Nicholas I Paton

Summary

Affiliation: National Institute for Medical Research
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Effects of hydroxychloroquine on immune activation and disease progression among HIV-infected patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial
    Nicholas I Paton
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, United Kingdom
    JAMA 308:353-61. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Body composition studies in patients with wasting associated with tuberculosis
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Nutrition 22:245-51. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Validation of three-dimensional laser scanning for the assessment of facial fat changes
    N I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 8:498-503. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint The impact of malnutrition on survival and the CD4 count response in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy
    N I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 7:323-30. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Changes in facial fat in HIV-related lipoatrophy, wasting, and weight gain measured by magnetic resonance imaging
    Nicholas I Paton
    Infectious Disease Research Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Clin Trials 8:227-34. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Treatment interruption strategies: how great are the risks?
    Nicholas I Paton
    Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:25-30. 2008
  7. doi request reprint Chloroquine for influenza prevention: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
    Nicholas I Paton
    Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:677-83. 2011
  8. doi request reprint Objective assessment of facial lipoatrophy changes in a cohort of HIV-infected patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy
    Yong Yang
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Clin Trials 9:399-406. 2008
  9. pmc Characterization of ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis by multiple genetic markers and proposal of genotyping strategy
    Yong Jiang Sun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5058-64. 2004
  10. pmc Serological evidence for the co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Singapore
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Epidemiol Infect 133:667-71. 2005

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. pmc Effects of hydroxychloroquine on immune activation and disease progression among HIV-infected patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial
    Nicholas I Paton
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, United Kingdom
    JAMA 308:353-61. 2012
    ..Therapies to decrease immune activation might be of benefit in slowing HIV disease progression...
  2. ncbi request reprint Body composition studies in patients with wasting associated with tuberculosis
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Nutrition 22:245-51. 2006
    ..Wasting is a well-recognized manifestation of tuberculosis (TB), but little is known about the alterations in body composition that occur. Therefore, we measured regional and whole-body composition in patients with TB and wasting...
  3. ncbi request reprint Validation of three-dimensional laser scanning for the assessment of facial fat changes
    N I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 8:498-503. 2007
    ..We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional laser scanning as an objective method for detecting facial changes...
  4. ncbi request reprint The impact of malnutrition on survival and the CD4 count response in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy
    N I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 7:323-30. 2006
    ..The impact that malnutrition at the time of starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) has on survival and the CD4 count response is not known...
  5. ncbi request reprint Changes in facial fat in HIV-related lipoatrophy, wasting, and weight gain measured by magnetic resonance imaging
    Nicholas I Paton
    Infectious Disease Research Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Clin Trials 8:227-34. 2007
    ..We aimed to define the longitudinal changes in facial fat compartments in patients with lipoatrophy and to compare these with changes accompanying wasting or weight gain...
  6. doi request reprint Treatment interruption strategies: how great are the risks?
    Nicholas I Paton
    Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:25-30. 2008
    ..This review brings together the results of recent definitive trials of treatment interruption strategies in order to evaluate the risks and to examine whether there is evidence to support this approach in clinical practice...
  7. doi request reprint Chloroquine for influenza prevention: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
    Nicholas I Paton
    Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:677-83. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the efficacy of such an intervention...
  8. doi request reprint Objective assessment of facial lipoatrophy changes in a cohort of HIV-infected patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy
    Yong Yang
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Clin Trials 9:399-406. 2008
    ..An objective method is needed for assessing facial fat changes in HIV-infected patients...
  9. pmc Characterization of ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis by multiple genetic markers and proposal of genotyping strategy
    Yong Jiang Sun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5058-64. 2004
    ..This typing strategy may be useful in areas where TbD1(+) ancestral strains are prevalent...
  10. pmc Serological evidence for the co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Singapore
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Epidemiol Infect 133:667-71. 2005
    ..In spite of multiple circulating types, the rate of dengue haemorrhagic fever is low in Singapore...
  11. ncbi request reprint Changes in body fat measured by DEXA in patients taking different formulations of stavudine
    Yong Yang
    Infectious Disease Research Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Clin Trials 6:337-43. 2005
    ..Stavudine extended release formulation (stavudine ER) gives lower peak and higher trough levels than the immediate release formulation (stavudine IR), and we hypothesized that the lower peak might result in less lipoatrophy...
  12. pmc Absence of Neisseria meningitidis W-135 electrophoretic Type 37 during the Hajj, 2002
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Tan Tock Seng, Singapore
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:734-7. 2003
    ..The epidemiology of carriage may be changing or may have been controlled by vaccination and a policy of administering antibiotics to pilgrims from countries with a high incidence of meningococcal disease...
  13. ncbi request reprint Randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplementation in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis and wasting
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 309973
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:460-5. 2004
    ..Nutritional support is often recommended as part of the treatment of tuberculosis, but it has never been properly tested...
  14. ncbi request reprint Meningococcal carriage in Umra pilgrims returning from Saudi Arabia
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    J Travel Med 10:147-9. 2003
    ..We investigated the meningococcal carriage in umra pilgrims to determine the extent of circulation of this strain, during the minor pilgrimage...
  15. ncbi request reprint Hydroxychloroquine, hydroxycarbamide, and didanosine as economic treatment for HIV-1
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 308433, Singapore
    Lancet 359:1667-8. 2002
    ..This new combination of drugs could be suitable for countries that have restricted resources, but should first be further investigated...
  16. ncbi request reprint High risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection during the Hajj pilgrimage
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Trop Med Int Health 10:336-9. 2005
    ..We conducted a prospective study to assess the risk of M. tuberculosis infection among Hajj pilgrims...
  17. pmc AIDS-defining illnesses among patients with HIV in Singapore, 1985 to 2001: results from the Singapore HIV Observational Cohort Study (SHOCS)
    Richard Bellamy
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, 308433, Singapore
    BMC Infect Dis 4:47. 2004
    ..The objective was to describe the causes of initial and overall AIDS-defining disease episodes among HIV patients in Singapore...
  18. ncbi request reprint Seroepidemiology of dengue in the adult population of Singapore
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore
    Trop Med Int Health 9:305-8. 2004
    ..The odds ratio of dengue seroprevalence increased by 4.13 (95% CI: 2.88-5.93) for every 10 year increase in age. Dengue infections remain a major problem in Singapore...
  19. ncbi request reprint Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machines for measuring fat distribution changes of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Yong Yang
    Infectious Disease Research Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Antivir Ther 9:771-8. 2004
    ..Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is regarded as a useful objective method for diagnosis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy (LD)...
  20. ncbi request reprint Cost and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in Singapore
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Int J STD AIDS 17:699-705. 2006
    ..Dual ART therapy and HAART were cost-effective interventions in Singapore. Cost-effectiveness is likely to improve if drug prices continue to decrease...
  21. pmc Tuberculosis associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes: a clinical and immunological comparison
    Yong Jiang Sun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Republic of Singapore
    BMC Infect Dis 6:105. 2006
    ..The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is biologically different from other genotypes. We aimed to clinically and immunologically compare human tuberculosis caused by Beijing and non-Beijing strains...
  22. pmc Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Singapore: clinical features of index patient and initial contacts
    Li Yang Hsu
    Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:713-7. 2003
    ..One of the largest outbreaks of SARS to date began in Singapore in March 2003. We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of the index patient and the patient's initial contacts affected with probable SARS...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effects of tuberculosis and HIV infection on whole-body protein metabolism during feeding, measured by the [15N]glycine method
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Am J Clin Nutr 78:319-25. 2003
    ..Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection are wasting diseases that frequently occur together and have severe consequences on nutritional status...
  24. ncbi request reprint The effect of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis on T-cell activation and proliferation in patients with and without HIV co-infection
    Jorge S Villacian
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433, Singapore
    J Infect 51:408-12. 2005
    ..Our results indicate that TB (in the absence of HIV) increases T-lymphocyte proliferation but its effects are modest in comparison with the stimulation induced by HIV infection alone...
  25. ncbi request reprint Use of simple laboratory features to distinguish the early stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome from dengue fever
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1818-23. 2004
    ..Misdiagnosis may have serious public health consequences. We aimed to determine simple laboratory features to differentiate SARS from dengue...
  26. ncbi request reprint Facial fat volume in HIV-infected patients with lipoatrophy
    Yong Yang
    Infectious Disease Research Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Antivir Ther 10:575-81. 2005
    ..We aimed to determine the extent and distribution of facial fat loss in HIV-infected patients with lipoatrophy and whether this differs from wasting...
  27. ncbi request reprint Characterization of mutations in CRF01_AE virus isolates from antiretroviral treatment-naive and -experienced patients in Singapore
    Li Yang Hsu
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:5-13. 2005
    ..To determine the frequency of drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral treatment-naive and -experienced patients infected with CRF01_AE virus...
  28. ncbi request reprint Low risk of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome on airplanes: the Singapore experience
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore
    Trop Med Int Health 8:1035-7. 2003
    ..The incidence was estimated to be 1 out of 156 passengers. The risk of in-flight transmission of SARS appears to be far lower than that reported for influenza, but may be increased with superspreaders on board...
  29. ncbi request reprint Experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome in singapore: importation of cases, and defense strategies at the airport
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore
    J Travel Med 10:259-62. 2003
    ..We report the incidence and impact of cases of SARS imported to Singapore between 25 February and 31 May 2003, and describe national measures to prevent further importation...
  30. ncbi request reprint High incidence of pertussis among Hajj pilgrims
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Travellers Health and Vaccination Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1270-2. 2003
    ..Of the 40 pilgrims who had no pre-Hajj immunity to pertussis, 3 (7.5%) acquired pertussis. Administration of acellular pertussis vaccine to pilgrims before the Hajj should be considered to address this problem...
  31. ncbi request reprint Lipodystrophy in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected Asian patients: prevalence, associated factors, and psychological impact
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433
    Clin Infect Dis 35:1244-9. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Laser scanning as a tool for assessment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy: evaluation of accuracy and reproducibility
    Y Yang
    Infectious Disease Research Centre IDRC, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 6:321-5. 2005
    ..Facial lipoatrophy (LA) is a common complication of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Research into causes and treatment of facial LA is hindered by the lack of an objective measurement tool...
  33. pmc Persistence of W135 Neisseria meningitidis carriage in returning Hajj pilgrims: risk for early and late transmission to household contacts
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Head, Travellers Health and Vaccination Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:123-6. 2003
    ..Transmission to 8% of their unvaccinated household contacts occurred within the first few weeks, but no late transmission took place. Public health interventions are needed to protect household contacts...
  34. ncbi request reprint Hydroxychloroquine, hydroxyurea and didanosine as initial therapy for HIV-infected patients with low viral load: safety, efficacy and resistance profile after 144 weeks
    N I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 6:13-20. 2005
    ..To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the combination of hydroxychloroquine, hydroxyurea and didanosine...
  35. pmc A pilot study of the safety and efficacy of thymosin alpha 1 in augmenting immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts taking highly active antiretroviral therapy
    D Chadwick
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Clin Exp Immunol 134:477-81. 2003
    ..In conclusion, the increase in PBMC sjTREC levels in patients taking thymosin alpha1 may represent enhanced immune reconstitution; however, the clinical benefits and long-term consequences remain to be determined...
  36. ncbi request reprint Validation of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey as a measure of quality of life in HIV-infected patients in Singapore
    Nicholas I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Int J STD AIDS 13:456-61. 2002
    ..In the era of chronic HIV disease, close attention to symptoms (disease or drug-related) is warranted due to their major adverse influence on mental and physical aspects of quality of life...
  37. pmc Use of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing to examine genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Singapore
    Yong Jiang Sun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1986-93. 2004
    ..These results indicate that MIRU-VNTR typing can be a useful first-line tool for studying the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates in a large urban setting such as Singapore...
  38. pmc Neurocognitive function in HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy
    Alan Winston
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Hospital Campus, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e61949. 2013
    ..To describe factors associated with neurocognitive (NC) function in HIV-positive patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy...
  39. ncbi request reprint Crossover vaccination with quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (against A/C/Y/W-135) following recent application of bivalent meningococcal vaccine (against A/C): assessment of safety and side effect profile
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Travellers Health and Vaccination Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    J Travel Med 9:20-3. 2002
    ..We assessed the safety and side effect profile of bivalent, quadrivalent, and quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine after recent vaccination with bivalent vaccine...
  40. ncbi request reprint Causes of death among patients with HIV in Singapore from 1985 to 2001: results from the Singapore HIV Observational Cohort Study (SHOCS)
    R Bellamy
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    HIV Med 5:289-95. 2004
    ..To investigate the major primary and contributory causes of death among HIV patients in Singapore...
  41. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of and risk factors for nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus among human immunodeficiency virus-positive outpatients in Singapore
    J S Villacian
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25:438-40. 2004
    ..Recent antibiotic use and hospitalization were independent predictors of MRSA colonization. Isolates were genotypically identical to our hospital's inpatient circulating strain...
  42. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore
    N I Paton
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Communicable Disease Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Lancet 354:1253-6. 1999
    ..In March 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis and pneumonia occurred in workers at an abattoir in Singapore. We describe the clinical presentation and the results of investigations in these patients...
  43. ncbi request reprint Genotype and phenotype relationships and transmission analysis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Singapore
    Y J Sun
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Infectious Diseases, TTSH Medical Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:436-42. 2007
    ..The small urban country of Singapore...
  44. pmc Association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype with tuberculosis relapse in Singapore
    Y J Sun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Epidemiol Infect 134:329-32. 2006
    ..Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that Beijing genotype was significantly associated with tuberculosis relapse (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.30-5.34, P=0.005)...
  45. ncbi request reprint Importation of seven cases of an unusual helminthic infection into Singapore and assessment of the risk of local transmission
    L S U Lee
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Moulmein Road, Singapore 308433
    Singapore Med J 45:227-8. 2004
    ..The clinical presentation, treatment using single dose ivermectin, potential for transmission, and the need for screening of this infection in Singapore are discussed...
  46. ncbi request reprint A randomised controlled trial of oral zinc on the immune response to tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients
    J A Green
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9:1378-84. 2005
    ..The National HIV Unit, Singapore...
  47. pmc Hospitalized patients with bacterial infections: a potential focus of SARS transmission during an outbreak
    A Wilder-Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433
    Epidemiol Infect 132:407-8. 2004
  48. ncbi request reprint Spectrum of skin disorders in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Singapore and the relationship to CD4 lymphocyte counts
    Boon Kee Goh
    National Skin Centre, Singapore
    Int J Dermatol 46:695-9. 2007
    ..Skin disorders are extremely common and cause significant morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. There are few data on their prevalence and association with CD4 counts in Asians...
  49. pmc The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: baseline and retrospective data
    Jialun Zhou
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:174-9. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Problems--theoretical and real--in the drug treatment of HIV-AIDS
    Nicholas I Paton
    Ann Acad Med Singapore 36:967-8. 2007
  51. ncbi request reprint An outbreak of primary dengue infection among migrant Chinese workers in Singapore characterized by prominent gastrointestinal symptoms and a high proportion of symptomatic cases
    Raymond C S Seet
    Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore
    J Clin Virol 33:336-40. 2005
    ..An outbreak of dengue occurred among Chinese migrant workers at a construction site in Singapore that was characterized by a number of unusual features...
  52. pmc Severe acute respiratory syndrome: imported cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome to Singapore had impact on national epidemic
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    BMJ 326:1393-4. 2003
  53. ncbi request reprint Hajj-associated outbreak strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135: estimates of the attack rate in a defined population and the risk of invasive disease developing in carriers
    Annelies Wilder-Smith
    Travellers Health and Vaccination Centre, Dept of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433
    Clin Infect Dis 36:679-83. 2003
    ..Public health policies to protect household contacts of Hajj pilgrims need to be implemented...
  54. pmc Pharmacokinetics of indinavir at 800, 600, and 400 milligrams administered with ritonavir at 100 milligrams and efavirenz in ethnic chinese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus
    Lawrence S Lee
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N Wolfe St, Osler 527, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4476-8. 2004
    ..Toxic trough concentrations were observed in all patients receiving 800 mg, in two patients receiving 600 mg, and in none receiving 400 mg. Indinavir at 400 mg may be efficacious and less toxic in patients taking ritonavir and efavirenz...