Heping Xu


Affiliation: Queen's University Belfast
Country: UK


  1. Tuo J, Wang Y, Cheng R, Li Y, Chen M, Qiu F, et al. Wnt signaling in age-related macular degeneration: human macular tissue and mouse model. J Transl Med. 2015;13:330 pubmed publisher
  2. Wang L, Pavlou S, Du X, Bhuckory M, Xu H, Chen M. Glucose transporter 1 critically controls microglial activation through facilitating glycolysis. Mol Neurodegener. 2019;14:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose uptake in microglia is facilitated predominately by GLUT1, particularly under inflammatory conditions. Targeting GLUT1 could be an effective approach to control neuroinflammation. ..
  3. Chen M, Luo C, Zhao J, Devarajan G, Xu H. Immune regulation in the aging retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
  4. Little K, Ma J, Yang N, Chen M, Xu H. Myofibroblasts in macular fibrosis secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration - the potential sources and molecular cues for their recruitment and activation. EBioMedicine. 2018;38:283-291 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we highlighted the challenges in macular fibrosis research and the urgent need for better animal models for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. ..
  5. Hombrebueno J, Ali I, Ma J, Chen M, Xu H. Antagonising Wnt/β-catenin signalling ameliorates lens-capsulotomy-induced retinal degeneration in a mouse model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2018;61:2433-2446 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway may provide a novel approach for the postoperative management of diabetic individuals needing cataract surgery. ..
  6. Kaarniranta K, Xu H, Kauppinen A. Mechanistical retinal drug targets and challenges. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2018;126:177-184 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we discuss about promising mechanistical retinal drug targets. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and anti-VEGF treatments are excluded. ..
  7. Scholz R, Caramoy A, Bhuckory M, Rashid k, Chen M, Xu H, et al. Targeting translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) dampens pro-inflammatory microglia reactivity in the retina and protects from degeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:201 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting TSPO with XBD173 effectively counter-regulates microgliosis and ameliorates light-induced retinal damage, highlighting a new pharmacological concept for the treatment of retinal degenerations. ..
  8. Xu H, Chen M. Targeting the complement system for the management of retinal inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;787:94-104 pubmed publisher
  9. Chen M, Lechner J, Zhao J, Toth L, Hogg R, Silvestri G, et al. STAT3 Activation in Circulating Monocytes Contributes to Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Curr Mol Med. 2016;16:412-23 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that monocytes, in particular the intermediate subset of monocytes are activated in nAMD patients. STAT3 activation in circulating monocytes may contribute to the development of choroidal neovascularisation in AMD. ..

More Information


  1. Chen M, Zhao J, Ali I, Marry S, Augustine J, Bhuckory M, et al. Cytokine Signaling Protein 3 Deficiency in Myeloid Cells Promotes Retinal Degeneration and Angiogenesis through Arginase-1 Up-Regulation in Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:1007-1020 pubmed publisher
  2. Chen M, Xu H. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration. J Leukoc Biol. 2015;98:713-25 pubmed publisher
  3. Lechner J, Chen M, Hogg R, Toth L, Silvestri G, Chakravarthy U, et al. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients produce higher levels of chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1) and CXCL8 (IL-8). J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from VEGF, IL-8 and CCL2 may be additional targets for nAMD management. ..
  4. Xu H, Chen M. Diabetic retinopathy and dysregulated innate immunity. Vision Res. 2017;139:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses how the innate immune system is activated in diabetes and DR. The view also discusses why the protective immune response becomes detrimental in DR. ..