Gavin Giovannoni

Summary

Affiliation: Queen Mary
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS: does MRI allow earlier diagnosis?
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neurology 60:6-7. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint PANDAS: overview of the hypothesis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammnation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Adv Neurol 99:159-65. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: the environment and causation
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:261-8. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Treating multiple sclerosis in the natalizumab era: risks, benefits, clinical decision making, and a comparison between North American and European Union practices
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Neuroscience Centre, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Whitechapel, London
    Rev Neurol Dis 4:184-93. 2007
  5. doi request reprint A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Queen Mary University London, the Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 362:416-26. 2010
  6. doi request reprint Daclizumab high-yield process in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (SELECTION): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind extension trial
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Electronic address
    Lancet Neurol 13:472-81. 2014
  7. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 122:681-702. 2014
  8. doi request reprint Effect of daclizumab high-yield process in patients with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK
    J Neurol 261:316-23. 2014
  9. pmc Development of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS)
    Yan Jia
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA
    Clin Proteomics 9:9. 2012
  10. pmc Hospital admissions for vitamin D related conditions and subsequent immune-mediated disease: record-linkage studies
    Sreeram V Ramagopalan
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics and Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    BMC Med 11:171. 2013

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. ncbi request reprint Patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS: does MRI allow earlier diagnosis?
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neurology 60:6-7. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint PANDAS: overview of the hypothesis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammnation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Adv Neurol 99:159-65. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: the environment and causation
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:261-8. 2007
    ..We review current thinking on the aetiology of multiple sclerosis, how genetic susceptibility interacts with environmental risk factors at the population level, multiple sclerosis-associated risk factors and contemporary causation theory...
  4. ncbi request reprint Treating multiple sclerosis in the natalizumab era: risks, benefits, clinical decision making, and a comparison between North American and European Union practices
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Neuroscience Centre, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Whitechapel, London
    Rev Neurol Dis 4:184-93. 2007
    ..In this review we compare current recommendations for the use of first-line DMTs, adverse events associated with MS therapies, and differences between the practices in North American and the European Union...
  5. doi request reprint A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Queen Mary University London, the Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 362:416-26. 2010
    ..Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis...
  6. doi request reprint Daclizumab high-yield process in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (SELECTION): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind extension trial
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Electronic address
    Lancet Neurol 13:472-81. 2014
    ..The primary aim of the SELECTION extension study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of extended treatment with daclizumab HYP...
  7. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK Electronic address
    Handb Clin Neurol 122:681-702. 2014
    ..However, the value of measuring these (and other) CSF constituents for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes and for following response to therapy is still to be determined. ..
  8. doi request reprint Effect of daclizumab high-yield process in patients with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK
    J Neurol 261:316-23. 2014
    ..0574; less active RRMS 46 % reduction, p = 0.0383; interaction p = 0.22) vs. placebo. DAC HYP efficacy was similar across the spectrum of MS disease activity as assessed prior to treatment initiation. ..
  9. pmc Development of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS)
    Yan Jia
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA
    Clin Proteomics 9:9. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  10. pmc Hospital admissions for vitamin D related conditions and subsequent immune-mediated disease: record-linkage studies
    Sreeram V Ramagopalan
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics and Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    BMC Med 11:171. 2013
    ..Previous studies have suggested that there may be an association between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases...
  11. pmc Vitamin D receptor ChIP-seq in primary CD4+ cells: relationship to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and autoimmune disease
    Adam E Handel
    Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit and Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK
    BMC Med 11:163. 2013
    ..We aimed to investigate VDR binding in primary CD4+ cells from healthy volunteers...
  12. doi request reprint Systematic review of disease-modifying therapies to assess unmet needs in multiple sclerosis: tolerability and adherence
    G Giovannoni
    Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Mult Scler 18:932-46. 2012
    ..The present systematic review of randomized clinical trial and observational data highlights the tolerability and adherence issues associated with commonly used first-line multiple sclerosis treatments...
  13. doi request reprint Individualizing treatment goals and interventions for people with MS
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Curr Opin Neurol 25:S20-7. 2012
    ..These issues have increased in importance with the availability of new disease-modifying therapies and will continue to do so as more novel treatments are approved...
  14. doi request reprint Safety and immunogenicity of a new formulation of interferon beta-1a (Rebif New Formulation) in a Phase IIIb study in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: 96-week results
    G Giovannoni
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Mult Scler 15:219-28. 2009
    ..c.) interferon-beta-1a has been developed (Rebif New Formulation, RNF), produced without fetal bovine serum and without human serum albumin as an excipient, with the aim of improving injection tolerability, and reducing immunogenicity...
  15. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr Virus and MS
    G Giovannoni
    Gavin Giovannoni Neuroscience and Trauma Centre, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK, Tel 44 20 7377 7472, Fax 44 20 7377 7300, E mail
    Int MS J 17:44-9. 2011
    ..Causation, however, is a complex science and more extensive and definitive data is required to convince the wider community that EBV is the pivotal factor in the complex causal pathway that ultimately leads to the development of MS...
  16. doi request reprint Promising emerging therapies for multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neuroscience and Trauma Centre, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AN, UK
    Neurol Clin 29:435-48. 2011
    ..There is a large unmet need, with several promising new therapies in the pipeline. This article reviews the proposed mechanisms of action of the anticipated treatments, their efficacy, and risks associated with their use...
  17. doi request reprint Sustained disease-activity-free status in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with cladribine tablets in the CLARITY study: a post-hoc and subgroup analysis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Queen Mary University London, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 10:329-37. 2011
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Immune reactivity to neurofilament proteins in the clinical staging of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Fabiola Puentes
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:274-8. 2014
    ....
  19. pmc PREDICT-PD: identifying risk of Parkinson's disease in the community: methods and baseline results
    Alastair J Noyce
    Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:31-7. 2014
    ..To present methods and baseline results for an online screening tool to identify increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) in the UK population...
  20. pmc Fingolimod modulates microglial activation to augment markers of remyelination
    Samuel J Jackson
    Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    J Neuroinflammation 8:76. 2011
    ..In addition, it is brain penetrant and has been shown to exert multiple effects on nervous system cells...
  21. doi request reprint The effect of gender in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): a meta-analysis
    Ruth Dobson
    Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Mult Scler 18:600-4. 2012
    ..There has previously been little work examining the effect of gender on the development and progression of CIS...
  22. doi request reprint Neurofilament a biomarker of neurodegeneration in autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Sharmilee Gnanapavan
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Autoimmunity 45:298-303. 2012
    ..These data further support neurofilament levels as a good surrogate measure of neurodegeneration and their potential use as a surrogate endpoint in neuroprotective studies...
  23. doi request reprint A comparative study of CSF neurofilament light and heavy chain protein in MS
    Jens Kuhle
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    Mult Scler 19:1597-603. 2013
    ..Neurofilaments are promising candidates to fulfil this task. We compared two highly sensitive assays to measure two subunits of the neurofilament protein (neurofilament light (NfL) and neurofilament heavy chain (NfH))...
  24. doi request reprint Progression in multiple sclerosis is associated with low endogenous NCAM
    Sharmilee Gnanapavan
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Neurochem 125:766-73. 2013
    ..Our findings suggest that depletion of NCAM is one of the factors associated with or possibly responsible for disease progression in MS...
  25. pmc Biomarker report from the phase II lamotrigine trial in secondary progressive MS - neurofilament as a surrogate of disease progression
    Sharmilee Gnanapavan
    Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e70019. 2013
    ..The current study was an additional study to investigate the value of neurofilament (NfH) and other biomarkers in predicting prognosis and/or response to treatment...
  26. doi request reprint The month of birth effect in multiple sclerosis: systematic review, meta-analysis and effect of latitude
    Ruth Dobson
    Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Newark Street, London E1 2AT
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84:427-32. 2013
    ..To date, no large studies of latitudinal variation in the month of birth effect have been performed to advance this hypothesis...
  27. doi request reprint Antineuronal antibodies in Parkinson's disease
    Bart P C van de Warrenburg
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 23:958-63. 2008
    ..We conclude that ANAs do not play a role in the majority of patients with IPD, but might be relevant in the pathogenesis of IPD with atypical features...
  28. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and tolerability of an investigational formulation of interferon-beta1a: 24- and 48-week interim analyses of a 2-year, single-arm, historically controlled, phase IIIb study in adults with multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Ther 29:1128-45. 2007
    ..It was developed with the aim of maximizing the treatment benefit for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by improving injection tolerability and reducing the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs)...
  29. doi request reprint Lesional-targeting of neuroprotection to the inflammatory penumbra in experimental multiple sclerosis
    Sarah Al-Izki
    1 Neuroimmunology Unit, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Brain 137:92-108. 2014
    ..This class of agents inhibit microglial activity and neural sodium loading, which are both thought to contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  30. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndromes: a meta-analysis of prevalence, prognosis and effect of latitude
    Ruth Dobson
    Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84:909-14. 2013
    ..The influence of OCBs on clinical outcomes has not been quantified. OCB prevalence has been associated with latitude in a single study, if confirmed this would provide avenues for further study...
  31. doi request reprint Development of resistance to biologic therapies with reference to IFN-β
    Rachel A Farrell
    Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 2AT, UK
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 51:590-9. 2012
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Antineuronal antibody status and phenotype analysis in Tourette's syndrome
    Davide Martino
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 22:1424-9. 2007
    ..14; P = 0.002; 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.49). ANeA status does not differentiate a specific phenotype of GTS...
  33. doi request reprint Control of spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model using central nervous system-excluded CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists
    Gareth Pryce
    1Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark St, London E1 2AT, UK
    FASEB J 28:117-30. 2014
    ..Global and conditional CB1 receptor-knockout mice were used as controls. In summary, CNS-excluded CB1 receptor agonists are a novel class of therapeutic agent for spasticity...
  34. doi request reprint The effect of vitamin D-related interventions on multiple sclerosis relapses: a meta-analysis
    Eleanor James
    Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Mult Scler 19:1571-9. 2013
    ..Further larger, more prolonged studies are merited. ..
  35. pmc Meta-analysis of early nonmotor features and risk factors for Parkinson disease
    Alastair J Noyce
    Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 72:893-901. 2012
    ..To evaluate the association between diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and risk factors or early symptoms amenable to population-based screening...
  36. ncbi request reprint Measuring and management of anti-interferon beta antibodies in subjects with multiple sclerosis
    Rachel A Farrell
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    Mult Scler 13:567-77. 2007
    ....
  37. pmc Multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Dis Markers 22:187-96. 2006
    ..Bulk biomarkers of the neurodegenerative process such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilaments (NF) have advantages over intermittent inflammatory markers...
  38. doi request reprint Assessing treatment response to interferon-β: is there a role for MRI?
    Ruth Dobson
    From the Queen Mary University London R D, K S, G G, Blizard Institute, UK Neurological Institute R A R, Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Cleveland, OH and Royal London Hospital R D, B T, K S, G G, Barts Health NHS Trust, UK
    Neurology 82:248-54. 2014
    ..Interferon-β (IFN-β) has been shown to reduce relapse rates in multiple sclerosis; however, the clinical response appears to vary among individuals. Can early MRI be used to identify those patients who have a poor response to treatment?..
  39. pmc Genetic background can result in a marked or minimal effect of gene knockout (GPR55 and CB2 receptor) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis
    Sofia Sisay
    Neuroimmunology, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e76907. 2013
    ..Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility. ..
  40. doi request reprint Autoimmune disease in people with multiple sclerosis and their relatives: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ruth Dobson
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK
    J Neurol 260:1272-85. 2013
    ..However, this does not extend to all conditions studied. Given the nonspecific clinical presentation of thyroid disease, it should be considered in all people with MS presenting with nonspecific symptoms...
  41. doi request reprint Bone health in chronic neurological diseases: a focus on multiple sclerosis and parkinsonian syndromes
    Ruth Dobson
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University, London, UK
    Pract Neurol 13:70-9. 2013
    ..Here, we discuss the literature on bone health, falls and fractures in MS and akinetic-rigid syndromes, and suggest strategies to investigate and manage bone health in the neurology clinic...
  42. doi request reprint Comparison of two commercial ELISA systems for evaluating anti-EBNA1 IgG titers
    Ruth Dobson
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University, London, UK
    J Med Virol 85:128-31. 2013
    ..23. Although sensitivity and specificity appear adequate, the poor negative predictive value and kappa coefficient are of major concern. Care must be taken when selecting assays for experimental use...
  43. pmc Guthrie card methylomics identifies temporally stable epialleles that are present at birth in humans
    Huriya Beyan
    The Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 22:2138-45. 2012
    ..e., before overt clinical disease. Guthrie card methylomics offers a potentially powerful and cost-effective strategy for studying the dynamics of interindividual epigenomic variation in a range of common human diseases...
  44. ncbi request reprint Disease modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis: mechanisms of action and new drugs in the horizon
    Monica Marta
    Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 11:610-23. 2012
    ..The pipeline is now much larger with several drugs on the horizon. Overall, the anti-inflammatory strategy has been mostly successful but drugs that have protection and repair mechanisms are still missing...
  45. ncbi request reprint Emerging therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Rachel Farrell
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 10:797-816. 2005
    ..Many of the treatments discussed in this review are still at early stages of development, but provide exciting potential treatment options; others have proved disappointing in larger extended-phase studies...
  46. ncbi request reprint Vitamin D deficiency--do we follow our own advice?
    Ruth Dobson
    Queen Mary University of London, Neuroimmunology Group, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry
    Clin Med 11:521-3. 2011
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Management of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
    CNS Drugs 18:653-69. 2004
    ..The aim of symptomatic therapies should not only be to reduce neurological impairments but also to decrease disability and handicap and to improve the emotional well-being and health-related quality of life of patients with SPMS...
  48. ncbi request reprint Quantitative demonstration of intrathecal synthesis of high affinity immunoglobulin G in herpes simplex encephalitis using affinity-mediated immunoblotting
    Miles D Chapman
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 185:130-5. 2007
    ..Digitisation of the blots enabled further analysis. We showed that the clones of antigen-specific IgG, which were produced intrathecally, were of higher relative affinity than polyclonal antigen-specific IgG...
  49. doi request reprint Role of the HLA system in the association between multiple sclerosis and infectious mononucleosis
    Sreeram V Ramagopalan
    Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, England, UK
    Arch Neurol 68:469-72. 2011
    ..To determine whether multiple sclerosis (MS) and infectious mononucleosis (IM) share common HLA associations...
  50. doi request reprint Evidence for acute neurotoxicity after chemotherapy
    Axel Petzold
    Department of Neuroimmunology, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 68:806-15. 2010
    ..Neurotoxicity adversely affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this study is to examine whether there is evidence of acute neurotoxicity...
  51. ncbi request reprint Immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutic approaches in multiple sclerosis
    Ee Tuan Lim
    University College London, Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Expert Rev Neurother 5:379-90. 2005
    ..A number of new approaches likely to manipulate the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and which may ultimately allow for the development of more effective immunotherapy are also highlighted...
  52. doi request reprint More to come: humoral immune responses in MS
    Ruth Dobson
    Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London E1 2AT, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 240:13-21. 2011
    ..In this review we will discuss the potential role of B-cells in MS, how this influences our understanding of the disease, and potential therapeutic implications...
  53. doi request reprint Neural cell adhesion molecule--description of a CSF ELISA method and evidence of reduced levels in selected neurological disorders
    Sharmilee Gnanapavan
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, London, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 225:118-22. 2010
    ..Significant reductions were found between controls and multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and meningitis...
  54. pmc Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases
    Johanna Gaiottino
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom Bone and Joint Research Unit, John Vane Science Centre, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e75091. 2013
    ..This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL) in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies...
  55. pmc Neuroprotection in a novel mouse model of multiple sclerosis
    Katie Lidster
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e79188. 2013
    ..These novel approaches have relevance to the future treatment of neurodegeneration of MS, which has so far evaded treatment. ..
  56. doi request reprint Early growth response gene-2 controls IL-17 expression and Th17 differentiation by negatively regulating Batf
    Tizong Miao
    Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 2AD, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 190:58-65. 2013
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that Egr-2 is an intrinsic regulator that controls Th17 differentiation by inhibiting Batf activation, which may be important for the control of multiple sclerosis development...
  57. doi request reprint Bone health and multiple sclerosis
    Ruth Dobson
    Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University, UK
    Mult Scler 18:1522-8. 2012
    ..In this topical review we seek to address the risk of low bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fractures associated with MS, and make practical suggestions as to how this pertinent issue may be approached in clinical practice...
  58. ncbi request reprint No evidence for production of intrathecal immunoglobulin G against Acinetobacter or Pseudomonas in multiple sclerosis
    Miles D Chapman
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Eur Neurol 53:27-31. 2005
    ..other neurological diseases, and so conclude that A. calcoaceticus and P. aeruginosa are unlikely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of MS...
  59. doi request reprint Current and future role of interferon beta in the therapy of multiple sclerosis
    Rachel A Farrell
    Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:715-26. 2010
    ..We also review the efficacy of each drug, use of combination therapy strategies, and the potential role of the interferon beta preparations in the future...
  60. pmc Serum S100B in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta-1a
    Ee Tuan Lim
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Negat Results Biomed 3:4. 2004
    ..Furthermore there is no correlation between S100B levels and the primary and secondary outcome measures...
  61. doi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: risk factors, prodromes, and potential causal pathways
    Sreeram V Ramagopalan
    Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 9:727-39. 2010
    ....
  62. doi request reprint Immunosuppression with FTY720 is insufficient to prevent secondary progressive neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Sarah Al-Izki
    Centre of Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    Mult Scler 17:939-48. 2011
    ..FTY720 has activity against lymphocytes but may also influence oligodendroglia and could therefore have the potential to influence progressive MS, by promoting remyelination...
  63. doi request reprint Validating a novel web-based method to capture disease progression outcomes in multiple sclerosis
    Sara Leddy
    Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK
    J Neurol 260:2505-10. 2013
    ..Agreement was better in patients with higher scores. Overall patient satisfaction with the web-based assessment was high. An internet-based assessment tool is likely to prove an invaluable tool in the long-term monitoring in MS...
  64. doi request reprint Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in normal Biozzi and C57BL/6 mice and during the course of chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (CR EAE)
    Christopher Bolton
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London, E12 AT, UK
    Inflamm Res 62:659-67. 2013
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Strategies to treat and prevent the development of neutralizing anti-interferon-beta antibodies
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK
    Neurology 61:S13-7. 2003
    ..Strategies used to prevent or reverse the development of NAbs with other biologic compounds, including improvements in the manufacturing process, immunosuppression, induction of tolerance, and deimmunization, will be reviewed...
  66. ncbi request reprint Spread of T lymphocyte immune responses to myelin epitopes with duration of multiple sclerosis
    Selina Davies
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Transplantation Biology Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Center, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 64:371-7. 2005
    ..This may argue against a simple causal role of epitope spread in driving progression, as has been suggested in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis...
  67. ncbi request reprint Autoaggressive immune-mediated movement disorders
    Davide Martino
    Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroimmunology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Adv Neurol 96:320-35. 2005
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Surviving stiff-person syndrome: a case report
    Sharmilee Gnanapavan
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol 258:1898-900. 2011
    ..Here we describe the 15 year long management of a subject with SPS who has had a favourable outcome...
  69. doi request reprint The McDonald Criteria for Multiple Sclerosis: time for clarification
    Christopher H Hawkes
    Queen Mary University of London, Neuroscience and Trauma Centre, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
    Mult Scler 16:566-75. 2010
    ..There was uncertainty about how many multiple sclerosis categories were permitted and whether the terms 'possible' and 'probable' were allowable. Further clarification might allow the criteria to be applied more consistently...
  70. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis
    Gareth Pryce
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
    Brain 126:2191-202. 2003
    ..Therefore, in addition to symptom management, cannabis may also slow the neurodegenerative processes that ultimately lead to chronic disability in multiple sclerosis and probably other diseases...
  71. ncbi request reprint The role of antibody affinity for specific antigens in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory nervous system disorders
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 180:29-32. 2006
    ..We have extended this technique to individual clones and followed the maturation of clones during the course of herpes encephalitis. This has important implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis...
  72. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness analyses of natalizumab (Tysabri) compared with other disease-modifying therapies for people with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in the UK
    Ray Gani
    Heron Evidence Development, Letchworth, UK
    Pharmacoeconomics 26:617-27. 2008
    ..These patients are those who experience higher relapse rates and faster disability progression than the general RRMS population...
  73. ncbi request reprint Infectious causes of multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 5:887-94. 2006
  74. ncbi request reprint Neutralising antibodies against interferon beta in multiple sclerosis
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Lancet 363:166-7; author reply 168-9. 2004
  75. doi request reprint Validating parameters of a luciferase reporter gene assay to measure neutralizing antibodies to IFNbeta in multiple sclerosis patients
    Regina Lam
    Neuro Immunology Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Immunol Methods 336:113-8. 2008
    ..8-29.3%, and the intra-assay coefficient of variation was between 6.3-15.2%. The luciferase assay is reliable, appropriately sensitive and requires less time than the currently available NAb methods...
  76. ncbi request reprint The clinical significance of an intrathecal monoclonal immunoglobulin band: a follow-up study
    Gerard Davies
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London
    Neurology 60:1163-6. 2003
    ..At present, it is not known whether a single band will convert to an oligoclonal response with time...
  77. ncbi request reprint Optimising MS disease-modifying therapies: antibodies in perspective
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    J Neurol 251:v30-v35. 2004
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint CSF analysis in suspected MS: do bands aid?
    Rogier Q Hintzen
    Neurology 70:1059-60. 2008
  79. ncbi request reprint Re: Neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta-1b are not associated with disease worsening in multiple sclerosis
    Rachel Farrell
    J Int Med Res 36:204-8; author reply 208-10. 2008
  80. ncbi request reprint Cannabinoid-mediated neuroprotection, not immunosuppression, may be more relevant to multiple sclerosis
    J Ludovic Croxford
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 1PJ, United Kingdom
    J Neuroimmunol 193:120-9. 2008
    ..This further highlights the neuroprotective potential of cannabinoids to slow the progression of MS...
  81. ncbi request reprint The Rebif new formulation story: it's not trials and error
    Amer Jaber
    Merck Serono International SA, Geneva, Switzerland an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany
    Drugs R D 8:335-48. 2007
    ..Further assessment of RNF and other MS drugs is ongoing with the aim of enhancing the therapeutic options available for patients with MS...
  82. ncbi request reprint Recommended standard of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: a consensus statement
    Mark S Freedman
    Department of Medicine Neurology, University of Ottawa, Multiple Sclerosis Research Clinic, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Neurol 62:865-70. 2005
    ..These recommendations for establishing a standard for the evaluation of CSF in patients suspected of having MS should greatly complement the new criteria in ensuring that a correct diagnosis of MS is being made...
  83. ncbi request reprint Health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: effects of natalizumab
    Richard A Rudick
    Department of Neurology, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Ann Neurol 62:335-46. 2007
    ..To report the relationship between disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relapsing multiple sclerosis, and the impact of natalizumab...
  84. ncbi request reprint Neutralizing anti-IFN-beta antibodies: how much more evidence do we need to use them in practice?
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Neurology 65:6-8. 2005
  85. ncbi request reprint Neutralising antibodies to interferon beta in multiple sclerosis : expert panel report
    Hans P Hartung
    Dept of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Neurol 254:827-37. 2007
    ....