Shabbar Jaffar

Summary

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village
    Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
    MRC Laboratories Fajara, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Retrovirology 7:46. 2010
  2. pmc Changes in sexual desires and behaviours of people living with HIV after initiation of ART: implications for HIV prevention and health promotion
    Joyce Wamoyi
    National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania
    BMC Public Health 11:633. 2011
  3. pmc Mortality and loss-to-follow-up during the pre-treatment period in an antiretroviral therapy programme under normal health service conditions in Uganda
    Barbara Amuron
    MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda
    BMC Public Health 9:290. 2009
  4. pmc Pre-treatment mortality and loss-to-follow-up in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy in The Gambia, West Africa
    Toyin Togun
    Medical Research Council The Gambia Unit, Fajara, P, O, Box 273 Banjul, The Gambia
    AIDS Res Ther 8:24. 2011
  5. pmc Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 374:2080-9. 2009
  6. doi request reprint Integrating research into routine service delivery in an antiretroviral treatment programme: lessons learnt from a cluster randomized trial comparing strategies of HIV care in Jinja, Uganda
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:795-800. 2008
  7. pmc The natural history of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in adults in Africa: a literature review
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England
    Bull World Health Organ 82:462-9. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Effects of misclassification of causes of death on the power of a trial to assess the efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in The Gambia
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1 E7HT, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 32:430-6. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: public health research priorities
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 10:295-9. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:560-4. 2005

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. pmc Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village
    Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
    MRC Laboratories Fajara, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Retrovirology 7:46. 2010
    ..There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects...
  2. pmc Changes in sexual desires and behaviours of people living with HIV after initiation of ART: implications for HIV prevention and health promotion
    Joyce Wamoyi
    National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania
    BMC Public Health 11:633. 2011
    ..The aim of the paper is to explore the changing sexual desires and behaviour of people on ART in Uganda over a 30 month period...
  3. pmc Mortality and loss-to-follow-up during the pre-treatment period in an antiretroviral therapy programme under normal health service conditions in Uganda
    Barbara Amuron
    MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda
    BMC Public Health 9:290. 2009
    ..The rates of mortality and retention during the pre-treatment period are not well understood. We conducted an observational study to determine these rates...
  4. pmc Pre-treatment mortality and loss-to-follow-up in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy in The Gambia, West Africa
    Toyin Togun
    Medical Research Council The Gambia Unit, Fajara, P, O, Box 273 Banjul, The Gambia
    AIDS Res Ther 8:24. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  5. pmc Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 374:2080-9. 2009
    ..Identification of new ways to increase access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa is an urgent priority. We assessed whether home-based HIV care was as effective as was facility-based care...
  6. doi request reprint Integrating research into routine service delivery in an antiretroviral treatment programme: lessons learnt from a cluster randomized trial comparing strategies of HIV care in Jinja, Uganda
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:795-800. 2008
    ..Here we discuss the operational and ethical issues arising from such trials using the example of a cluster randomized trial evaluating two strategies of ART delivery in Jinja, south-east Uganda...
  7. pmc The natural history of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in adults in Africa: a literature review
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England
    Bull World Health Organ 82:462-9. 2004
    ..Prophylactic regimens and better treatments could have some effect on survival, but major improvements in life expectancy will require HAART...
  8. ncbi request reprint Effects of misclassification of causes of death on the power of a trial to assess the efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in The Gambia
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1 E7HT, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 32:430-6. 2003
    ..Causes assigned in this way have poor sensitivity and specificity. We illustrate the effects of this misclassification on the power of a large trial of a pneumococcal polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccine with a mortality endpoint...
  9. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: public health research priorities
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 10:295-9. 2005
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:560-4. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource-poor settings where CD4 count and plasma viral load are unaffordable...
  11. ncbi request reprint Season of birth is not associated with delayed childhood mortality in Upper River Division, The Gambia
    S Jaffar
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 5:628-32. 2000
    ....
  12. pmc Mortality in an antiretroviral therapy programme in Jinja, south-east Uganda: a prospective cohort study
    Barbara Amuron
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS Res Ther 8:39. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  13. pmc The Regai Dzive Shiri project: results of a randomized trial of an HIV prevention intervention for youth
    Frances M Cowan
    Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, University College London Medical School, London, UK
    AIDS 24:2541-52. 2010
    ..We describe findings of a cluster randomized trial of a community-based, multicomponent HIV, and reproductive health intervention aimed at changing social norms for adolescents in rural Zimbabwe...
  14. ncbi request reprint Association between HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral load in semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers of Thai men and women
    Kathryn Chu
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J STD AIDS 17:681-6. 2006
    ..5 (2.3, 2.7) and 3.1 (2.0, 4.2) for men and 3.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) for women. These findings do not support the hypothesis that HSV-2 increases the HIV-1 viral load in genital secretions...
  15. ncbi request reprint Association of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV-1 among sex workers in rural Zimbabwe
    Frances F Cowan
    Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    AIDS 20:261-7. 2006
    ..Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) facilitates sexual acquisition of HIV-1 but data on transmission are less clear. In this study the interaction between genital shedding of HIV-1 and HSV-2 was explored among Zimbabwean sex workers...
  16. doi request reprint The Regai Dzive Shiri Project: a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a multi-component community-based HIV prevention intervention for rural youth in Zimbabwe--study design and baseline results
    Frances M Cowan
    Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, University College London, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1235-44. 2008
    ....
  17. doi request reprint Reaching millennium development goal 4 - the Gambia
    Momodou Jasseh
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Trop Med Int Health 16:1314-25. 2011
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Home-based versus clinic-based care for patients starting antiretroviral therapy with low CD4+ cell counts: findings from a cluster-randomized trial
    Susannah L Woodd
    aFaculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK bMRC UVRI Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe cThe AIDS Support Organisation dInfectious Disease Institute, Kampala, Uganda
    AIDS 28:569-76. 2014
    ..It is not known whether home-based care is suitable for patients with advanced HIV disease...
  19. ncbi request reprint Low level viremia and high CD4% predict normal survival in a cohort of HIV type-2-infected villagers
    Neil Berry
    Department of Virology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1167-73. 2002
    ..In conclusion, baseline HIV-2 RNA levels predicted a normal survival for the majority, with low and stable levels of plasma viremia characterizing HIV-2 infections in this rural West African community...
  20. pmc Rich micronutrient fortification of locally produced infant food does not improve mental and motor development of Zambian infants: a randomised controlled trial
    Daniela Manno
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Br J Nutr 107:556-66. 2012
    ..In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that rich micronutrient fortification improves Zambian infants' mental and motor development...
  21. doi request reprint Provision of micronutrient-fortified food from 6 months of age does not permit HIV-exposed uninfected Zambian children to catch up in growth to HIV-unexposed children: a randomized controlled trial
    Suzanne Filteau
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, New Zealand
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:166-75. 2011
    ..HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU) children represent a large proportion of children in southern Africa. The reasons for their poorer growth and higher morbidity and mortality than their HIV-unexposed peers are unclear...
  22. pmc Long-term survival of HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Thailand: a 5-year observational cohort study
    Intira J Collins
    Institut de Recherche pour le DĂ©veloppement IRD U174, Paris, France
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1449-57. 2010
    ..There are scarce data on the long-term survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in lower-middle income countries beyond 2 years of follow-up...
  23. pmc Delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, London, 1998-2000: analysis of surveillance data
    Alison Rodger
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 326:909-10. 2003
  24. ncbi request reprint Retinal manifestations of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections among hospital patients in The Gambia, west Africa
    S Jaffar
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 4:487-92. 1999
    ..We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine prevalence of these in The Gambia where both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection are present and the prevalence of HIV-1 is rising...
  25. doi request reprint Increased risk of HIV-infection among school-attending orphans in rural Zimbabwe
    S J S Pascoe
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS Care 22:206-20. 2010
    ..It is essential that we understand the mechanisms by which orphaned children are at increased risk of HIV in order to target prevention and support appropriately...
  26. ncbi request reprint Preparation for a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia: individual or community randomisation?
    S Jaffar
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Vaccine 18:633-40. 1999
    ..An individually randomised trial seems a better strategy under the conditions prevailing in The Gambia...
  27. ncbi request reprint A randomized trial of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplementation on mortality among HIV-infected individuals living in Bangkok
    Sukhum Jiamton
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 17:2461-9. 2003
    ..To examine the impact of high-dose multiple micronutrient supplementation on survival and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals in Thailand...
  28. pmc Cluster randomised trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in area of high, seasonal transmission in Ghana
    Daniel Chandramohan
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 331:727-33. 2005
    ..To evaluate the effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in an area of intense, seasonal transmission...
  29. ncbi request reprint The appropriateness of core group interventions using presumptive periodic treatment among rural Zimbabwean women who exchange sex for gifts or money
    Frances M Cowan
    Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:202-7. 2005
    ..The prevalence of bacterial STIs was low, suggesting that PPT may not be an appropriate intervention in this setting. Rapid reinfection after PPT suggests that this needs to be given at monthly intervals to reduce prevalence of STIs...
  30. ncbi request reprint Use of clinical algorithms for diagnosing malaria
    Daniel Chandramohan
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 7:45-52. 2002
    ..In highly endemic areas where laboratory support is not available, the policy of offering antimalarial drugs to all children presenting with a febrile illness recommended by the integrated child management initiative is appropriate...
  31. pmc Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age
    Andrea M Rehman
    MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Nutr J 8:44. 2009
    ..We describe growth up to three years of age and investigate factors related to stunting (low height-for-age) at three years of age in a birth cohort from an urban slum...
  32. ncbi request reprint The risk factors for relapse among patients with African trypanosomiasis in Daloa, Cote d'Ivoire
    Pamela Cross
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trop Doct 36:90-3. 2006
    ..From the data available, the majority of the relapses were recorded within 12 months and the presence of antibody in the CSF at hospital discharge was identified as an independent predictor of future relapse at any time...
  33. ncbi request reprint School based HIV prevention in Zimbabwe: feasibility and acceptability of evaluation trials using biological outcomes
    Frances M Cowan
    Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    AIDS 16:1673-8. 2002
    ..To determine the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a community randomized trial (CRT) of an adolescent reproductive health intervention (ARHI) using biological measures of effectiveness...
  34. ncbi request reprint Environmental risk factors for clinical malaria: a case-control study in the Grau region of Peru
    J P Guthmann
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:577-83. 2001
    ..Based on these results we discuss possible control measures for malaria in this area of the country...
  35. ncbi request reprint Mortality of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected patients in a clinic-based cohort in The Gambia
    Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    AIDS 16:1775-83. 2002
    ..To assess and compare the mortality rates of patients with HIV-1, HIV-2 or both infections (HIV-D) in the same population...
  36. ncbi request reprint The impact of syphilis, HIV-1, and HIV-2 on pregnancy outcome in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
    Anne Claude Labbé
    Centre for International Health, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Sex Transm Dis 29:157-67. 2002
    ..Syphilis remains a major cause of fetal loss and neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Guinea-Bissau is the epicenter of the HIV-2 epidemic, and little is known about the impact of HIV-2 on pregnancy...
  37. ncbi request reprint Plasma viral load, CD4 cell percentage, HLA and survival of HIV-1, HIV-2, and dually infected Gambian patients
    Abraham S Alabi
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    AIDS 17:1513-20. 2003
    ..To examine baseline plasma viral loads according to the CD4 cell percentage (CD4%) in HIV-1, HIV-2 and dually infected patients (HIV-D), and to relate these measurements to survival...
  38. ncbi request reprint Plasmodium falciparum cross resistance
    Christopher J M Whitty
    Lancet 359:80. 2002
  39. ncbi request reprint Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality
    Koya Ariyoshi
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 188:1648-51. 2003
    ..59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2 disease, but high HTLV-I provirus loads may contribute to mortality...
  40. ncbi request reprint Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Africa: how high is it really?
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1096-7. 2008
  41. ncbi request reprint Continued very high prevalence of HIV infection in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a population-based longitudinal study
    Tanya Welz
    Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    AIDS 21:1467-72. 2007
    ..To estimate the prevalence of HIV and associated sociodemographic factors including mobility and migration in a rural population in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
  42. ncbi request reprint A randomized placebo-controlled trial of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplementation on HIV-1 genital shedding among Thai subjects
    Sukhum Jiamto
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1216-8. 2004
  43. ncbi request reprint Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: priorities for public health research
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Trop Med Int Health 12:1009-10. 2007
  44. ncbi request reprint Use of data from HIV counselling and testing services for HIV surveillance in Africa
    Gabriel Mwaluko
    Tanzania Netherlands Project to Support HIV AIDS Control, Mwanza, United Republic of Tanzania
    Lancet 369:612-3. 2007
  45. pmc Comparative study of the epidemiology of rotavirus in children from a community-based birth cohort and a hospital in South India
    Indrani Banerjee
    Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004, India
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2468-74. 2006
    ..G10P[11] strains resembling a vaccine candidate strain caused disease in the community, indicating the need for careful epidemiological studies as well as safety studies for the vaccine candidates...
  46. pmc Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study
    Abdullah Al-Taiar
    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana a University, PO Box 13078, Sana a, Yemen
    BMJ 333:827. 2006
    ..To assess the burden of malaria on health services, describe the clinical presentation of severe malaria in children, and identify factors associated with mortality by means of a prospective observational study...
  47. ncbi request reprint IFN-gamma at the site of infection determines rate of clearance of infection in cryptococcal meningitis
    Asna A Siddiqui
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:1746-50. 2005
    ....
  48. pmc Geographic information systems and genotyping in identification of rotavirus G12 infections in residents of an urban slum with subsequent detection in hospitalized children: emergence of G12 genotype in South India
    Sasirekha Ramani
    Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
    J Clin Microbiol 45:432-7. 2007
    ..Monitoring of cocirculating rotavirus strains and detection of emerging strains is important in the context of the availability of rotavirus vaccines...
  49. ncbi request reprint Rates and causes of child mortality in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural South Africa
    Anupam Garrib
    Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, Mtubatuba, South Africa
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1841-8. 2006
    ..To determine child mortality rates in a rural area of South Africa with high HIV prevalence...
  50. doi request reprint High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
    ..A dosage range for AmB of 0.7-1 mg/kg per day is noted in current guidelines, but there are no data comparing 0.7 mg/kg per day with 1 mg/kg per day...
  51. ncbi request reprint Clinical predictors of bacterial meningitis in infants and young children in The Gambia
    Martin W Weber
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Trop Med Int Health 7:722-31. 2002
    ....
  52. pmc Observational study of vaccine efficacy 14 years after trial of hepatitis B vaccination in Gambian children
    Hilton Whittle
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, Gambia
    BMJ 325:569. 2002
    ..To determine the duration of protection from hepatitis B vaccine given in infancy and early childhood...
  53. ncbi request reprint Safety and immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in combination with diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine
    Stephen K Obaro
    Imperial College School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:940-7. 2002
    ..Thus we have evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a 9-valent PnCV (Wyeth Lederle Pediatrics and Vaccines) mixed with diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, cell pertussis and type b (TETRAMUNE)...
  54. doi request reprint Who develops severe malaria? Impact of access to healthcare, socio-economic and environmental factors on children in Yemen: a case-control study
    Abdullah Al-Taiar
    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana a University, Sana a, Yemen
    Trop Med Int Health 13:762-70. 2008
    ..To investigate the impact of socio-economic and environmental factors on developing severe malaria in comparison with mild malaria in Yemen...
  55. ncbi request reprint Is sexual contact with sex workers important in driving the HIV epidemic among men in rural Zimbabwe?
    Frances M Cowan
    Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:371-6. 2005
    ....