P Wardman

Summary

Affiliation: Mount Vernon Hospital
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi The oxidizing power of the glutathione thiyl radical as measured by its electrode potential at physiological pH
    Edyta Madej
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 462:94-102. 2007
  2. ncbi Indole-3-acetic acids and horseradish peroxidase: a new prodrug/enzyme combination for targeted cancer therapy
    Peter Wardman
    Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Curr Pharm Des 8:1363-74. 2002
  3. ncbi Influence of plasma glutathione levels on radiation mucositis
    P Wardman
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:460-4. 2001
  4. ncbi Radiosensitization by nitric oxide at low radiation doses
    Peter Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Radiat Res 167:475-84. 2007
  5. ncbi Chemical radiosensitizers for use in radiotherapy
    P Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood HA6 2JR, UK
    Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 19:397-417. 2007
  6. ncbi Fluorescent and luminescent probes for measurement of oxidative and nitrosative species in cells and tissues: progress, pitfalls, and prospects
    Peter Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:995-1022. 2007
  7. ncbi Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin by biological radicals and scavenging of the trihydrobiopterin radical by ascorbate
    Kantilal B Patel
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:203-11. 2002
  8. ncbi Peroxidase-catalyzed effects of indole-3-acetic acid and analogues on lipid membranes, DNA, and mammalian cells in vitro
    L K Folkes
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 57:375-82. 1999
  9. ncbi Factors controlling the substrate specificity of peroxidases: kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction of horseradish peroxidase compound I with phenols and indole-3-acetic acids
    L P Candeias
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, U K
    Biochemistry 36:7081-5. 1997
  10. ncbi Kinetics of the reaction between nitric oxide and glutathione: implications for thiol depletion in cells
    Lisa K Folkes
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:549-56. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi The oxidizing power of the glutathione thiyl radical as measured by its electrode potential at physiological pH
    Edyta Madej
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 462:94-102. 2007
    ....
  2. ncbi Indole-3-acetic acids and horseradish peroxidase: a new prodrug/enzyme combination for targeted cancer therapy
    Peter Wardman
    Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Curr Pharm Des 8:1363-74. 2002
    ..It is suggested that the indole acetic acids merit further evaluation as potential prodrugs for use in cancer therapy based on targeted delivery of HRP to tumours...
  3. ncbi Influence of plasma glutathione levels on radiation mucositis
    P Wardman
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51:460-4. 2001
    ..To test the hypothesis that there is a link between plasma glutathione (GSH) or other antioxidants (uric acid, ascorbate) and the severity of radiation mucositis following radiation treatment of tumors of the head and neck...
  4. ncbi Radiosensitization by nitric oxide at low radiation doses
    Peter Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Radiat Res 167:475-84. 2007
    ....
  5. ncbi Chemical radiosensitizers for use in radiotherapy
    P Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood HA6 2JR, UK
    Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 19:397-417. 2007
    ..The suppression of radioprotective thiols seems to offer more potential with alkylating agents than with radiotherapy, although it remains a strategy worthy of exploration...
  6. ncbi Fluorescent and luminescent probes for measurement of oxidative and nitrosative species in cells and tissues: progress, pitfalls, and prospects
    Peter Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:995-1022. 2007
    ..Rational use of probes requires understanding and quantitation of the mechanistic pathways involved, and of environmental factors such as oxygen and pH. We can build on this framework of knowledge in evaluating new probes...
  7. ncbi Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin by biological radicals and scavenging of the trihydrobiopterin radical by ascorbate
    Kantilal B Patel
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:203-11. 2002
    ..5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The results are discussed in the context of the general antioxidant properties of the pterin and the redox role played by H(4)B in NOS catalysis...
  8. ncbi Peroxidase-catalyzed effects of indole-3-acetic acid and analogues on lipid membranes, DNA, and mammalian cells in vitro
    L K Folkes
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 57:375-82. 1999
    ....
  9. ncbi Factors controlling the substrate specificity of peroxidases: kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction of horseradish peroxidase compound I with phenols and indole-3-acetic acids
    L P Candeias
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, U K
    Biochemistry 36:7081-5. 1997
    ....
  10. ncbi Kinetics of the reaction between nitric oxide and glutathione: implications for thiol depletion in cells
    Lisa K Folkes
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:549-56. 2004
    ..Aerobic exposure depletes GSH in cells in vitro much faster because of autoxidation of NO* to NO2*, >10(8) times more reactive toward GSH...
  11. ncbi Oxidative activation of indole-3-acetic acids to cytotoxic species- a potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy
    L K Folkes
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, Middlesex, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 61:129-36. 2001
    ....
  12. ncbi Horseradish peroxidase-mediated gene therapy: choice of prodrugs in oxic and anoxic tumor conditions
    O Greco
    Gray Cancer Institute, P. O. Box 100, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, United Kingdom
    Mol Cancer Ther 1:151-60. 2001
    ..These results indicate that HRP/IAA represents an effective system for enzyme/prodrug-based anticancer approaches, and further improvements could be achieved by the use of novel IAA derivatives...
  13. ncbi Evidence for the role of a peroxidase compound I-type intermediate in the oxidation of glutathione, NADH, ascorbate, and dichlorofluorescin by cytochrome c/H2O2. Implications for oxidative stress during apoptosis
    Andrew Lawrence
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:29410-9. 2003
    ..Competition studies involving spin traps indicated that the oxoferryl heme component is the active oxidant. These findings provide an improved understanding of the physicochemical basis of the redox changes that occur during apoptosis...
  14. ncbi Reactivity toward thiols and cytotoxicity of 3-methylene-2-oxindoles, cytotoxins from indole-3-acetic acids, on activation by peroxidases
    Lisa K Folkes
    Gray Cancer Institute, P O Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middx HA6 2JR, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 15:877-82. 2002
    ....
  15. ncbi Temperature effects on the one-electron reduction potentials of nitroaryl compounds
    P Wardman
    Cancer Research Campaign, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, U K
    Free Radic Res Commun 14:69-75. 1991
    ..Values of delta(delta E)/delta T were in the range -0.7 to -1.1 mV K-1 at 25 degrees C. If delta[E(V2+/V.+)]/delta T = -0.9 mV K-1 for methyl viologen then delta[E(ArNO2/ArNO2.-)]/delta T is about -2 mV K-1 for these compounds...
  16. ncbi 5-Fluoroindole-3-acetic acid: a prodrug activated by a peroxidase with potential for use in targeted cancer therapy
    Lisa K Folkes
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, P O Box 100, Northwood, HA6 2JR, Middlesex, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 63:265-72. 2002
    ....
  17. ncbi The reaction of superoxide radicals with S-nitrosoglutathione and the products of its reductive heterolysis
    Eleonora Ford
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 277:2430-6. 2002
    ..4 x 10(8) m(-1) s(-1) and produced nitric oxide stoichiometrically. Thiyl radicals were not produced, indicating the alternative homolysis route to generate nitroxyl did not occur...
  18. ncbi The reduction potential of benzyl viologen: an important reference compound for oxidant/radical redox couples
    P Wardman
    Cancer Research Campaign, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, U K
    Free Radic Res Commun 14:57-67. 1991
    ..4 mumol dm-3 to minimize dimerization. Based on E(MV2+/MV2+) = -450 mV, a value of E(BV2+/BV2+) = -374 mV is now recommended. The implications for other 'reference' redox couples are discussed...
  19. doi The importance of radiation chemistry to radiation and free radical biology (The 2008 Silvanus Thompson Memorial Lecture)
    P Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Br J Radiol 82:89-104. 2009
    ....
  20. ncbi Properties of the radical intermediate obtained on oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein, a probe for oxidative stress
    Marta Wrona
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 41:657-67. 2006
    ..The midpoint reduction potential of the couple DCF,H(+)/DCFH() is approximately -0.75 V vs. NHE at pH 7.4; DCF is unlikely to be reduced rapidly by common flavoprotein reductases...
  21. ncbi Kinetics of the reactions of nitrogen dioxide with glutathione, cysteine, and uric acid at physiological pH
    Eleonora Ford
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:1314-23. 2002
    ....
  22. ncbi Ruby laser irradiation (694 nm) of human skin biopsies: assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of free radical production and oxidative stress during laser depilation
    R M Haywood
    RAFT Institute of Plastic Surgery, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Photochem Photobiol 70:348-52. 1999
    ..It is concluded that 694 nm red light does not induce oxidative stress in human skin in levels comparable either to t-butyl hydroperoxide or UV light...
  23. ncbi Cytochrome C is a potent catalyst of dichlorofluorescin oxidation: implications for the role of reactive oxygen species in apoptosis
    M J Burkitt
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2JR, United Kingdom
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:329-33. 2001
    ....
  24. ncbi Electron transfer and oxidative stress as key factors in the design of drugs selectively active in hypoxia
    P Wardman
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2JR, UK
    Curr Med Chem 8:739-61. 2001
    ..There is a clear appreciation of the kinetic factors that limit drug efficacy or selectivity. Thus the potential for rapid expansion of these concepts to diverse diseases is considerable...
  25. ncbi Correlation of the radiosensitization potency afforded by nitroacridine intercalators with their electron scavenging efficiency in DNA
    R F Anderson
    Gray Laboratory of the Cancer Research Campaign, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, England
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22:537-40. 1992
    ....
  26. ncbi The one-electron reduction potential of 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine): a hypoxia-selective bioreductive drug
    K I Priyadarsini
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mouni Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middx, UK
    Free Radic Res 25:393-9. 1996
    ..45 +/- 0.01 V vs. NHE at pH 7 From the pH dependence of the reduction potential, pKa = 5.6 +/- 0.2 was estimated for the tirapazamine radical, a value similar to the pKa determined by other methods...
  27. ncbi Synthesis and biological properties of bioreductively targeted nitrothienyl prodrugs of combretastatin A-4
    Peter Thomson
    Gray Cancer Institute, University of Oxford, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:2886-94. 2006
    ..Cellular and supersomal studies showed that this alpha-substitution pattern controls the useful range of oxygen concentrations over which 1 can be effectively released by the prodrug...
  28. ncbi Hypoxia-driven elimination of thiopurines from their nitrobenzyl prodrugs
    Peter Thomson
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:4320-2. 2007
    ..In A549 whole cell experiments hypoxia selective release of 6-thioguanine was observed with the substituted prodrug only...
  29. ncbi Oxidative metabolism of combretastatin A-1 produces quinone intermediates with the potential to bind to nucleophiles and to enhance oxidative stress via free radicals
    Lisa K Folkes
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Middlesex, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1885-94. 2007
    ..The observation of the GSH conjugate Q1H2-SG in vivo provides a new marker for oxidative metabolism of relevance to current clinical trials of CA1-bis(phosphate) (OXi4503)...
  30. ncbi The roles of thiol-derived radicals in the use of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress
    Marta Wrona
    Gray Cancer Institute, University of Oxford, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:56-62. 2008
    ....
  31. doi Kinetics of reaction of nitrogen dioxide with dihydrorhodamine and the reaction of the dihydrorhodamine radical with oxygen: implications for quantifying peroxynitrite formation in cells
    Lisa K Folkes
    University of Oxford, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX37DQ, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 484:122-6. 2009
    ..may be scavenged intracellularly by RhH2...
  32. ncbi Reactivity of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein and dihydrorhodamine 123 and their oxidized forms toward carbonate, nitrogen dioxide, and hydroxyl radicals
    Marta Wrona
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 38:262-70. 2005
    ..These data suggest that probe oxidation may often be in competition with reaction of the radicals with cellular antioxidants...
  33. ncbi Modifying rates of reductive elimination of leaving groups from indolequinone prodrugs: a key factor in controlling hypoxia-selective drug release
    Steven A Everett
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Middlesex HA6 2JR, Northwood, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 63:1629-39. 2002
    ..In conclusion, it is possible to modify rates of reductive elimination from indolequinones to control the release of drugs over a range of tumour hypoxia...
  34. ncbi Halogenated indole-3-acetic acids as oxidatively activated prodrugs with potential for targeted cancer therapy
    Sharon Rossiter
    Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, Middlesex, UK
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:2523-6. 2002
    ..Rate constants for oxidation by HRP compound I were also measured. Halogenated IAAs were found to be the most cytotoxic, with typical surviving fractions of <10(-3) after incubation for 2h with 100 microM prodrug and HRP...
  35. doi Thiyl radicals react with nitric oxide to form S-nitrosothiols with rate constants near the diffusion-controlled limit
    Edyta Madej
    Gray Cancer Institute, University of Oxford, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:2013-8. 2008
    ..These rate constants imply that formation of S-nitrosothiols in biological systems from the combination of thiyl radicals with nitric oxide is much more likely than claimed by Hofstetter et al...
  36. doi Radiation chemistry comes before radiation biology
    Peter O'Neill
    University of Oxford, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Oxford, UK
    Int J Radiat Biol 85:9-25. 2009
    ....
  37. doi Methods to measure the reactivity of peroxynitrite-derived oxidants toward reduced fluoresceins and rhodamines
    Peter Wardman
    University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Methods Enzymol 441:261-82. 2008
    ..This chapter outlines methods for estimation of key rate constants involving peroxynitrite-derived oxidants...
  38. ncbi Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping investigation into the kinetics of glutathione oxidation by the superoxide radical: re-evaluation of the rate constant
    Clare M Jones
    Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:982-90. 2002
    ..Taking these factors into consideration, we estimate the second order rate constant for the oxidation of glutathione by superoxide to be approximately 200 M(-1) s(-1)...
  39. ncbi Nitric oxide in biological fluids: analysis of nitrite and nitrate by high-performance ion chromatography
    S A Everett
    Cancer Research Campaign Gray Laboratory, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    J Chromatogr A 706:437-42. 1995
    ..Technical problems associated with each method, particularly those arising from nitrate contamination, have been addressed...
  40. ncbi Hypoxia in biology and medicine: the legacy of L H Gray
    P P Dendy
    Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, UK
    Br J Radiol 79:545-9. 2006
  41. ncbi Enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic cancer therapy by radicals from plant auxin (indole-3-acetic acid)
    Lisa K Folkes
    Cancer Research UK Free Radicals Research Group, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex HA6 2JR, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 63:776-9. 2003
    ..Unlike conventional photodynamic therapy, requiring excitation of oxygen to the reactive singlet state, the treatment is effective even at the low oxygen levels common in tumors and with much lower light doses than normally used...
  42. doi Reaction of hydrated electrons with guanine derivatives: tautomerism of intermediate species
    Mila D'Angelantonio
    ISOF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy, and University of Oxford, Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2JR, UK
    J Phys Chem B 113:2170-6. 2009
    ..e., iminic 18 and aminic 19 forms). The tautomerization 18 --> 19 occurs with a rate constant of ca. 1.5 x 106 s(-1) , and theory suggests that it is a water-assisted process...
  43. ncbi Kinetics of superoxide scavenging by glutathione: an evaluation of its role in the removal of mitochondrial superoxide
    C M Jones
    Gray Cancer Institute, P O Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middx HA6 2JR, U K
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:1337-9. 2003
    ..s(-1). Hence superoxide dismutase will always out-compete glutathione for reaction with the superoxide radical, thereby preventing formation of the glutathionyl radical...
  44. ncbi Sunscreens inadequately protect against ultraviolet-A-induced free radicals in skin: implications for skin aging and melanoma?
    Rachel Haywood
    RAFT Institute of Plastic Surgery, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 121:862-8. 2003
    ....
  45. ncbi Reaction of the carbonate radical with the spin-trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide in chemical and cellular systems: pulse radiolysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and kinetic-competition studies
    María Noel Alvarez
    Departamento de Bioquímica and Center for Free Radical and Biomedical Research, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Republica, Avda General Flores 2125, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:1523-33. 2007
    ....
  46. ncbi Selectivity of effects of redox-active cobalt(III) complexes on tumor tissue
    Sergey Osinsky
    R E Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
    Exp Oncol 26:140-4. 2004
    ..To estimate the selectivity of action of cobalt complexes on tumor tissue...
  47. doi Use of the dichlorofluorescein assay to measure "reactive oxygen species"
    Peter Wardman
    Radiat Res 170:406-7. 2008
  48. ncbi Revisiting the interaction of the radical anion metabolite of nitrofurantoin with glutathione
    Catherine Miller
    Department of Chemistry, John Carroll University, Cleveland, Ohio 44118, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 397:113-8. 2002
    ....
  49. ncbi Reactions of desferrioxamine with peroxynitrite-derived carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals
    Silvina Bartesaghi
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay
    Free Radic Biol Med 36:471-83. 2004
    ..The results shown herein provide an alternative mechanism to account for some of the biochemical and pharmacological actions of desferrioxamine via reactions with CO3*- and *NO2 radicals...
  50. ncbi Peroxynitrite-derived carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals readily react with lipoic and dihydrolipoic acid
    Madia Trujillo
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Republica, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:279-88. 2005
    ..The mechanisms of reaction defined herein allow to rationalize the biochemistry of peroxynitrite based on direct and free radical-mediated processes and contribute to the understanding of the antioxidant actions of LA and DHLA...
  51. ncbi Trans-fatty acids and radical stress: what are the real culprits?
    Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu
    ISOF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
    Bioorg Med Chem 14:6144-8. 2006
    ..In this context, crucial questions remain to be answered by free radical research involving membrane lipids, thus contributing to lipidomics and embracing biology and medicine...
  52. ncbi Biological chemistry of reactive oxygen and nitrogen and radiation-induced signal transduction mechanisms
    Ross B Mikkelsen
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 College Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Oncogene 22:5734-54. 2003
    ....