A H S Lee

Summary

Affiliation: Nottingham City Hospital
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion in women with lymph node negative invasive breast carcinoma
    A H S Lee
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 42:357-62. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Why is carcinoma of the breast more frequent in the upper outer quadrant? A case series based on needle core biopsy diagnoses
    Andrew H S Lee
    Histopathology Department, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 14:151-2. 2005
  3. doi request reprint Vacuum-assisted excision of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) - an alternative to surgery in selected cases
    S L Tennant
    Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 17:546-9. 2008
  4. pmc Occult axillary lymph node metastases are of no prognostic significance in breast cancer
    R R Millis
    Hedley Atkins ICRF Breast Pathology Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Br J Cancer 86:396-401. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Different patterns of inflammation and prognosis in invasive carcinoma of the breast
    A H S Lee
    Hedley Atkins Pathology Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    Histopathology 48:692-701. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Excision biopsy findings of patients with breast needle core biopsies reported as suspicious of malignancy (B4) or lesion of uncertain malignant potential (B3)
    A H S Lee
    Department of Histopathology, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 42:331-6. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?
    G J R Porter
    Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Clin Radiol 62:262-7. 2007
  8. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast
    E A Rakha
    Departments of Histopathology and Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 45:1780-7. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Predictive value of needle core biopsy diagnoses of lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) in abnormalities detected by mammographic screening
    M E el-Sayed
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 53:650-7. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Interval breast cancers: prognostic features and survival by subtype and time since screening
    Gareth J R Porter
    Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    J Med Screen 13:115-22. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint Prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion in women with lymph node negative invasive breast carcinoma
    A H S Lee
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 42:357-62. 2006
    ..In conclusion, lymphovascular invasion is an independent prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and should be considered in decisions about adjuvant treatment in this group of women...
  2. ncbi request reprint Why is carcinoma of the breast more frequent in the upper outer quadrant? A case series based on needle core biopsy diagnoses
    Andrew H S Lee
    Histopathology Department, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 14:151-2. 2005
    ..This result supports the hypothesis that the high proportion of upper outer quadrant carcinomas of the breasts is a reflection of the greater amount of breast tissue in this quadrant...
  3. doi request reprint Vacuum-assisted excision of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) - an alternative to surgery in selected cases
    S L Tennant
    Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast 17:546-9. 2008
    ..Follow-up mammography after VAE of radial scars often showed residual distortion. VAE can be a safe alternative to surgery in the treatment of B3 lesions without atypia, providing thorough multidisciplinary discussion has taken place...
  4. pmc Occult axillary lymph node metastases are of no prognostic significance in breast cancer
    R R Millis
    Hedley Atkins ICRF Breast Pathology Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Br J Cancer 86:396-401. 2002
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Different patterns of inflammation and prognosis in invasive carcinoma of the breast
    A H S Lee
    Hedley Atkins Pathology Laboratory, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    Histopathology 48:692-701. 2006
    ..We also tested the 'danger model', which suggests that necrosis is necessary for an effective immune response...
  6. ncbi request reprint Excision biopsy findings of patients with breast needle core biopsies reported as suspicious of malignancy (B4) or lesion of uncertain malignant potential (B3)
    A H S Lee
    Department of Histopathology, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 42:331-6. 2003
    ..The majority of cores are reported as benign (B1), normal (B2) or malignant (B5). The predictive value of the two borderline categories suspicious of malignancy (B4) and lesion of uncertain malignant potential (B3) was studied...
  7. ncbi request reprint NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?
    G J R Porter
    Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Clin Radiol 62:262-7. 2007
    ....
  8. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast
    E A Rakha
    Departments of Histopathology and Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 45:1780-7. 2009
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate the difference in survival between medullary carcinoma and other forms of basal carcinomas and the role of inflammation in any such differences in behaviour...
  9. doi request reprint Predictive value of needle core biopsy diagnoses of lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) in abnormalities detected by mammographic screening
    M E el-Sayed
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 53:650-7. 2008
    ..The aim was to study a large series of B3 cases from population-based screening subjects in order to evaluate positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy...
  10. ncbi request reprint Interval breast cancers: prognostic features and survival by subtype and time since screening
    Gareth J R Porter
    Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    J Med Screen 13:115-22. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Survival of invasive breast cancer according to the Nottingham Prognostic Index in cases diagnosed in 1990-1999
    R W Blamey
    The Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 43:1548-55. 2007
    ..The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) is a well established and widely used method of predicting survival of operable primary breast cancer...
  12. pmc The significance of lobular neoplasia on needle core biopsy of the breast
    S Menon
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospital, City Hospital Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Virchows Arch 452:473-9. 2008
    ..Some carcinomas were found after apparently adequate core biopsy, raising the question of whether excision biopsy should be considered after all core biopsy diagnoses of lobular neoplasia...
  13. pmc Diagnosis of axillary nodal metastases by ultrasound-guided core biopsy in primary operable breast cancer
    A Damera
    Department of Radiology, Helen Garrod Breast Screening Unit, Nottingham International Breast Education Centre, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Br J Cancer 89:1310-3. 2003
    ..In conclusion, US can identify abnormal nodes in patients presenting with primary operable breast cancer. In all, 65% of these nodes are malignant and this can often be confirmed with US-guided core biopsy...
  14. doi request reprint Tumour-infiltrating macrophages and clinical outcome in breast cancer
    S M A Mahmoud
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Clin Pathol 65:159-63. 2012
    ..In breast cancer, the presence of macrophages has been correlated with increased angiogenesis and poor prognosis but little information is available about the independent prognostic role of macrophages infiltrating breast carcinomas...
  15. pmc Sections of the nipple and quadrants in mastectomy specimens for carcinoma are of limited value
    K Sikand
    Department of Histopathology, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    J Clin Pathol 58:543-5. 2005
    ..To assess the value of nipple and quadrant sections in mastectomy specimens for carcinoma in detecting Paget's disease and multifocal carcinoma...
  16. doi request reprint The prognostic significance of B lymphocytes in invasive carcinoma of the breast
    S M A Mahmoud
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 132:545-53. 2012
    ..This suggests that humoral immunity, in addition to the cell mediated immunity, may be important in breast cancer. This should be considered in breast cancer immunotherapy and vaccine strategies...
  17. ncbi request reprint The expression of Wilms' tumour-1 and Ca125 in invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast
    A H S Lee
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 51:824-8. 2007
    ..One previous study found Ca125 expression in 69% of invasive micropapillary carcinomas. The aim was to assess the frequency of expression of WT1 and Ca125 in invasive micropapillary carcinoma...
  18. doi request reprint Recent developments in the histological diagnosis of spindle cell carcinoma, fibromatosis and phyllodes tumour of the breast
    A H S Lee
    Histopathology Department, Nottingham University Hospitals, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 52:45-57. 2008
    ..The overlap of morphology with phyllodes tumour suggests that it may be best regarded as a variant of phyllodes tumour...
  19. ncbi request reprint Histological features useful in the distinction of phyllodes tumour and fibroadenoma on needle core biopsy of the breast
    A H S Lee
    Histopathology Department, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 51:336-44. 2007
    ..To identify features useful in distinguishing phyllodes tumours from fibroadenomas on core biopsy...
  20. ncbi request reprint Breast carcinoma with basal differentiation: a proposal for pathology definition based on basal cytokeratin expression
    E A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 50:434-8. 2007
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrine differentiation and prognosis in breast adenocarcinoma
    A Miremadi
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 40:215-22. 2002
    ..To date there are few detailed studies examining its relevance in breast carcinoma. In this study we evaluate the frequency and prognostic importance of neuroendocrine differentiation in breast adenocarcinoma...
  22. doi request reprint Vascular invasion in breast cancer; an overview of recent prognostic developments and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms
    R A A Mohammed
    Clinical Oncology, University of Nottingham, University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 55:1-9. 2009
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast: a case series of a rare histological subtype
    H N Khan
    Department of Surgery, Nottingham City Hospital Breast Unit, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Surg Oncol 29:600-3. 2003
    ..Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) represents <0.5% of breast cancers. We report the 15-year experience of SpCC at the Nottingham Breast Unit...
  24. ncbi request reprint Unusual benign breast lesions
    G J R Porter
    Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Clin Radiol 61:562-9. 2006
    ..Knowledge of these appearances may help confirm or refute radiological-pathological concordance of percutaneous biopsy results during multidisciplinary assessment of these lesions and aid patient management...
  25. doi request reprint Screen-detected malignant breast lesions diagnosed following benign (B2) or normal (B1) needle core biopsy diagnoses
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 46:1835-40. 2010
    ..However, unlike fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, information on the miss rate including false-negative diagnoses (FN) of malignancy (benign 'B2' or normal 'B1' NCB with a malignant outcome) is limited...
  26. doi request reprint Screen-detected breast lesions with malignant needle core biopsy diagnoses and no malignancy identified in subsequent surgical excision specimens (potential false-positive diagnosis)
    Emad A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG51PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 45:1162-7. 2009
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that the true false-positive rate of NCB is extremely rare. Significant over-management of screen-detected breast lesions as a result of false-positive NCB may be considered almost nil...
  27. pmc The reliability of assessment of oestrogen receptor expression on needle core biopsy specimens of invasive carcinomas of the breast
    Zsolt Hodi
    Departments of Histopathology and Surgery, Nottingham City Hospital, UK
    J Clin Pathol 60:299-302. 2007
    ..To assess the reliability of assessment of oestrogen receptor expression on needle core biopsy specimens of invasive carcinomas of the breast. Previous studies have mostly been small, with a range of agreement from 62% to 100%...
  28. ncbi request reprint Correlation of histologic prognostic factors in core biopsies and therapeutic excisions of invasive breast carcinoma
    Gavin C Harris
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 27:11-5. 2003
    ..However, in those patients in whom preoperative assessment of prognostic factors is most likely to be beneficial, i.e., those with grade 3 carcinomas, a high level of agreement was achieved in this large study...
  29. pmc The histological diagnosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies
    Andrew H S Lee
    Histopathology Department, Nottingham University Hospitals, City Hospital Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG51PB, UK
    J Clin Pathol 60:1333-41. 2007
    ..The clinical history is vital in some cases. Immunohistochemistry plays a useful supplementary role...
  30. pmc Histological grading of breast cancer on needle core biopsy: the role of immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation
    T ng Chang Kwok
    Department of Pathology and School Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 57:212-9. 2010
    ..35 and 0.65). A major cause of the discrepancy is underestimation of mitoses in the NCB specimen. The aim was to determine the best method of assessing proliferation on NCB...
  31. ncbi request reprint Columnar cell lesions of the breast: the missing link in breast cancer progression? A morphological and molecular analysis
    Peter T Simpson
    Breakthrough Toby Robins Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 29:734-46. 2005
    ..These data further support the hypothesis that CCLs are a nonobligate, intermediary step in the development of some forms of low grade in situ and invasive carcinoma...
  32. pmc IL-17 expression by breast-cancer-associated macrophages: IL-17 promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines
    XingWu Zhu
    Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology, University of Nottingham City Hospital Campus, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 10:R95. 2008
    ..We therefore examined IL-17 protein expression in human breast cancer and modelled its potential biological significance in vitro...
  33. doi request reprint Comparison of margin assessment by radial and shave sections in wide local excision specimens for invasive carcinoma of the breast
    Zsolt Hodi
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, UK
    Histopathology 56:573-80. 2010
    ..Shave sections assess a larger surface area of margin than radial sections. The aim was to assess the value of additional shave sections of the margin...
  34. doi request reprint Tubular carcinoma of the breast: further evidence to support its excellent prognosis
    Emad A Rakha
    FRCPath, Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Department of Histopathology, Nottingham City Hospital National Health Service Trust, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 28:99-104. 2010
    ..In addition, patients with TC seem to have a close to normal life expectancy, and as a consequence, adjuvant systemic therapy may not be justified in their routine management...
  35. doi request reprint Prognostic significance of Nottingham histologic grade in invasive breast carcinoma
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham, NG5 1PB United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 26:3153-8. 2008
    ..However, grade is not included in the recent revision of the TNM staging system of breast cancer as its value is questioned in certain settings...
  36. doi request reprint The biological and clinical characteristics of breast carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular morphology
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 114:243-50. 2009
    ..No clinically meaningful differences in survival were found between these mixed carcinomas and pure IDC or ILC of the breast or between mixed tumours with predominantly ductal or lobular phenotype...
  37. ncbi request reprint An immunohistochemical study of metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, phyllodes tumor and fibromatosis of the breast
    Barbara Dunne
    Department of Pathology, City Hospital, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Hum Pathol 34:1009-15. 2003
    ..In our hands, 34betaE12 was the CK most frequently expressed in sarcomatoid areas in MSCs...
  38. ncbi request reprint Basal phenotype identifies a poor prognostic subgroup of breast cancer of clinical importance
    Emad A Rakha
    Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham and Department of Histopathology and Surgery, Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Eur J Cancer 42:3149-56. 2006
    ..The recently recognised basal phenotype (BP) is associated with poor survival, but the clinical implications of this class of breast cancers remain to be adequately defined...
  39. ncbi request reprint Influence of mammographic parenchymal pattern in screening-detected and interval invasive breast cancers on pathologic features, mammographic features, and patient survival
    Gareth J R Porter
    Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham, England, NG5 1PB
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:676-83. 2007
    ..The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mammographic parenchymal pattern on patient survival, mammographic features, and pathologic features of breast cancer in a screened population...
  40. ncbi request reprint High frequency of coexistence of columnar cell lesions, lobular neoplasia, and low grade ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive tubular carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma
    Tarek M A Abdel-Fatah
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, London, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 31:417-26. 2007
    ..Molecular studies are being performed to substantiate the hypothesis that tubular and lobular carcinomas have direct evolutionary links to CCLs and flat epithelial atypia...
  41. doi request reprint The Nottingham prognostic index for invasive carcinoma of the breast
    Andrew H S Lee
    Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospitals, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Pathol Oncol Res 14:113-5. 2008
    ..There is the potential to improve the NPI by inclusion of other factors, such as vascular invasion, but any such alterations would require further validation...
  42. ncbi request reprint Histologic grading is an independent prognostic factor in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 111:121-7. 2008
    ..As it is less common than invasive ductal carcinoma, few studies of large size have addressed the value of assessment of histologic grade in ILC...
  43. ncbi request reprint Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: response to hormonal therapy and outcomes
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Eur J Cancer 44:73-83. 2008
    ..It is less common than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and few large studies have addressed its biologic characteristics and behaviour with respect to long-term clinical outcome and response to adjuvant therapy...
  44. ncbi request reprint Prognostic markers in triple-negative breast cancer
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology, Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Cancer 109:25-32. 2007
    ..Triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative) is a high risk breast cancer that lacks the benefit of specific therapy that targets these proteins...
  45. doi request reprint Morphologic and molecular evolutionary pathways of low nuclear grade invasive breast cancers and their putative precursor lesions: further evidence to support the concept of low nuclear grade breast neoplasia family
    Tarek M A Abdel-Fatah
    Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences and Nottingham University Hospitals Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Am J Surg Pathol 32:513-23. 2008
    ..Our findings support the concept that progression of LNGBC to HNGBC (basal-like or HER2+) phenotype is an unlikely biologic phenomenon...
  46. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis
    Thomas C Putti
    Department of Pathology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Mod Pathol 18:26-35. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Biologic and clinical characteristics of breast cancer with single hormone receptor positive phenotype
    Emad A Rakha
    Department of Histopathology and Surgery, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Oncol 25:4772-8. 2007
    ..It is usually easier to decide treatment strategies in cases of double-positive/-negative phenotypes than in single-positive tumors...
  48. ncbi request reprint Prediction of cancer outcome with microarrays
    Andrew H S Lee
    Lancet 365:1685; author reply 1686. 2005