N J Wald

Summary

Affiliation: Queen Mary
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Contingent screening for Down syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Prenat Diagn 28:781; author reply 782. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Prevention of neural tube defects: a cross-sectional study of the uptake of folic acid supplementation in nearly half a million women
    Jonathan P Bestwick
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e89354. 2014
  3. doi request reprint Improvements in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome
    N J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 20:7-14. 2013
  4. pmc Incorporating DNA sequencing into current prenatal screening practice for Down's syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e58732. 2013
  5. pmc Antenatal screening for Down syndrome using serum placental growth factor with the combined, quadruple, serum integrated and integrated tests
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e46955. 2012
  6. pmc Body weight reduction to avoid the excess risk of type 2 diabetes
    Nicholas J Wald
    Environmental Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Br J Gen Pract 62:e411-4. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Screening for pre-eclampsia using serum placental growth factor and endoglin with Down's syndrome Quadruple test markers
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    J Med Screen 19:60-7. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Effect of interrupting prenatal Down syndrome screening due to a large nuchal translucency
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 32:655-61. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Adding ductus venosus blood flow as a categorical variable to the Combined and Integrated tests in Down's syndrome screening
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ
    J Med Screen 19:49-50. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint Cross-trimester marker ratios in prenatal screening for Down syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Prenat Diagn 26:514-23. 2006

Detail Information

Publications92

  1. doi request reprint Contingent screening for Down syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Prenat Diagn 28:781; author reply 782. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Prevention of neural tube defects: a cross-sectional study of the uptake of folic acid supplementation in nearly half a million women
    Jonathan P Bestwick
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e89354. 2014
    ..The extent of folic acid supplementation among women who had antenatal screening for Down's syndrome and NTDs at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London between 1999 and 2012 was assessed...
  3. doi request reprint Improvements in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome
    N J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 20:7-14. 2013
    ....
  4. pmc Incorporating DNA sequencing into current prenatal screening practice for Down's syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e58732. 2013
    ....
  5. pmc Antenatal screening for Down syndrome using serum placental growth factor with the combined, quadruple, serum integrated and integrated tests
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e46955. 2012
    ..To estimate the value of first or second trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) as an additional antenatal screening marker for Down syndrome...
  6. pmc Body weight reduction to avoid the excess risk of type 2 diabetes
    Nicholas J Wald
    Environmental Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Br J Gen Pract 62:e411-4. 2012
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Screening for pre-eclampsia using serum placental growth factor and endoglin with Down's syndrome Quadruple test markers
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    J Med Screen 19:60-7. 2012
    ..To estimate the pre-eclampsia screening performance of placental growth factor (PlGF) and endoglin with second-trimester Quadruple test markers used for antenatal Down's syndrome screening...
  8. doi request reprint Effect of interrupting prenatal Down syndrome screening due to a large nuchal translucency
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 32:655-61. 2012
    ..The aim of this study is to determine the effect of interrupting prenatal Down syndrome screening for women with large nuchal translucency (NT) measurements on the performance of combined and integrated tests...
  9. doi request reprint Adding ductus venosus blood flow as a categorical variable to the Combined and Integrated tests in Down's syndrome screening
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ
    J Med Screen 19:49-50. 2012
    ..5% as a categorical marker compared with 1.1% expressed as DVPI.  We here provide the necessary algorithm and parameters for using ductus venosus blood flow as a categorical marker with the Combined and Integrated tests...
  10. ncbi request reprint Cross-trimester marker ratios in prenatal screening for Down syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Prenat Diagn 26:514-23. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint A new approach to antenatal screening for Fragile X syndrome
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts the London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:345-51. 2003
    ..To describe a new approach to antenatal screening for Fragile X syndrome and to evaluate its effectiveness...
  12. ncbi request reprint Cystic fibrosis: selecting the prenatal screening strategy of choice
    N J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:474-83. 2003
    ..Setting up a national prenatal screening programme for cystic fibrosis is timely and should be implemented using the couple screening method...
  13. pmc A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 326:1419. 2003
    ..The strategy was to simultaneously reduce four cardiovascular risk factors (low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, serum homocysteine, and platelet function) regardless of pretreatment levels...
  14. ncbi request reprint Screening in early pregnancy for pre-eclampsia using Down syndrome quadruple test markers
    Nicholas J Wald
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, UK
    Prenat Diagn 26:559-64. 2006
    ..To estimate the screening performance of early second-trimester prenatal serum markers for Down syndrome, in screening for the development of pre-eclampsia, and analyse the uncertainty over its screening performance...
  15. ncbi request reprint SURUSS in perspective
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Semin Perinatol 29:225-35. 2005
    ..We here present the main results from SURUSS, updated to take account of recent information on nuchal translucency in Down's Syndrome pregnancies, and discuss their implications...
  16. ncbi request reprint Combining nuchal translucency and serum markers in prenatal screening for Down syndrome in twin pregnancies
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bart s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:588-92. 2003
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect on Down syndrome screening performance of adjusting for marker levels in a previous pregnancy
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Prenat Diagn 26:539-44. 2006
    ..We investigate the effect of such adjustment on overall screening performance...
  18. pmc Teleoanalysis: combining data from different types of study
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 327:616-8. 2003
  19. ncbi request reprint The efficacy of combining several risk factors as a screening test
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1 M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 12:197-201. 2005
    ..To determine the quantitative effect on overall screening performance (detection rate for a given false-positive rate) of using several moderately strong, independent risk factors in combination as screening markers...
  20. ncbi request reprint Prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects in twin pregnancies
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 25:740-5. 2005
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Prenatal screening for Down syndrome: the problem of recurrent false-positives
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 24:389-92. 2004
    ..We examined the effect of this in the screening programme conducted from the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine with a view to determining the magnitude of the effect, and to describe a method of avoiding the problem...
  22. ncbi request reprint Sequential and contingent prenatal screening for Down syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 26:769-77. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Validation plots in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome
    N J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 13:166-71. 2006
    ....
  24. pmc Screening for future cardiovascular disease using age alone compared with multiple risk factors and age
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e18742. 2011
    ..We compared screening for future CVD events using age alone with screening using age and multiple risk factors based on regular Framingham risk assessments...
  25. doi request reprint Antenatal screening for Down's syndrome using the Integrated test at two London hospitals
    N J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London
    J Med Screen 16:7-10. 2009
    ..The audit demonstrated that it is feasible to conduct integrated screening within the NHS with a high acceptance rate and a screening performance consistent with that determined from previous research studies...
  26. doi request reprint Prenatal screening for serious congenital heart defects using nuchal translucency: a meta-analysis
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London Queen Marys School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 28:1094-104. 2008
    ..To assess the performance of nuchal translucency (NT) measurements in screening for congenital heart defects (CHD) which would benefit from prenatal detection...
  27. doi request reprint Assessing risk factors as potential screening tests: a simple assessment tool
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, England
    Arch Intern Med 171:286-91. 2011
    ..It should help to distinguish effective screening methods from ineffective ones, and so improve clinical guidelines relating to screening and the prediction and prevention of disease...
  28. ncbi request reprint Antenatal screening for Down's syndrome with the quadruple test
    Nicholas J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, EC1M 6BQ, London, UK
    Lancet 361:835-6. 2003
    ..Therefore, we conclude that the quadruple test should be the test of choice in second trimester screening for Down's syndrome...
  29. pmc Should folic acid fortification be mandatory? Yes
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 334:1252. 2007
  30. ncbi request reprint SURUSS in perspective
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    BJOG 111:521-31. 2004
    ..We here present the main results from SURUSS, updated to take account of recent information on nuchal translucency in Down's Syndrome pregnancies, and discuss their implications...
  31. ncbi request reprint Inaccurate estimation of risk in second trimester serum screening for Down syndrome among women who have already had first trimester screening
    A K Hackshaw
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, The Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:741-6. 2001
    ..The practice of offering second trimester serum screening to women who have already been screened is best avoided...
  32. doi request reprint Multiple-marker screening for Down's syndrome: a method of assessing the statistical robustness of proposed tests
    J K Morris
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 15:55-61. 2008
    ..We used the maximum variance inflation factor (VIF(max)) to determine whether a screening test using multiple markers was robust to imprecision in the estimation of the marker distribution parameters...
  33. ncbi request reprint First and second trimester antenatal screening for Down's syndrome: the results of the Serum, Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study (SURUSS)
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bart s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 10:56-104. 2003
  34. ncbi request reprint Assessment of the value of reporting partial screening results in prenatal screening for Down syndrome
    A K Hackshaw
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:737-40. 2001
    ..It is therefore not worthwhile reporting partial risk estimates in screening programmes using the Combined Test or Integrated Test...
  35. ncbi request reprint Repeat testing in antenatal screening for Down syndrome using dimeric inhibin-A in combination with other maternal serum markers
    A K Hackshaw
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 21:58-61. 2001
    ..For a 5% false-positive rate the increase in detection rate was only about 3-5 percentage points; a modest increase which is probably not worthwhile in the light of the extra cost and delay...
  36. ncbi request reprint Assay precision of serum alpha fetoprotein in antenatal screening for neural tube defects and Down's syndrome
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College, UK
    J Med Screen 7:74-7. 2000
    ..To assess the impact of current serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) assays on the performance of screening for open neural tube defects and Down's syndrome...
  37. pmc Value of low dose combination treatment with blood pressure lowering drugs: analysis of 354 randomised trials
    M R Law
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 326:1427. 2003
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Using Down syndrome serum screening results to predict low birthweight
    T Huang
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bart s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:420-6. 2003
    ..To investigate the use of prenatal maternal serum screening results for Down syndrome, for the prediction of low (<2500 g) and very low (<1500 g) birthweight...
  39. ncbi request reprint First and second trimester antenatal screening for Down's syndrome: the results of the Serum, Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study (SURUSS)
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bart s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Health Technol Assess 7:1-77. 2003
  40. ncbi request reprint The effect of correlations between screening markers on screening performance
    J K Morris
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 14:151-7. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Multiple marker second trimester serum screening for pre-eclampsia
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    J Med Screen 8:65-8. 2001
    ....
  42. pmc Insulin-like growth factors and cancer: no role in screening. Evidence from the BUPA study and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies
    J K Morris
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Br J Cancer 95:112-7. 2006
    ..Our results suggest that IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFBP-3 measurements have no value in cancer screening, although IGF-1 and IGF-2 may be of aetiological significance in relation to colorectal and prostate cancer...
  43. ncbi request reprint The performance of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors as screening tests for ischaemic heart disease and stroke
    M R Law
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ
    J Med Screen 11:3-7. 2004
    ..Among persons with no history of cardiovascular disease, age is a better screening test than the reversible risk factors, and the best policy is to offer treatment to all persons above a specified age such as 55 years...
  44. ncbi request reprint SP1 in pregnancies with Down syndrome in the first trimester of pregnancy. International Prenatal Screening Research Group
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, UK
    Prenat Diagn 19:517-20. 1999
    ..76 to 0.97). This difference, though statistically significant, was not large enough for SP1 to be a useful marker in screening, at least from 10 weeks onwards where most of our data lie...
  45. pmc Serum cholesterol and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA study
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s Hospital Medical College, London, UK
    Br J Cancer 59:936-8. 1989
    ..Our results, which are consistent with the majority of other published studies, indicate that a low serum cholesterol is not a cause of cancer...
  46. pmc Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies
    M R Law
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 338:b1665. 2009
    ..To determine the quantitative efficacy of different classes of blood pressure lowering drugs in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and who should receive treatment...
  47. pmc Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis
    M R Law
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 326:1423. 2003
    ..To determine by how much statins reduce serum concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events and stroke, according to drug, dose, and duration of treatment...
  48. ncbi request reprint Estimating the risk of Down's syndrome in antenatal screening and the gestation at which this risk applies
    J K Morris
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 14:5-7. 2007
    ..Therefore the early second trimester of pregnancy is the gestational age at which all screening performances should be given for the different antenatal screening programmes for Down's syndrome...
  49. pmc Helicobacter pylori infection and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: negative result from a large, prospective study
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s, London
    BMJ 315:1199-201. 1997
    ..To determine whether there is an independent association between Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach and ischaemic heart disease...
  50. pmc The dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption, biochemical markers and risk of lung cancer
    M R Law
    BUPA Epidemiology Research Group, Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and The Royal London School of Medicine, UK
    Br J Cancer 75:1690-3. 1997
    ..The anomaly is explained by the observation that heavier smokers inhale less smoke from each cigarette...
  51. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of neural tube defect pregnancies in England and Wales from 1964 to 2004
    J K Morris
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 14:55-9. 2007
    ....
  52. pmc Distribution of nuchal translucency in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome
    J P Bestwick
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London Queen Marys School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 17:8-12. 2010
    ....
  53. pmc Evaluation of a proposed mixture model to specify the distributions of nuchal translucency measurements in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome
    J P Bestwick
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London Queen Marys School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 17:13-8. 2010
    ..Settings A routine antenatal screening programme for Down's syndrome comprising 104 affected and 22,284 unaffected pregnancies...
  54. ncbi request reprint Graphical presentation of distributions of risk in screening
    J K Morris
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 12:155-60. 2005
    ..However, this approximation sometimes fails. Here we examine the circumstances when this occurs...
  55. ncbi request reprint Maternal serum prostate-specific antigen and Down syndrome in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. International Prenatal Screening Research Group
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomews and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, U K
    Prenat Diagn 19:674-6. 1999
    ..1 and 0.9 multiple of the normal median, respectively, in affected pregnancies. There was no indication that PSA would be a useful screening marker...
  56. pmc Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence
    M R Law
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s, London
    BMJ 315:973-80. 1997
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Is cascade testing a sensible method of screening a population for autosomal recessive disorders?
    J K Morris
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Med Genet A 128:271-5. 2004
    ..The performance of cascade testing is too poor to justify its introduction into practice as a screening test for any autosomal recessive disorder...
  58. ncbi request reprint Quantifying the effect of folic acid
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Lancet 358:2069-73. 2001
    ..Folic acid is known to prevent neural-tube defects (NTDs) but the size of the effect for a given dose is unclear. We aimed to quantify such an effect...
  59. pmc Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: large prospective study
    N J Wald
    BUPA Epidemiological Research Group, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 321:204-7. 2000
    ..To determine whether there is an independent association between infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease...
  60. ncbi request reprint Comparison of models of maternal age-specific risk for Down syndrome live births
    J K Morris
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 23:252-8. 2003
    ..To display and compare the different published formulae that specify the association between maternal age and the risk of a Down syndrome live birth...
  61. pmc Adding free to total prostate-specific antigen levels in trials of prostate cancer screening
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Br J Cancer 82:731-6. 2000
    ..Over a 6-year period (based on 41 cancers) a similar difference occurred (52% and 56% detection rates respectively). We conclude that there is no material advantage in adding free to total PSA in prostate cancer screening trials...
  62. ncbi request reprint Second-trimester prenatal screening markers for Down syndrome in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    Wayne Huttly
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, UK
    Prenat Diagn 24:804-7. 2004
    ..The other markers were not significantly different in women with and without IDDM. There remains a case for adjusting AFP and uE3 levels in women with IDDM in prenatal screening programmes for Down syndrome...
  63. doi request reprint A 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial to quantify the combined effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a beta-blocker on blood pressure reduction
    David S Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Ther 30:2030-9. 2008
    ..Although beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are often used together, there is a lack of quantitative evidence for the efficacy of this combination in reducing blood pressure (BP)...
  64. doi request reprint Combination therapy versus monotherapy in reducing blood pressure: meta-analysis on 11,000 participants from 42 trials
    David S Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine at Barts and The London Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Med 122:290-300. 2009
    ....
  65. doi request reprint The polypill in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
    David S Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 24:29-35. 2010
    ..Age alone is effective and a simpler means of selecting people for preventive treatment using the polypill...
  66. ncbi request reprint Influence of maternal smoking on the birth prevalence of Down syndrome and on second trimester screening performance
    Alicja R Rudnicka
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    Prenat Diagn 22:893-7. 2002
    ..To determine the influence of maternal smoking on the birth prevalence of Down syndrome and on second trimester screening performance...
  67. pmc Child-parent screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia: screening strategy based on a meta-analysis
    David S Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 335:599. 2007
    ..To develop a population screening strategy for familial hypercholesterolaemia...
  68. doi request reprint First trimester Down's syndrome screening marker values and cigarette smoking: new data and a meta-analysis on free beta human chorionic gonadotophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and nuchal translucency
    Jonathan P Bestwick
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London Queen Marys School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square London EC1M 6BQ
    J Med Screen 15:204-6. 2008
    ....
  69. pmc Folic acid, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease: judging causality in the face of inconclusive trial evidence
    David S Wald
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 333:1114-7. 2006
  70. ncbi request reprint The underlying risk of death after myocardial infarction in the absence of treatment
    Malcolm R Law
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, England
    Arch Intern Med 162:2405-10. 2002
    ..The underlying risk of death in the absence of treatment after a myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly documented...
  71. pmc Reconciling the evidence on serum homocysteine and ischaemic heart disease: a meta-analysis
    David S Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e16473. 2011
    ..We aimed to update meta-analyses on each type of study using the latest published data and test a hypothesis based on antiplatelet therapy use in the trials to explain the discrepancy...
  72. ncbi request reprint Guidance on terminology
    N J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 13:53. 2006
  73. ncbi request reprint Folic acid and the prevention of neural-tube defects
    Nicholas J Wald
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London
    N Engl J Med 350:101-3. 2004
  74. pmc Risk factor thresholds: their existence under scrutiny
    M R Law
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 324:1570-6. 2002
  75. doi request reprint A randomized double-blind crossover trial to investigate the efficacy of screening for adult hypothyroidism
    M Abu-Helalah
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
    J Med Screen 17:164-9. 2010
    ..To assess the value of population screening for adult hypothyroidism...
  76. pmc Serum beta-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA Study
    N J Wald
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew s Hospital Medical College, London, UK
    Br J Cancer 57:428-33. 1988
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Environmental tobacco smoke and ischemic heart disease
    Malcolm R Law
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 46:31-8. 2003
    ..In experimental studies passive and active smoking have similar effects on platelet aggregation. The collective evidence supports a significant effect of low dose tobacco smoke exposure in causing ischaemic heart disease...
  78. pmc Folate and risk of cardiovascular disease. Study results were misinterpreted
    David S Wald
    BMJ 326:1035; author reply 1035. 2003
  79. ncbi request reprint Truncation limits for CT marker ratios in prenatal screening for Down syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    Prenat Diagn 27:187-8. 2007
  80. ncbi request reprint First-trimester or second-trimester screening, or both, for Down's syndrome
    Fergal D Malone
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2001-11. 2005
    ..It is uncertain how best to screen pregnant women for the presence of fetal Down's syndrome: to perform first-trimester screening, to perform second-trimester screening, or to use strategies incorporating measurements in both trimesters...
  81. ncbi request reprint Which gestational age estimate to use in AFP screening for spina bifida?
    Nicholas J Wald
    Prenat Diagn 25:623. 2005
  82. doi request reprint Inhibin-A concentrations between 14 and 22 weeks of gestation
    Nicholas J Wald
    Prenat Diagn 28:360-1. 2008
  83. ncbi request reprint First-trimester screening for Down's syndrome
    Nicholas J Wald
    N Engl J Med 350:619-21; author reply 619-21. 2004
  84. ncbi request reprint Recurrent false-positives in AFP screening for open neural tube defects
    Nicholas J Wald
    Prenat Diagn 24:1018-9. 2004
  85. ncbi request reprint Three stage contingent screening for Down syndrome
    Wayne J Huttly
    Prenat Diagn 26:1183; author reply 1184. 2006
  86. ncbi request reprint Folic acid fortification in the prevention of neural tube defects
    Nicholas J Wald
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1665; author reply 1665-6. 2004
  87. pmc Antenatal screening policies for Down's syndrome. Audit of Down's syndrome screening is not valid
    Nicholas J Wald
    BMJ 325:1034; author reply 1034. 2002
  88. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment
    Malcolm Law
    Lancet 367:469-70; author reply 470-1. 2006
  89. doi request reprint Meta-analysis audit trail
    Nicholas J Wald
    Lancet 371:558. 2008
  90. ncbi request reprint Apolipoprotiens and prediction of fatal myocardial infarction
    Nicholas J Wald
    Lancet 359:1864. 2002
  91. pmc Familial hypercholesterolaemia: screening needs a fresh approach
    David S Wald
    BMJ 335:1007-8. 2007
  92. ncbi request reprint Endometrial thickness as a test for endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding
    Ann Tabor
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
    Obstet Gynecol 99:663-70. 2002
    ..To assess the value of endometrial thickness measurement as a test for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding (symptomatic women)...