Timothy D Warner

Summary

Affiliation: Queen Mary
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenases: new forms, new inhibitors, and lessons from the clinic
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    FASEB J 18:790-804. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Influence of plasma protein on the potencies of inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK
    FASEB J 20:542-4. 2006
  3. doi request reprint COX-2 selectivity alone does not define the cardiovascular risks associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Lancet 371:270-3. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenases 1, 2, and 3 and the production of prostaglandin I2: investigating the activities of acetaminophen and cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors in rat tissues
    Timothy D Warner
    William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:642-7. 2004
  5. pmc Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Bart s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13371-3. 2002
  6. pmc Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibiting prostanoid efflux: as easy as ABC?
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9108-10. 2003
  7. doi request reprint Dual antiplatelet therapy in cardiovascular disease: does aspirin increase clinical risk in the presence of potent P2Y12 receptor antagonists?
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Heart 96:1693-4. 2010
  8. pmc Anti-platelet therapy: cyclo-oxygenase inhibition and the use of aspirin with particular regard to dual anti-platelet therapy
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 72:619-33. 2011
  9. pmc Blockade of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor greatly increases the platelet inhibitory actions of nitric oxide
    Nicholas S Kirkby
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:15782-7. 2013
  10. ncbi request reprint Farnesoid x receptor ligands inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and migration
    Yoyo T Y Li
    Centre of Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:2606-11. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenases: new forms, new inhibitors, and lessons from the clinic
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    FASEB J 18:790-804. 2004
    ..This review will discuss how the latest studies help us understand the roles of COX-1 and COX-2 and what clinically proven benefits the newer generation of COX-2-selective inhibitors offer..
  2. ncbi request reprint Influence of plasma protein on the potencies of inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK
    FASEB J 20:542-4. 2006
    ..In particular, selectivity in one body compartment does not demonstrate selectivity in another. Thus, whole-body safety or toxicity cannot be linked to one definitive measure of COX selectivity...
  3. doi request reprint COX-2 selectivity alone does not define the cardiovascular risks associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Lancet 371:270-3. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenases 1, 2, and 3 and the production of prostaglandin I2: investigating the activities of acetaminophen and cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors in rat tissues
    Timothy D Warner
    William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:642-7. 2004
    ..Also, our experiments show that the ability of rofecoxib to depress the circulating levels of prostaglandin I(2) is more readily associated with its ability to reduce production from the lung, heart, or brain than from arterial vessels...
  5. pmc Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Bart s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13371-3. 2002
  6. pmc Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibiting prostanoid efflux: as easy as ABC?
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9108-10. 2003
  7. doi request reprint Dual antiplatelet therapy in cardiovascular disease: does aspirin increase clinical risk in the presence of potent P2Y12 receptor antagonists?
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Heart 96:1693-4. 2010
    ..Clearly, this potentially negative interaction could be of relevance to millions of patients...
  8. pmc Anti-platelet therapy: cyclo-oxygenase inhibition and the use of aspirin with particular regard to dual anti-platelet therapy
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 72:619-33. 2011
    ....
  9. pmc Blockade of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor greatly increases the platelet inhibitory actions of nitric oxide
    Nicholas S Kirkby
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:15782-7. 2013
    ..The powerful antithrombotic effects of P2Y12 receptor blockers may, in part, be mediated by profound potentiation of the effects of endogenous NO. ..
  10. ncbi request reprint Farnesoid x receptor ligands inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and migration
    Yoyo T Y Li
    Centre of Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:2606-11. 2007
    ..FXR is also expressed in vascular tissue. We have investigated whether FXR regulates inflammation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells...
  11. pmc Endogenous epoxygenases are modulators of monocyte/macrophage activity
    Jonas Bystrom
    William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e26591. 2011
    ..Unlike cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases, the role of CYP450 epoxygenases in monocyte/macrophage-mediated responses is not known...
  12. doi request reprint PPARbeta/delta agonists modulate platelet function via a mechanism involving PPAR receptors and specific association/repression of PKCalpha--brief report
    Ferhana Y Ali
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29:1871-3. 2009
    ..As platelets are anucleated, the effects of PPARbeta/delta agonists on platelets must be nongenomic. Currently, the particular role of PPARbeta/delta receptors and their intracellular signaling pathways in platelets are not known...
  13. ncbi request reprint PPARgamma ligands induce prostaglandin production in vascular smooth muscle cells: indomethacin acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma antagonist
    David Bishop-Bailey
    Department of Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    FASEB J 17:1925-7. 2003
    ..In contrast, indomethacin, an alternative inhibitor of cyclooxygenase activity, inhibited both rosiglitazone-induced cell death, and rosiglitazone-induced PPAR reporter gene activation...
  14. ncbi request reprint Role for nuclear factor-kappaB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/interferon regulatory factor-1 in cytokine-induced endothelin-1 release in human vascular smooth muscle cells
    Mandy Woods
    Department of Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, The William Harvey Research Institute, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Mol Pharmacol 64:923-31. 2003
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Utility of 96-well plate aggregometry and measurement of thrombi adhesion to determine aspirin and clopidogrel effectiveness
    Paul C J Armstrong
    William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Thromb Haemost 102:772-8. 2009
    ....
  16. pmc The epoxygenases CYP2J2 activates the nuclear receptor PPARalpha in vitro and in vivo
    Jessica A Wray
    Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e7421. 2009
    ..However, little is known regarding the endogenous generation of PPAR ligands. CYP2J2 is a lipid metabolising cytochrome P450, which produces anti-inflammatory mediators, and is considered the major epoxygenase in the human heart...
  17. ncbi request reprint Role of nuclear receptor signaling in platelets: antithrombotic effects of PPARbeta
    Ferhana Y Ali
    Unit of Critical Care Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    FASEB J 20:326-8. 2006
    ..Thus, our results identify PPARbeta as a novel antiplatelet target that may mediate some of the effects of prostacyclin in blood...
  18. pmc Nongenomic signaling of the retinoid X receptor through binding and inhibiting Gq in human platelets
    Leonardo A Moraes
    Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Blood 109:3741-4. 2007
    ..Furthermore, our results demonstrate a novel nongenomic mode for nuclear receptor action and a functional cross-talk between G-protein and nuclear receptor signaling families...
  19. ncbi request reprint Stronger inhibition by nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs of cyclooxygenase-1 in endothelial cells than platelets offers an explanation for increased risk of thrombotic events
    Jane A Mitchell
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, Unit of Critical Care Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    FASEB J 20:2468-75. 2006
    ..The results reported here can offer an explanation for the apparent ability of NSAIDs and COX-2-selective inhibitors to increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke...
  20. ncbi request reprint Activation of PPARbeta/delta induces endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis
    Laura Piqueras
    Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University London, Charterhouse Sq, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:63-9. 2007
    ..Interestingly, the selective PPARbeta/delta ligand GW501516 is in phase II clinical trials for dyslipidemia. Here, using GW501516, we have assessed the involvement of PPARbeta/delta in endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis...
  21. doi request reprint Optical multichannel (optimul) platelet aggregometry in 96-well plates as an additional method of platelet reactivity testing
    Melissa V Chan
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M6BQ, UK
    Platelets 22:485-94. 2011
    ..We conclude that the optimul method offers a viable, standardised approach, allowing platelet reactivity testing and could provide a broad platelet function analysis without the need for dedicated equipment...
  22. doi request reprint Antiplatelet actions of statins and fibrates are mediated by PPARs
    Ferhana Y Ali
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29:706-11. 2009
    ..These drugs inhibit platelet function, but the mechanisms by which this pleiotropic effect is exerted are not known...
  23. ncbi request reprint Intimal smooth muscle cells as a target for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand therapy
    David Bishop-Bailey
    Department of Cardiac, Vascular, and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Circ Res 91:210-7. 2002
    ..Intimal vascular smooth muscle cells therefore represent a potentially important target for the antiproliferative, and antiatherosclerotic actions of PPARgamma ligands...
  24. pmc Thrombosis is reduced by inhibition of COX-1, but unaffected by inhibition of COX-2, in an acute model of platelet activation in the mouse
    Paul C Armstrong
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e20062. 2011
    ..Here we have tested the effects of acute inhibition of COX on platelet reactivity using a functional in vivo approach in mice...
  25. ncbi request reprint The farnesoid X receptor is expressed in breast cancer and regulates apoptosis and aromatase expression
    Karen E Swales
    Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 66:10120-6. 2006
    ..Our findings show for the first time that FXR is expressed in breast cancer tissue and has multiple properties that could be used for the treatment of breast cancer...
  26. ncbi request reprint Origins of prostaglandin E2: involvements of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in human and rat systems
    Francesco Giuliano
    Department of Cardiac, Vascular, and Inflammation Research, The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:1001-6. 2002
    ..These data may well explain why in rats COX-2-selective inhibitors have been reported not to produce the full anti-inflammatory effects associated with standard nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs...
  27. ncbi request reprint The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells
    Francisco Perez-Vizcaino
    Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 346:919-25. 2006
    ..In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin...
  28. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenase-2 acts as an endogenous brake on endothelin-1 release by human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: implications for pulmonary hypertension
    Stephen J Wort
    Unit of Critical Care Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Pharmacol 62:1147-53. 2002
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Role of prostacyclin versus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta receptors in prostacyclin sensing by lung fibroblasts
    Ferhana Y Ali
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, Unit of Critical Care Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 34:242-6. 2006
    ..This study is the first to identify PPARbeta as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, which is important because orally active PPARbeta ligands have been developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia...
  30. ncbi request reprint Endothelin in human inflammatory bowel disease: comparison to rat trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis
    Sara A McCartney
    Digestive Diseases Research Centre, The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Life Sci 71:1893-904. 2002
    ..Our study shows, therefore, that unlike TNBS colitis in rats, in which ET-1/2 levels are greatly elevated and ET receptor antagonists are efficacious, there is no significant link between endothelins and human IBD...
  31. ncbi request reprint Modulation by colony stimulating factors of human epithelial colon cancer cell apoptosis
    Sara Calatayud
    Unit of Critical Care, The Royal Brompton and Harefield N H S Trust, Imperial College School of Medicine, Sydney Street, London, SW 6NP, UK
    Cytokine 20:163-7. 2002
    ..Granulocyte-CSF failed to modify spontaneous or sulindac sulfide induced apoptosis. It seems, therefore, that the action of CSFs on apoptosis is not confined to haematopoietic cells but may be extended to stromal cells...
  32. ncbi request reprint Prostaglandins and the regulation of tumor growth
    David Bishop-Bailey
    Department of Cardiac, Vascular and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary s University, London, UK
    J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 21:93-101. 2002
    ..Effecting individual prostanoid pathways at the level of COX expression, profile of PG products produced or selective PG receptor activation may produce novel therapies, either dependent or independent of CSF release, to target cancers...
  33. pmc Expression and activation of the farnesoid X receptor in the vasculature
    David Bishop-Bailey
    Cardiac, Vascular, and Inflammation Research, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3668-73. 2004
    ..FXR therefore is a functional protein in the vasculature that may provide a direct target for the treatment of proliferative and dyslipidaemic diseases...
  34. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of a dysfunctional cardiac myocyte phenotype: role of bacteria, Toll-like receptors, and endothelin
    Trupti A Patel
    Department of Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Shock 28:434-40. 2007
    ..Description of the myocyte population, instead of effects only on individual cells, will be more relevant to the prediction of the depression of cardiac function...
  35. doi request reprint Role of shear stress in endothelial cell morphology and expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms
    Claire M F Potter
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London, UK
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31:384-91. 2011
    ..The goal of this study was to examine the effect of chronic heterogeneous shear stress, applied using an orbital shaker, on endothelial cell morphology and the expression of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2...
  36. doi request reprint Gasotransmitters and platelets
    Nicola J Truss
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Pharmacol Ther 132:196-203. 2011
    ..Other gasotransmitters are now establishing themselves as mediators of vascular tone, and recent evidence suggests that these other gasotransmitters may also modulate platelet function...
  37. doi request reprint Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerating stenosing enteritis associated with homozygous deletion mutations in cytosolic phospholipase A2-α
    Matthew A Brooke
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Gut 63:96-104. 2014
    ..We investigated the genetic basis of this autosomal recessive condition in a pair of affected siblings who have 40-year histories of catastrophic gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disease...
  38. pmc LC-MS/MS confirms that COX-1 drives vascular prostacyclin whilst gene expression pattern reveals non-vascular sites of COX-2 expression
    Nicholas S Kirkby
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e69524. 2013
    ..In doing so, we have identified the thymus, gut, brain and other tissues as target organs for consideration in developing a new understanding of how COX-2 protects the cardiovascular system. ..
  39. ncbi request reprint HIF, stretching to get control of VEGF
    Timothy D Warner
    The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 105:393-4. 2003
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint COX-2 in cardiovascular disease
    David Bishop-Bailey
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:956-8. 2006
  41. ncbi request reprint COX isoforms in the cardiovascular system: understanding the activities of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    Jane A Mitchell
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, Unit of Critical Care Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College School of Medicine, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 5:75-86. 2006
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular events
    Timothy D Warner
    Lancet 360:1700-1. 2002
  43. pmc COX-1, and not COX-2 activity, regulates airway function: relevance to aspirin-sensitive asthma
    Louise S Harrington
    Cardiac Medicine, NHLI, Imperial College, Dovehouse St, London SW3 6LY, UK
    FASEB J 22:4005-10. 2008
    ..These observations show that despite the presence of COX-2, COX-1 is functionally predominant in the airways and explains clinical observations relating to drug specificity in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma...
  44. ncbi request reprint Cellular mechanisms of acetaminophen: role of cyclo-oxygenase
    Ruth Lucas
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, UCCM, Royal Brompton Hospital, NHLI, Imperial College London, UK
    FASEB J 19:635-7. 2005
    ..Specifically, combining active site selectively with actions on enzyme oxidation state would allow for a broader range of tissue selective drugs...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of cyclooxygenase-1/cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions in the rat mesentery
    Sara Calatayud
    Unidad Mixta de Investigacion, Facultad de Medicina Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valencia, Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010, Valencia, Spain
    Eur J Pharmacol 440:71-7. 2002
    ..Specific blockade of cyclooxygenase-1 or cyclooxygenase-2 does not induce any inflammatory event in the rat mesentery and the inflammatory response observed with non-selective NSAIDs seems to be due to the inhibition of both isoenzymes...
  46. ncbi request reprint Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by troglitazone (TGZ) inhibits human lung cell growth
    Mingyue Li
    Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
    J Cell Biochem 96:760-74. 2005
    ..The mechanism of TGZ is associated with the activation of ERK and p38, the reduction of SAPK/JNK activity, and the alteration of Bcl-w and Bcl-2...
  47. pmc Interleukin-1beta, but not interleukin-6, enhances renal and systemic endothelin production in vivo
    Erika I Boesen
    Department of Pharmacology and Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 295:F446-53. 2008
    ..These results indicate that IL-1beta stimulates renal and systemic ET-1 production in vivo, providing further evidence that ET-1 participates in inflammatory responses...
  48. pmc Role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in vascular smooth muscle
    Rosario Jimenez
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, Unit of Critical Care Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY, UK
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4637-42. 2005
    ..These data have important implications for our understanding of the innate immune response in vascular cells and how it may impact vascular disease...