Michael Gleeson

Summary

Affiliation: Loughborough University
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Assessing immune function changes in exercise and diet intervention studies
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8:511-5. 2005
  2. doi request reprint URI in athletes: are mucosal immunity and cytokine responses key risk factors?
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 41:148-53. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Respiratory infection risk in athletes: association with antigen-stimulated IL-10 production and salivary IgA secretion
    M Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 22:410-7. 2012
  4. doi request reprint The BASES expert statement on exercise, immunity, and infection
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    J Sports Sci 30:321-4. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Immune system adaptation in elite athletes
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9:659-65. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in immune variables and respiratory infection incidence in an athletic population
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom
    Exerc Immunol Rev 17:122-35. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint Immune function in sport and exercise
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough Univ, UK
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 103:693-9. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Exercise and Toll-like receptors
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
    Exerc Immunol Rev 12:34-53. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint The effects of carbohydrate supplementation during the second of two prolonged cycling bouts on immunoendocrine responses
    Tzai Li Li
    Institute School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 95:391-9. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression?
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    Nutr Rev 64:119-31. 2006

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint Assessing immune function changes in exercise and diet intervention studies
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8:511-5. 2005
    ..To discuss the advantages and limitations of the methods currently available to assess changes in human immune function in response to interventions such as changes in diet or exercise...
  2. doi request reprint URI in athletes: are mucosal immunity and cytokine responses key risk factors?
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 41:148-53. 2013
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Respiratory infection risk in athletes: association with antigen-stimulated IL-10 production and salivary IgA secretion
    M Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 22:410-7. 2012
    ..It is concluded that high IL-10 production in response to antigen challenge and low S-IgA secretion are risk factors for development of URTI in physically active individuals...
  4. doi request reprint The BASES expert statement on exercise, immunity, and infection
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    J Sports Sci 30:321-4. 2012
    ..This expert statement provides a background summarizing the evidence together with extensive conclusions and practical guidelines...
  5. ncbi request reprint Immune system adaptation in elite athletes
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9:659-65. 2006
    ..To evaluate the effects of exercise on immune function in relation to infection susceptibility...
  6. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in immune variables and respiratory infection incidence in an athletic population
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom
    Exerc Immunol Rev 17:122-35. 2011
    ..Sex differences in immune function among athletes probably do not need to be considered in future mixed gender studies on exercise, infection and immune function unless the focus is on mucosal immunity or NK cells...
  7. ncbi request reprint Immune function in sport and exercise
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough Univ, UK
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 103:693-9. 2007
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Exercise and Toll-like receptors
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
    Exerc Immunol Rev 12:34-53. 2006
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint The effects of carbohydrate supplementation during the second of two prolonged cycling bouts on immunoendocrine responses
    Tzai Li Li
    Institute School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 95:391-9. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the disturbances of immunoendocrine responses induced by two bouts of prolonged exercise on the same day recover within 18 h...
  10. ncbi request reprint Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression?
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    Nutr Rev 64:119-31. 2006
    ..Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of other antioxidants and dietary immunostimulants such as probiotics and echinacea on exercise-induced immune impairment...
  11. ncbi request reprint The T cell and NK cell immune response to exercise
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, England
    Ann Transplant 10:43-8. 2005
    ..g. IL-6, IL-10, IL-Ira) causing temporary inhibition of type 1 T cell cytokine production with a relative dampening of the type I (cell-mediated) response...
  12. doi request reprint The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease
    Michael Gleeson
    Inflammation, Exercise and Metabolism Research Group, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:607-15. 2011
    ..In this Review, we focus on the known mechanisms by which exercise - both acute and chronic - exerts its anti-inflammatory effects, and we discuss the implications of these effects for the prevention and treatment of disease...
  13. ncbi request reprint Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU England
    J Nutr 138:2045S-2049S. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Exercise, nutrition and immune function
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
    J Sports Sci 22:115-25. 2004
    ..Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking...
  15. ncbi request reprint The effect of single and repeated bouts of prolonged cycling on leukocyte redistribution, neutrophil degranulation, IL-6, and plasma stress hormone responses
    Tzai Li Li
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14:501-16. 2004
    ..The 2nd prolonged exercise bout caused greater immunoendocrine responses but lower plasma glucose levels and neutrophil function compared with the 1st bout...
  16. ncbi request reprint The effect of 2 weeks vitamin C supplementation on immunoendocrine responses to 2.5 h cycling exercise in man
    Glen Davison
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 97:454-61. 2006
    ..075). These results suggest that supplementation with VC for a period of up to 2 weeks provides little to no protection against the depression of neutrophil function which typically occurs after endurance exercise...
  17. ncbi request reprint Immunological responses to overreaching in cyclists
    Shona L Halson
    Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:854-61. 2003
    ..We investigated the effects of intensified training on plasma cytokines, glutamine, glutamate, and other related immunological variables in endurance-trained cyclists...
  18. pmc The physiological regulation of toll-like receptor expression and function in humans
    Graeme I Lancaster
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Physiol 563:945-55. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that TLR function is subject to modulation under physiological conditions in vivo and provide evidence for the role of immunomodulatory hormones in the regulation of TLR function...
  19. ncbi request reprint Human T lymphocyte migration towards the supernatants of human rhinovirus infected airway epithelial cells: influence of exercise and carbohydrate intake
    Nicolette C Bishop
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
    Exerc Immunol Rev 15:127-44. 2009
    ..The findings of this study suggest that physical stress reduces T cell migration towards HRV-infected cell supernatants and that ingestion of CHO can lessen this effect...
  20. ncbi request reprint Influence of acute vitamin C and/or carbohydrate ingestion on hormonal, cytokine, and immune responses to prolonged exercise
    Glen Davison
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:465-79. 2005
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Time course of performance changes and fatigue markers during intensified training in trained cyclists
    Shona L Halson
    Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Appl Physiol 93:947-56. 2002
    ..These findings indicate that a state of overreaching can already be induced after 7 days of intensified training with limited recovery...
  22. ncbi request reprint Effects of acute exhaustive exercise and chronic exercise training on type 1 and type 2 T lymphocytes
    Graeme I Lancaster
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Exerc Immunol Rev 10:91-106. 2004
    ..These results suggest a possible mechanism for the increased incidence of infection reported during chronic exercise training via modulation of type 1/type 2 T lymphocyte distribution...
  23. ncbi request reprint Influence of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma cytokine and neutrophil degranulation responses to high intensity intermittent exercise
    Nicolette C Bishop
    Human Muscle Metabolism Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Sports Science and Recreation Management, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 12:145-56. 2002
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 75:85-97. 2013
    ..g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness...
  25. ncbi request reprint Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise
    Neil P Walsh
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK
    Exerc Immunol Rev 17:6-63. 2011
    ..exercise (Jeffrey Woods); acquired immunity and exercise (Nicolette Bishop); mucosal immunity and exercise (Michael Gleeson and Nicolette Bishop); immunological methods in exercise immunology (Monika Fleshner); anti-inflammatory ..
  26. ncbi request reprint Daily probiotic's (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) reduction of infection incidence in athletes
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21:55-64. 2011
    ..Regular ingestion of LcS appears to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of URTI in an athletic cohort, which may be related to better maintenance of saliva IgA levels during a winter period of training and competition...
  27. doi request reprint Caffeine improves physical and cognitive performance during exhaustive exercise
    Eef Hogervorst
    Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, UK
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1841-51. 2008
    ..Caffeine is thought to act as a central stimulant and to have effects on physical, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning...
  28. ncbi request reprint Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health
    Neil P Walsh
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK
    Exerc Immunol Rev 17:64-103. 2011
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Salivary IgA as a risk factor for upper respiratory infections in elite professional athletes
    Vernon Neville
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1228-36. 2008
    ..The relationship between physiological and psychological stress and immune function is widely recognized; however, there is little evidence to confirm a direct link between depressed immune function and incidence of illness in athletes...
  30. doi request reprint Plasma and salivary steroid hormone responses of men to high-intensity cycling and resistance exercise
    John P Hough
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    J Strength Cond Res 25:23-31. 2011
    ..This study indicates that the 55/80 cycle protocol induces a prolonged salivary and plasma cortisol and salivary testosterone response compared with the other trials and so may be a useful diagnostic tool of overreaching...
  31. ncbi request reprint Acute and chronic effects of exercise on markers of mucosal immunity
    Nicolette C Bishop
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 14:4444-56. 2009
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Intense exercise training and immune function
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 76:39-50. 2013
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Influence of vitamin D status on respiratory infection incidence and immune function during 4 months of winter training in endurance sport athletes
    Cheng Shiun He
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leucestershire, United Kingdom
    Exerc Immunol Rev 19:86-101. 2013
    ..Low vitamin D status could be an important determinant of URTI risk in endurance athletes and mucosal as well as systemic immunity may be modified via vitamin D-dependent mechanisms...
  34. ncbi request reprint Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius probiotic intervention on infection, cold symptom duration and severity, and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, United Kingdom
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 22:235-42. 2012
    ....
  35. doi request reprint The influence of prolonged cycling on monocyte Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in healthy men
    Marta Oliveira
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 109:251-7. 2010
    ..05). This study showed that prolonged cycling at 75% VO(2peak) temporarily reduces TLR4 expression, which may in part be responsible for post-exercise immunodepression...
  36. ncbi request reprint Regular dark chocolate consumption's reduction of oxidative stress and increase of free-fatty-acid mobilization in response to prolonged cycling
    Judith Allgrove
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21:113-23. 2011
    ..These results suggest that regular DC intake is associated with reduced oxidative-stress markers and increased mobilization of free fatty acids after exercise but has no observed effect on exercise performance...
  37. ncbi request reprint Interrelationship between physical activity and branched-chain amino acids
    Michael Gleeson
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, England, UK
    J Nutr 135:1591S-5S. 2005
    ..Acute intakes of BCAA supplements of about 10-30 g/d seem to be without ill effect. However, the suggested reasons for taking such supplements have not received much support from well-controlled scientific studies...
  38. doi request reprint The influence of exercise training status on antigen-stimulated IL-10 production in whole blood culture and numbers of circulating regulatory T cells
    Michal K Handzlik
    School of Sport Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Ashby Road Loughborough, Leicestershire LE10 2LF, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 113:1839-48. 2013
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Influence of CMV/EBV serostatus on respiratory infection incidence during 4 months of winter training in a student cohort of endurance athletes
    Cheng Shiun He
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 113:2613-9. 2013
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Effects of exercise intensity on salivary antimicrobial proteins and markers of stress in active men
    Judith E Allgrove
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
    J Sports Sci 26:653-61. 2008
    ..These effects appear to be associated with changes in sympathetic activity and not the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis...
  41. doi request reprint Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period
    John Hough
    a Loughborough University, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    J Sports Sci 31:1614-23. 2013
    ..This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue...
  42. doi request reprint Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes
    Elena Papacosta
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
    J Strength Cond Res 27:2569-80. 2013
    ..Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition...
  43. ncbi request reprint Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation
    Juul Achten
    Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:92-7. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a test protocol to determine the exercise intensity at which fat oxidation rate is maximal (Fat(max))...
  44. ncbi request reprint Antioxidant supplementation and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise
    Glen Davison
    Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Wales Aberystwyth, United Kingdom
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:645-52. 2007
    ..The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of daily vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, 1000 mg x d(-1)) and vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol, 400 IU x d(-1)) supplementation on immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of carbohydrate supplementation on performance and carbohydrate oxidation after intensified cycling training
    Shona L Halson
    Dept of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, PO Box 176, Belconnen ACT, Australia 2616
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:1245-53. 2004
    ..Decreased endocrine responsiveness to exercise may be implicated in the decreased performance and increased mood disturbance characteristic of overreaching...
  46. ncbi request reprint Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies
    Ruud Albers
    Unilever Health Institute, PO Box 114, NL 3130 AC Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
    Br J Nutr 94:452-81. 2005
    ..It would be valuable to include several immune markers in addition to clinical outcome in future clinical trials in this area, as there is too little evidence that correlates markers with global health improvement...
  47. ncbi request reprint Response to Hemilä. Did not record upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms/episodes
    Michael Gleeson
    Eur J Appl Physiol 100:487-8. 2007
  48. ncbi request reprint The effects of pre-exercise high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on blood leukocyte redistribution, IL-6, and hormonal responses during a subsequent prolonged exercise
    Tzai Li Li
    Dept of Sports and Leisure Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14:647-56. 2004
    ..Thus, the GI of a pre-exercise meal influences leukocyte trafficking and plasma glucose but has limited effects on circulating stress hormone and cytokine responses to exercise...
  49. ncbi request reprint Elevated plasma interleukin-6 levels in trained male triathletes following an acute period of intense interval training
    Paula J Robson-Ansley
    Institute of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Exercise and Inflammatory Research Group, Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK
    Eur J Appl Physiol 99:353-60. 2007
    ..This was associated with an increase in fatigue and generalised malaise which lends support to the recent cytokine theories of unexplained, underperformance syndrome...
  50. ncbi request reprint The effects of carbohydrate supplementation during repeated bouts of prolonged exercise on saliva flow rate and immunoglobulin A
    Tzai Li Li
    Department of Sports and Leisure Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan
    J Sports Sci 23:713-22. 2005
    ..Our results show that carbohydrate ingestion during any period of two prolonged exercise bouts does not induce different effects on oral immunity compared with placebo...
  51. ncbi request reprint The effect of single and repeated bouts of prolonged cycling and circadian variation on saliva flow rate, immunoglobulin A and alpha-amylase responses
    Tzai Li Li
    Department of Sports and Leisure Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
    J Sports Sci 22:1015-24. 2004
    ..During such exercise, sympathetic stimulation appears to be strong enough to inhibit saliva flow rate; however, it appears that it does not increase sIgA output via transcytosis...
  52. ncbi request reprint Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion on plasma cytokine, stress hormone, and neutrophil degranulation responses to continuous, high-intensity exercise
    Graeme I Lancaster
    Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sports and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13:436-53. 2003
    ..Finally, although an exercise-induced increase in the plasma IL-6 concentration was observed, this effect was independent of pre-exercise CHO ingestion...
  53. ncbi request reprint Key developments in otolaryngology
    Athanasios Bibas
    Guy s Hospital, London
    Practitioner 247:614-8, 622-3. 2003
  54. ncbi request reprint Degeneration pattern of human first-order cochlear neurons
    Heidi Felix
    ENT Department, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
    Adv Otorhinolaryngol 59:116-23. 2002
    ..Furthermore, 4 different peripheral degeneration patterns were described. The factors responsible for the different degeneration behaviors are still not understood and need further investigation...