R M Sharpe

Summary

Affiliation: National Institute for Medical Research
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Relationship between androgen action in the "male programming window," fetal sertoli cell number, and adult testis size in the rat
    Hayley M Scott
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 149:5280-7. 2008
  2. ncbi request reprint Prenatal plus postnatal exposure to Di(n-Butyl) phthalate and/or flutamide markedly reduces final sertoli cell number in the rat
    Sarah A Auharek
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 151:2868-75. 2010
  3. pmc Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development
    Michelle Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 33:e144-52. 2010
  4. pmc In utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate and testicular dysgenesis: comparison of fetal and adult end points and their dose sensitivity
    I Kim Mahood
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 115:55-61. 2007
  5. pmc Effects of monobutyl and di(n-butyl) phthalate in vitro on steroidogenesis and Leydig cell aggregation in fetal testis explants from the rat: comparison with effects in vivo in the fetal rat and neonatal marmoset and in vitro in the human
    Nina Hallmark
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 115:390-6. 2007
  6. pmc Effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate exposure on foetal rat germ-cell number and differentiation: identification of age-specific windows of vulnerability
    M S Jobling
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 34:e386-96. 2011
  7. pmc Phthalate exposure during pregnancy and lower anogenital index in boys: wider implications for the general population?
    Richard M Sharpe
    Environ Health Perspect 113:A504-5. 2005
  8. pmc Xenografting of human fetal testis tissue: a new approach to study fetal testis development and germ cell differentiation
    Rod T Mitchell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Hum Reprod 25:2405-14. 2010
  9. pmc Toxicant-induced leakage of germ cell-specific proteins from seminiferous tubules in the rat: relationship to blood-testis barrier integrity and prospects for biomonitoring
    Naomi D Elkin
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Toxicol Sci 117:439-48. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint The 'oestrogen hypothesis'- where do we stand now?
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The University of Edinburgh Academic Centre, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 26:2-15. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. doi request reprint Relationship between androgen action in the "male programming window," fetal sertoli cell number, and adult testis size in the rat
    Hayley M Scott
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 149:5280-7. 2008
    ..001) with AGD at e21.5, and postnatal d 25 and 90 in animals exposed in utero to vehicle or DBP (e13.5-e21.5). Thus, AGD may predict adult testis size but probably not through a direct relationship with SC number...
  2. ncbi request reprint Prenatal plus postnatal exposure to Di(n-Butyl) phthalate and/or flutamide markedly reduces final sertoli cell number in the rat
    Sarah A Auharek
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 151:2868-75. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development
    Michelle Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 33:e144-52. 2010
    ..Foetal and/or postnatal TP exposure does not increase adult penile size above its 'predetermined' length though its growth towards this maximum is advanced by peripubertal TP treatment...
  4. pmc In utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate and testicular dysgenesis: comparison of fetal and adult end points and their dose sensitivity
    I Kim Mahood
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 115:55-61. 2007
    ..Humans are widely exposed to DBP, but at much lower levels than those causing adverse effects in rats...
  5. pmc Effects of monobutyl and di(n-butyl) phthalate in vitro on steroidogenesis and Leydig cell aggregation in fetal testis explants from the rat: comparison with effects in vivo in the fetal rat and neonatal marmoset and in vitro in the human
    Nina Hallmark
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 115:390-6. 2007
    ..Certain phthalates can impair Leydig cell distribution and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat in utero, but it is unknown whether similar effects might occur in the human...
  6. pmc Effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate exposure on foetal rat germ-cell number and differentiation: identification of age-specific windows of vulnerability
    M S Jobling
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 34:e386-96. 2011
    ..Identification of the mechanisms underlying these effects could give a new insight into environment-sensitive mechanisms in early foetal GC development that could potentially be relevant to TGCC origins...
  7. pmc Phthalate exposure during pregnancy and lower anogenital index in boys: wider implications for the general population?
    Richard M Sharpe
    Environ Health Perspect 113:A504-5. 2005
  8. pmc Xenografting of human fetal testis tissue: a new approach to study fetal testis development and germ cell differentiation
    Rod T Mitchell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Hum Reprod 25:2405-14. 2010
    ..Studies of human fetal testis development are hampered by the lack of appropriate model, and intervention systems. We hypothesized that human fetal testis xenografts can recapitulate normal development...
  9. pmc Toxicant-induced leakage of germ cell-specific proteins from seminiferous tubules in the rat: relationship to blood-testis barrier integrity and prospects for biomonitoring
    Naomi D Elkin
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Toxicol Sci 117:439-48. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint The 'oestrogen hypothesis'- where do we stand now?
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The University of Edinburgh Academic Centre, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 26:2-15. 2003
    ..Other mechanisms via which increased fetal exposure to pregnancy oestrogens might occur (increasing trend in obesity, dietary changes) are also discussed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on the testis and on blood testosterone levels in marmoset monkeys during the period of neonatal testicular activity
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9ET, UK
    Hum Reprod 17:1692-703. 2002
    ..This study has addressed concerns about possible effects of feeding human infants soy formula milk (SFM)...
  12. pmc How strong is the evidence of a link between environmental chemicals and adverse effects on human reproductive health?
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB
    BMJ 328:447-51. 2004
  13. ncbi request reprint Effect of neonatal treatment of rats with potent or weak (environmental) oestrogens, or with a GnRH antagonist, on Leydig cell development and function through puberty into adulthood
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Chancellors Building, University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 26:26-36. 2003
    ..This implies that adult Leydig cell number may be determined prior to birth...
  14. ncbi request reprint Role of the neonatal period of pituitary-testicular activity in germ cell proliferation and differentiation in the primate testis
    R M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Chancellor s Building, University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB
    Hum Reprod 18:2110-7. 2003
    ..The present study was carried out to establish in the marmoset if suppression of the NPTA, by treatment with a GnRH antagonist, results in impaired germ cell proliferation and/or differentiation...
  15. ncbi request reprint Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: mechanistic insights and potential new downstream effects
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Fertil Steril 89:e33-8. 2008
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Pathways of endocrine disruption during male sexual differentiation and masculinization
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:91-110. 2006
    ..There is currently no definitive evidence that exposure of humans to environmental chemicals can induce testicular dysgenesis and/or impair masculinization, though pathways via which this could potentially occur are established...
  17. ncbi request reprint Hormones and testis development and the possible adverse effects of environmental chemicals
    R M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, EH3 9ET, Scotland, Edinburgh, UK
    Toxicol Lett 120:221-32. 2001
    ....
  18. doi request reprint "Additional" effects of phthalate mixtures on fetal testosterone production
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Toxicol Sci 105:1-4. 2008
  19. pmc Environmental/lifestyle effects on spermatogenesis
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:1697-712. 2010
    ..Spermatogenesis in normal men is poorly organized and inefficient so that men are poorly placed to cope with environmental/lifestyle insults...
  20. ncbi request reprint Androgen action in the masculinization programming window and development of male reproductive organs
    D J Macleod
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 33:279-87. 2010
    ..controls. In conclusion, we show that the size of all male reproductive organs is programmed by androgen exposure in the MPW, but that growth towards this size is dependent on androgen action postnatally...
  21. ncbi request reprint Testicular changes during infantile 'quiescence' in the marmoset and their gonadotrophin dependence: a model for investigating susceptibility of the prepubertal human testis to cancer therapy?
    C J H Kelnar
    Section of Child Life and Health, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 1UW, UK
    Hum Reprod 17:1367-78. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Modulation of gene expression by androgen and oestrogens in the testis and prostate of the adult rat following androgen withdrawal
    K J Turner
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, EH3 9ET, Scotland, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 178:73-87. 2001
    ..This in vivo model should prove of value in future studies to identify androgen and oestrogen regulated genes in the male reproductive system...
  23. pmc Germ cell differentiation in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) during fetal and neonatal life closely parallels that in the human
    R T Mitchell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Hum Reprod 23:2755-65. 2008
    ..We evaluated the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a model by comparing perinatal germ cell differentiation with that in humans...
  24. ncbi request reprint Comparison of androgen receptor and oestrogen receptor beta immunoexpression in the testes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) from birth to adulthood: low androgen receptor immunoexpression in Sertoli cells during the neonatal increase in testost
    C McKinnell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9ET, UK
    Reproduction 122:419-29. 2001
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Role of androgens in fetal testis development and dysgenesis
    Hayley M Scott
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Endocrinology 148:2027-36. 2007
    ..Therefore, induction of MNG and Leydig cell aggregation might result from DBP-induced effects other than suppression of ITT levels...
  26. ncbi request reprint Suppression of androgen action and the induction of gross abnormalities of the reproductive tract in male rats treated neonatally with diethylstilbestrol
    C McKinnell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Androl 22:323-38. 2001
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Do phthalates affect steroidogenesis by the human fetal testis? Exposure of human fetal testis xenografts to di-n-butyl phthalate
    R T Mitchell
    Medical Research Council University of Edinburgh Centre for Reproductive Health, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh Royal Hospital for Sick Children, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E341-8. 2012
    ..g. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)] causes masculinization disorders in rats, raising concern for similar effects in humans. We investigated whether DBP exposure impairs steroidogenesis by the human fetal testis...
  28. ncbi request reprint Induction of progesterone receptor immunoexpression in stromal tissue throughout the male reproductive tract after neonatal oestrogen treatment of rats
    K Williams
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 164:117-31. 2000
    ..This induction was restricted to stromal tissue even though both stromal and epithelial cells at most sites expressed ER beta and/or ER alpha...
  29. ncbi request reprint Differential expression of oestrogen receptor alpha and beta proteins in the testes and male reproductive system of human and non-human primates
    P T Saunders
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9ET, UK
    Mol Hum Reprod 7:227-36. 2001
    ..The widespread expression of ERbeta suggests that it is the primary target for modulation of tissue function via oestrogenic ligands in the male reproductive system...
  30. ncbi request reprint Inhibin B levels in plasma of the male rat from birth to adulthood: effect of experimental manipulation of Sertoli cell number
    R M Sharpe
    MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Androl 20:94-101. 1999
    ..The present results suggest that final Sertoli cell number per testis exerts an important effect on the circulating level of inhibin B (and FSH) in the rat. These findings are compared to the emerging data for the human male...
  31. ncbi request reprint Human 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome': a possible model using in-utero exposure of the rat to dibutyl phthalate
    Jane S Fisher
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Chancellor s Building, University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
    Hum Reprod 18:1383-94. 2003
    ..The disorders comprising human 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS) may be increasing in incidence. TDS originates in fetal life but the mechanisms are not known, and discerning them requires an animal model...
  32. ncbi request reprint Effect of chronic administration of an aromatase inhibitor to adult male rats on pituitary and testicular function and fertility
    K J Turner
    MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9EW, Scotland, UK
    J Endocrinol 164:225-38. 2000
    ..Anastrozole treatment has resulted in a model of brain oestrogen insufficiency...
  33. ncbi request reprint Sertoli cell development and function in an animal model of testicular dysgenesis syndrome
    Gary R Hutchison
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 78:352-60. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Detection of germ cell-derived proteins in testicular interstitial fluid: potential for monitoring spermatogenesis in vivo
    K J Turner
    MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Edinburgh, Scotland
    J Androl 17:127-36. 1996
    ..g., PEBP and ARP-2) should enable more definitive assessment of whether proteins secreted by the seminiferous epithellum can be measured in blood and thus provide a potential means of monitoring spermatogenesis...
  35. pmc Relationship between expression of sex steroid receptors and structure of the seminal vesicles after neonatal treatment of rats with potent or weak estrogens
    K Williams
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Environ Health Perspect 109:1227-35. 2001
    ..Nevertheless, induction of PR expression was always associated with altered SV development and is a potentially useful marker because it is not normally expressed in male reproductive tissues...
  36. ncbi request reprint Androgen regulation of stage-dependent cyclin D2 expression in Sertoli cells suggests a role in modulating androgen action on spermatogenesis
    K A L Tan
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 72:1151-60. 2005
    ..These results point to a non-cell cycle role for cyclin D2 and RB1 in mature Sertoli cells in the stage-dependent mechanisms regulated by AR expression and androgen action...
  37. ncbi request reprint Development and validation of a new monoclonal antibody to mammalian aromatase
    K J Turner
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9ET, UK
    J Endocrinol 172:21-30. 2002
    ..Its ability to work on fixed tissue sections will facilitate identification of individual cells expressing P450 arom within complex tissues...
  38. doi request reprint Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty
    S van den Driesche
    MRC University of Edinburgh Centre for Reproductive Health, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 34:e578-86. 2011
    ..At the group treatment level, prepubertal measurement of either AGD or penis size accurately predicts their size in adulthood...
  39. doi request reprint Male fertility and strategies for fertility preservation following childhood cancer treatment
    R T Mitchell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Endocr Dev 15:101-34. 2009
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Acute and long-term effects of in utero exposure of rats to di(n-butyl) phthalate on testicular germ cell development and proliferation
    Diana Ferrara
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 147:5352-62. 2006
    ..5 to e20.5, but did not reduce GC numbers on d 4. In conclusion, fetal DBP exposure delays normal GC development in both fetal (as early as e15.5) and postnatal life with the possibility of consequences for fertility...
  41. ncbi request reprint Evidence that androgens and oestrogens, as well as follicle-stimulating hormone, can alter Sertoli cell number in the neonatal rat
    Nina N Atanassova
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Chancellors Building, University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, Scotland, UK
    J Endocrinol 184:107-17. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Neonatal coadministration of testosterone with diethylstilbestrol prevents diethylstilbestrol induction of most reproductive tract abnormalities in male rats
    Ana Rivas
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Androl 24:557-67. 2003
    ..These results provide further evidence that DES-induced disorders of reproductive tract development in the male result from a disturbance of the androgen-estrogen balance rather than from estrogen action alone...
  43. ncbi request reprint Expression cloning of a rat testicular transcript abundant in germ cells, which contains two leucine zipper motifs
    K J Turner
    Medical Research Council Reproductive Biology Unit, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 57:1223-32. 1997
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Investigation of suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to restore spermatogenesis in azoospermic men treated for childhood cancer
    A B Thomson
    Section of Child Life and Health, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 1LW, Scotland, UK
    Hum Reprod 17:1715-23. 2002
    ..Does suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis restore spermatogenesis in men rendered azoospermic following treatment of childhood cancer?..
  45. ncbi request reprint Proliferation and functional maturation of Sertoli cells, and their relevance to disorders of testis function in adulthood
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Chancellor s Building, University of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Old Dalkeith Road, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
    Reproduction 125:769-84. 2003
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Neonatal estrogenic effects upon the male rat pituitary: early gonadotrophin attenuation precedes long-term recovery
    Bronwen Martin
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Neuromolecular Med 11:76-86. 2009
    ..Therefore, despite acute and selective ablation of FSH expression the gonadotrophs were able to recover in adulthood, suggesting that perinatal estrogenic exposure was only temporarily deleterious...
  47. ncbi request reprint Regulation of inhibin production in the human male and its clinical applications
    R A Anderson
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9ET, UK
    Int J Androl 23:136-44. 2000
    ..Finally, neonatal secretion of inhibin B as a measure of Sertoli cell number and/or as a predictor of adult reproductive function offers novel possibilities for assessment and intervention...
  48. ncbi request reprint Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on puberty progression, reproductive function and testicular cell numbers in marmoset monkeys in adulthood
    Karen A L Tan
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology and Division of Reproductive and Developmental Science, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Hum Reprod 21:896-904. 2006
    ..This marmoset study addresses concerns about feeding human male infants with soy formula milk (SFM)...
  49. pmc Cellular and hormonal disruption of fetal testis development in sheep reared on pasture treated with sewage sludge
    Catriona Paul
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 113:1580-7. 2005
    ....
  50. doi request reprint Steroidogenesis in the fetal testis and its susceptibility to disruption by exogenous compounds
    Hayley M Scott
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK
    Endocr Rev 30:883-925. 2009
    ..This comparison identifies steroidogenic targets that are either vulnerable (mitochondrial cholesterol transport, CYP11A, CYP17) or not (cholesterol uptake) to chemical interference...
  51. doi request reprint Effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) deficiency in mice on Sertoli cell proliferation and perinatal testis development
    S A Auharek
    Department of Morphology, Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Int J Androl 35:741-51. 2012
    ..Our data pinpoint the window of iNOS (NO) action on SC proliferation and raise the possibility that experimental manipulation of NO in early post-natal life could be used to enhance SC proliferation if this was deficient for any reason...
  52. doi request reprint Androgen receptor signalling in peritubular myoid cells is essential for normal differentiation and function of adult Leydig cells
    M Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 35:25-40. 2012
    ..These findings reveal new paracrine mechanisms underlying adult LC development, which can be further investigated using PTM-ARKOs...
  53. doi request reprint New insights into the role of androgens in wolffian duct stabilization in male and female rodents
    Michelle Welsh
    Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 150:2472-80. 2009
    ..Other factors may promote survival of the WD in males or actively promote WD regression in females, suggesting sexually dimorphic differences in the preprogrammed setup of the WD...
  54. pmc Effect of fetal or neonatal exposure to monobutyl phthalate (MBP) on testicular development and function in the marmoset
    Chris McKinnell
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Hum Reprod 24:2244-54. 2009
    ..In particular, to determine if exposure resulted in effects at birth, or in adulthood, similar to those in male rats, and whether there was evidence for induction of carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) or testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT)...
  55. pmc Androgen action via testicular peritubular myoid cells is essential for male fertility
    Michelle Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    FASEB J 23:4218-30. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Expression of insulin-like factor 3 protein in the rat testis during fetal and postnatal development and in relation to cryptorchidism induced by in utero exposure to di (n-Butyl) phthalate
    Chris McKinnell
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The University of Edinburgh Academic Centre, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 146:4536-44. 2005
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Modulation of the onset of postnatal development of H(+)-ATPase-rich cells by steroid hormones in rat epididymis
    Jane S Fisher
    Medical Research Council, Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 67:1106-14. 2002
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoids amplify dibutyl phthalate-induced disruption of testosterone production and male reproductive development
    Amanda J Drake
    Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 150:5055-64. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that exposure to common environmental chemicals in combination with, for example, maternal stress, may increase the risk of common male reproductive abnormalities, with implications for human populations...
  59. pmc Identification in rats of a programming window for reproductive tract masculinization, disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism
    Michelle Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 118:1479-90. 2008
    ..Based on the timings in rats, we believe the programming window in humans is likely to be 8-14 weeks of gestation...
  60. ncbi request reprint Cellular origins of testicular dysgenesis in rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate
    I Kim Mahood
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 29:148-54; discussion 181-5. 2006
    ..It is therefore concluded that the ITLCs are bona fide LCs that are abnormally located within the seminiferous tubules of DBP-exposed rats in post-natal life...
  61. ncbi request reprint Androgen-dependent mechanisms of Wolffian duct development and their perturbation by flutamide
    Michelle Welsh
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 147:4820-30. 2006
    ..In conclusion, WD differentiation is far more susceptible to blockade of androgen action than is its initial stabilization, and these effects may be mediated by disruption of stromal-epithelial interactions...
  62. ncbi request reprint Abnormal Leydig Cell aggregation in the fetal testis of rats exposed to di (n-butyl) phthalate and its possible role in testicular dysgenesis
    I Kim Mahood
    Medical Research Center Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The University of Edinburgh Academic Centre, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 146:613-23. 2005
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint The critical time window for androgen-dependent development of the Wolffian duct in the rat
    Michelle Welsh
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:3185-95. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the critical window for androgen action in regulating WD development in the rat is between E15.5 and E17.5. This window is also important for prostate formation and anogenital distance masculinization...
  64. ncbi request reprint Environment, lifestyle and infertility--an inter-generational issue
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Chancellor s Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Old Dalkieth Road, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, UK
    Nat Cell Biol 4:s33-40. 2002
    ..This review summarizes the effects of season, modern lifestyles and environmental chemicals on human fertility, and discusses the implications of these effects for future generations...
  65. doi request reprint The effect of dihydrotestosterone exposure during or prior to the masculinization programming window on reproductive development in male and female rats
    A Dean
    MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 35:330-9. 2012
    ..Therefore, androgen availability plays no role in determining timing of the MPW. Susceptibility of the female reproductive system to androgens may precede the MPW...
  66. doi request reprint Sertoli cell numbers and spermatogenic efficiency are increased in inducible nitric oxide synthase mutant mice
    S A Auharek
    Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Morphology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270 901, Brazil
    Int J Androl 34:e621-9. 2011
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide can regulate testicular germ cell protein synthesis in vitro
    A P West
    MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Edinburgh, UK
    J Endocrinol 144:215-23. 1995
    ..The results show that PACAP can regulate synthesis of both secreted and intracellular proteins by spermatids and spermatocytes in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  68. ncbi request reprint Environmental oestrogens: foe or friend?
    Richard M Sharpe
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 16:867-8. 2004
    ..Conversely, as emerging data suggest that oestrogens have health-beneficial effects on the brain, could environmental oestrogens actually be good for us?..
  69. pmc Deletion of androgen receptor in the smooth muscle of the seminal vesicles impairs secretory function and alters its responsiveness to exogenous testosterone and estradiol
    Michelle Welsh
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 151:3374-85. 2010
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint ERbeta1 and the ERbeta2 splice variant (ERbetacx/beta2) are expressed in distinct cell populations in the adult human testis
    Philippa T K Saunders
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers Street, Edinburgh EH3 9ET, Scotland, UK
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:2706-15. 2002
    ..In contrast, expression of ERbeta2, an isoform that may act as a dominant negative inhibitor of ER action, in Sertoli cells and spermatogonia, could protect these cells from adverse effects of estrogens...
  71. ncbi request reprint The origins and time of appearance of focal testicular dysgenesis in an animal model of testicular dysgenesis syndrome: evidence for delayed testis development?
    Gary R Hutchison
    MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Int J Androl 31:103-11. 2008
    ..5 after DBP exposure, which may be indicative of a wider delay in testis cell development and organisation, and this might account for some of the unexplained findings...
  72. ncbi request reprint Male fertility following childhood cancer: current concepts and future therapies
    Mark F H Brougham
    Royal Hospital for Sick Children, 17 Millerfield Place, Edinburgh, EH9 1LW, UK
    Asian J Androl 5:325-37. 2003
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Induction of reproductive tract developmental abnormalities in the male rat by lowering androgen production or action in combination with a low dose of diethylstilbestrol: evidence for importance of the androgen-estrogen balance
    Ana Rivas
    Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, Center for Reproductive Biology, University of Edinburgh Academic Center, Edinburgh, United Kingdom EH16 4SB
    Endocrinology 143:4797-808. 2002
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Changes in vascular dynamics of the adult rat testis leading to transient accumulation of seminiferous tubule fluid after administration of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) agonist
    Jacqui Piner
    GlaxoSmithKline, Ware, Hertfordshire, SG12 ODP, UK
    Reprod Toxicol 16:141-50. 2002
    ....
  75. pmc A Sertoli cell-selective knockout of the androgen receptor causes spermatogenic arrest in meiosis
    Karel De Gendt
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Developmental Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1327-32. 2004
    ..It is concluded that cell-autonomous action of the AR in SC is an absolute requirement for androgen maintenance of complete spermatogenesis, and that spermatocyte/spermatid development/survival critically depends on androgens...
  76. ncbi request reprint Perinatal determinants of adult testis size and function
    Richard M Sharpe
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2503-5. 2006
  77. pmc In utero exposure to low doses of environmental pollutants disrupts fetal ovarian development in sheep
    Paul A Fowler
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, CLSM, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
    Mol Hum Reprod 14:269-80. 2008
    ..Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals, via the mother, significantly perturbs fetal ovarian development. If such effects are replicated in humans, premature menopause could be an outcome...
  78. ncbi request reprint The effect of a sertoli cell-selective knockout of the androgen receptor on testicular gene expression in prepubertal mice
    Evi Denolet
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Endocrinol 20:321-34. 2006
    ..Moreover, they suggest that protease inhibitors and other proteins related to tubular restructuring and cell junction dynamics may be controlled in part by androgens...
  79. ncbi request reprint Dietary soy isoflavone induced increases in antioxidant and eNOS gene expression lead to improved endothelial function and reduced blood pressure in vivo
    Katharina Mahn
    Cardiovascular Division, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King s College London, London, UK
    FASEB J 19:1755-7. 2005
    ..The improvement in endothelial function, increased gene expression, and reduced blood pressure by soy isoflavones have implications for alternative therapy for postmenopausal women and patients at risk of coronary heart disease...
  80. ncbi request reprint Development and function of the adult generation of Leydig cells in mice with Sertoli cell-selective or total ablation of the androgen receptor
    Karel De Gendt
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Developmental Biology, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 146:4117-26. 2005
    ..These results show that loss of androgen action on SC has major consequences for LC development, and this could be mediated indirectly via platelet-derived growth factor-A and/or estrogens/EST...
  81. ncbi request reprint Neonatal treatment of rats with diethylstilboestrol (DES) induces stromal-epithelial abnormalities of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis in adulthood following delayed basal cell development
    Nina Atanassova
    Institute of Experimental Morphology and Anthropology, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria
    Reproduction 129:589-601. 2005
    ..These findings imply a role for androgens and oestrogens in basal cell development and suggest that this may be pivotal in determining normal epithelial (and stromal) development of the cauda/vas deferens...
  82. ncbi request reprint The role of androgens in sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation: studies in mice with total or Sertoli cell-selective ablation of the androgen receptor
    Karen A L Tan
    Onderwijs en Navorsing, Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49 bus 902, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 146:2674-83. 2005
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Time-dependent and compartment-specific effects of in utero exposure to Di(n-butyl) phthalate on gene/protein expression in the fetal rat testis as revealed by transcription profiling and laser capture microdissection
    Simon Plummer
    CXR Biosciences Ltd, James Lindsay Place, Dundee Technopole, Dundee, UK
    Toxicol Sci 97:520-32. 2007
    ..The observed gene expression changes, and their compartmentalization, suggest a possible role for peroxisome proliferator-mediated alteration of cofactor availability as a mechanism underlying DBP-induced Leydig cell dysfunction...
  84. doi request reprint Public health implications of altered puberty timing
    Mari S Golub
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, California, USA
    Pediatrics 121:S218-30. 2008
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial transcript abundance along a maize leaf developmental gradient
    A Bruce Cahoon
    Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, PO Box 60, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 66:33-46. 2008
    ....