and Executive Test: evaluation of a new screening test for cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease
    Rebecca L Brookes
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Age Ageing 41:212-8. 2012
    ..Despite this, there is a paucity of rapid simple screening tools to identify cognitive impairment in SVD and differentiate it from other common dementia types...
  55. ncbi request reprint Effect of rosiglitazone on common carotid intima-media thickness progression in coronary artery disease patients without diabetes mellitus
    Jagdip S Sidhu
    Coronary Artery Disease Research Unit, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24:930-4. 2004
    ..In this study, we assessed the effect of rosiglitazone on common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) progression in nondiabetic coronary artery disease (CAD) patients...
  56. doi request reprint Doppler embolic signals in cerebrovascular disease and prediction of stroke risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Alice King
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 40:3711-7. 2009
    ..They may be useful in risk stratification and in assessing therapies. First, it is essential to show whether they predict stroke risk...
  57. doi request reprint White matter pathways associated with working memory in normal aging
    Rebecca A Charlton
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, UK
    Cortex 46:474-89. 2010
    ..It has been proposed that subtle white matter integrity loss may lead to the disruption of working memory in particular because it relies on the dynamic and reiterative activity of cortico-cortical pathways...
  58. doi request reprint White matter structural decline in normal ageing: a prospective longitudinal study using tract-based spatial statistics
    Thomas R Barrick
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK
    Neuroimage 51:565-77. 2010
    ..Common changes across different diffusion characteristics are discussed...
  59. doi request reprint The impact of subcortical white matter disease on mood in euthymic older adults: a diffusion tensor imaging study
    Melissa Lamar
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College, London, UK
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 18:634-42. 2010
    ..We aimed to address these issues with non-demented euthymic older adults...
  60. ncbi request reprint Asymmetric dimethylarginine in cerebral small vessel disease
    Usman Khan
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE, UK
    Stroke 38:411-3. 2007
    ..We determined if ADMA was elevated in SVD, correlated with disease severity, and interacted with homocysteine...
  61. pmc 17q25 Locus is associated with white matter hyperintensity volume in ischemic stroke, but not with lacunar stroke status
    Poneh Adib-Samii
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 44:1609-15. 2013
    ..We aimed to replicate the association with WMH volume (WMHV) in patients with ischemic stroke. If the association acts by promoting a small vessel arteriopathy, it might be expected to also associate with lacunar stroke...
  62. pmc Ischemic stroke is associated with the ABO locus: the EuroCLOT study
    Frances M K Williams
    Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King s College London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 73:16-31. 2013
    ..We explored whether genetic variants associated with end-stage coagulation in healthy volunteers account for the genetic predisposition to ischemic stroke and examined their influence on stroke subtype...
  63. doi request reprint Magnetic resonance imaging in cerebral small vessel disease and its use as a surrogate disease marker
    Bhavini Patel
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Int J Stroke 6:47-59. 2011
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Update on genetics of stroke and cerebrovascular disease 2005
    Hugh S Markus
    The Clinical Neuroscience, St Georges, University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 37:288-90. 2006
  65. ncbi request reprint Correlations between MRS and DTI in cerebral small vessel disease
    Arani Nitkunan
    Centre of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s, University of London, London, UK
    NMR Biomed 19:610-6. 2006
    ..It provides evidence that DTI identifies axonal disruption in white matter tracts...
  66. ncbi request reprint Long-term ambulatory monitoring for cerebral emboli using transcranial Doppler ultrasound
    Andrew D Mackinnon
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terr, Tooting, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 35:73-8. 2004
    ..We have developed a first ambulatory TCD system, evaluated it in at-risk patient groups, and used it to study the pattern of embolization in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis...
  67. ncbi request reprint Online automated detection of cerebral embolic signals from a variety of embolic sources
    Marisa Cullinane
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Ultrasound Med Biol 28:1271-7. 2002
    ..Refinement of the algorithm is required to improve its sensitivity for AF data...
  68. doi request reprint Does impaired cerebrovascular reactivity predict stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis? A prospective substudy of the asymptomatic carotid emboli study
    Alice King
    FRCP, Research Centre for Stroke and Dementia, Department of Clinical Sciences, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 42:1550-5. 2011
    ..It has been suggested that impaired cerebral reactivity (CVR) may predict high risk, but no multicenter studies have examined this...
  69. doi request reprint Clopidogrel versus dipyridamole in addition to aspirin in reducing embolization detected with ambulatory transcranial Doppler: a randomized trial
    Alice King
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 42:650-5. 2011
    ..In a randomized trial (ISRCTN68019845) with blinded end point evaluation, we determined whether treatment with dipyridamole or clopidogrel, in addition to aspirin, was more effective at reducing embolization...
  70. doi request reprint Noninvasive detection of vertebral artery stenosis: a comparison of contrast-enhanced MR angiography, CT angiography, and ultrasound
    Sofia Khan
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 40:3499-503. 2009
    ..However, no prospective studies have compared both of these techniques with ultrasound against the gold standard of intra-arterial angiography in the same group of patients...
  71. ncbi request reprint Online automated detection of cerebral embolic signals using a wavelet-based system
    Salman Marvasti
    Visual Information Processing, Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Ultrasound Med Biol 30:647-53. 2004
    ..It may be particularly good for detecting short-duration low-energy signals, although a frequency filtering-based approach currently offers a higher sensitivity on an unselected data set...
  72. pmc The role of genetic variants of matrix metalloproteinases in coronary and carotid atherosclerosis
    Sonia Abilleira
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    J Med Genet 43:897-901. 2006
    ....
  73. pmc Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial
    Jörg Ederle
    Stroke Research Group, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 8:898-907. 2009
    ..We therefore report the long-term results of the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS)...
  74. doi request reprint Antiplatelets vs anticoagulation for dissection: CADISS nonrandomized arm and meta-analysis
    Fiona Kennedy
    Stroke and Dementia Research Centre, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Neurology 79:686-9. 2012
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Current treatments in neurology: stroke
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    J Neurol 252:260-7. 2005
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Can transcranial Doppler discriminate between solid and gaseous microemboli? Assessment of a dual-frequency transducer system
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terr, London, SW17 0RE, UK
    Stroke 36:1731-4. 2005
    ..An initial study with a small sample size suggested it provided excellent discrimination. We performed a validation study in subjects with embolic signals of known nature...
  77. doi request reprint Do in vivo experimental models reflect human cerebral small vessel disease? A systematic review
    Atticus H Hainsworth
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George s University of London, London, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28:1877-91. 2008
    ..The most-used model was the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR-SP). No model described all features of the human disease. The optimal choice of model depends on the aspect of pathophysiology being studied...
  78. ncbi request reprint Vertebrobasilar stenosis predicts high early recurrent stroke risk in posterior circulation stroke and TIA
    Giosué Gulli
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE UK
    Stroke 40:2732-7. 2009
    ..This natural history data are important as it is technically possible to stent such lesions. Contrast enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and CT angiography (CTA) now allow noninvasive identification of vertebrobasilar stenosis...
  79. ncbi request reprint Long and short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the healthy aging brain
    Dominick J O McIntyre
    Basic Medical Sciences, St George s University of London, London, UK
    J Magn Reson Imaging 26:1596-606. 2007
    ..To investigate the relationship between subject age and white matter brain metabolite concentrations and R(2) relaxation rates in a cross-sectional study of human brain...
  80. ncbi request reprint Asymptomatic embolization detected by Doppler ultrasound predicts stroke risk in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis
    Hugh S Markus
    Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, London, UK
    Stroke 36:971-5. 2005
    ..Small studies have demonstrated that they predict the combined endpoint of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), but no studies have shown that they predict the more important endpoint of stroke alone...
  81. ncbi request reprint Asymptomatic embolisation in non-valvular atrial fibrillation and its relationship to anticoagulation therapy
    Kerry Tinkler
    Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, London, UK
    Eur J Ultrasound 15:21-7. 2002
    ..A prospective study to determine the prevalence of embolic signals (ES) detected with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in subjects with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who were and were not taking anticoagulants...
  82. ncbi request reprint Switching off embolization from symptomatic carotid plaque using S-nitrosoglutathione
    Zoltan Kaposzta
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Circulation 105:1480-4. 2002
    ..We evaluated its effectiveness in reducing embolization in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis who already were taking aspirin...
  83. ncbi request reprint Diffusion tensor imaging of thalamus correlates with cognition in CADASIL without dementia
    Michael O'Sullivan
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Neurology 62:702-7. 2004
    ..Previous DTI studies in CADASIL demonstrated abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter, thalamus, and putamen and correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
  84. ncbi request reprint Markers of endothelial dysfunction in lacunar infarction and ischaemic leukoaraiosis
    Ahamad Hassan
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Brain 126:424-32. 2003
    ..Therapies which help to stabilize the endothelium may have a role in this group of patients...
  85. ncbi request reprint Helicobacter pylori infection, the cytotoxin gene A strain, and carotid artery intima-media thickness
    Hugh S Markus
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    J Cardiovasc Risk 9:1-6. 2002
    ..We determined whether H. pylori infection, and particularly the CagA strain, is associated with increased IMT...
  86. doi request reprint The genetics of cervical artery dissection: a systematic review
    Stephanie Debette
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, UK
    Stroke 40:e459-66. 2009
    ..The pathophysiology of cervical artery dissections (CAD), a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults, is poorly understood. Several arguments suggest a genetic predisposition...
  87. ncbi request reprint Planning genetic studies in human stroke: sample size estimates based on family history data
    Ahamad Hassan
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Neurology 58:1483-8. 2002
    ..Alternative approaches include linkage analysis using affected sibling pairs, transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT), and sibling TDT (S-TDT). Despite theoretical benefits, the feasibility of these methods in stroke remains unknown...
  88. ncbi request reprint Yield of screening for CADASIL mutations in lacunar stroke and leukoaraiosis
    Yanbin Dong
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Stroke 34:203-5. 2003
    ..Atypical phenotypes have been recognized, and the disease is probably underdiagnosed in the wider stroke population. Therefore, we determined the yield of screening for Notch3 mutations in lacunar stroke with or without leukoaraiosis...
  89. ncbi request reprint Abnormal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II and noradrenaline in isolated small arteries from patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
    Monira B Hussain
    Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Stroke 35:853-8. 2004
    ..We assessed vasomotor function in systemic small arteries in CADASIL...
  90. doi request reprint A homozygous nonsense mutation within the dystonin gene coding for the coiled-coil domain of the epithelial isoform of BPAG1 underlies a new subtype of autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex
    Richard W Groves
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, The Guy s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 130:1551-7. 2010
    ..With regard to skin blistering, the clinicopathological findings expand the molecular basis of EB by identifying BPAG1-e pathology in a new form of autosomal recessive EB simplex...
  91. ncbi request reprint COL4A1 mutations as a monogenic cause of cerebral small vessel disease: a systematic review
    Silvia Lanfranconi
    Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, London, UK
    Stroke 41:e513-8. 2010
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Practicalities of genetic studies in human stroke
    Ahamad Hassan
    Clinical Neurosciences, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Methods Mol Med 104:223-40. 2005
    ..Linkage-based approaches have been used less although current studies are implementing the affected-sibling-pair method. In the future genome-wide association studies are likely to become more widely used...
  93. doi request reprint Blood-brain barrier permeability is increased in normal-appearing white matter in patients with lacunar stroke and leucoaraiosis
    R Topakian
    Centre for Clinical Neuroscience, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81:192-7. 2010
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima-media thickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Matthias W Lorenz
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department for Neurology, Schleusenweg 2 16, D 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Circulation 115:459-67. 2007
    ..Its use relies on its ability to predict future clinical cardiovascular end points. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of data to examine this association...
  95. ncbi request reprint Frequency of subclinical lacunar infarcts in ischemic leukoaraiosis and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
    Michael O'Sullivan
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, England
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24:1348-54. 2003
    ..In this study, the frequency of asymptomatic new lesions in ischemic leukoaraiosis and CADASIL was determined as a step toward assessing the potential of this technique as a surrogate marker of disease activity...
  96. ncbi request reprint Internal carotid artery angle of origin: a novel risk factor for early carotid atherosclerosis
    Matthias Sitzer
    Department of Neurology, J W Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Schleusenweg 2 16, 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Stroke 34:950-5. 2003
    ..Local anatomic and hemodynamic factors may also influence the initiation of the atherosclerotic process. We determined whether the angle of internal carotid artery (ICA) origin is a risk factor for early atherosclerosis...
  97. ncbi request reprint Tissue plasminogen activator -7351C/T polymorphism and lacunar stroke
    Christine A Armstrong
    Stroke 37:329; author reply 329-30. 2006
  98. ncbi request reprint High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is not associated with carotid intima-media progression: the carotid atherosclerosis progression study
    Matthias W Lorenz
    Department of Neurology, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Stroke 38:1774-9. 2007
    ..It is unclear whether elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is causal to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. We undertook a prospective longitudinal cohort study to address this question...
  99. ncbi request reprint Polymorphisms in genes of the endothelin system and cerebral small-vessel disease
    Kelly Gormley
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, St George s Hospital Medical School, St George s Hospital, London, England
    Stroke 36:1656-60. 2005
    ..We determined whether genetic variants in components of the ET system are a risk factor for cerebral SVD...
  100. ncbi request reprint Carotid intima-media thickening indicates a higher vascular risk across a wide age range: prospective data from the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS)
    Matthias W Lorenz
    Department of Neurology, Johann Wofgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Stroke 37:87-92. 2006
    ..Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an independent predictor of vascular events in age groups >45 years. However, there is little information about the predictive value of IMT in younger individuals...