Brian Greenwood

Summary

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Epidemiology of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infection: implications for detection of hotspots with imperfect diagnostics
    Jacklin F Mosha
    National Institute for Medical Research NIMR, Mwanza Medical Research Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
    Malar J 12:221. 2013
  2. pmc Seroepidemiological and parasitological evaluation of the heterogeneity of malaria infection in the Gambia
    Abraham R Oduro
    Medical Research Council Unit, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia
    Malar J 12:222. 2013
  3. pmc Trends in multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infections among asymptomatic residents in the middle belt of Ghana
    Akua Agyeman-Budu
    Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, Kintampo, Ghana
    Malar J 12:22. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Priorities for research on meningococcal disease and the impact of serogroup A vaccination in the African meningitis belt
    Danny Altmann
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 31:1453-7. 2013
  5. doi request reprint The Gates Malaria Partnership: a consortium approach to malaria research and capacity development
    Brian Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 17:558-63. 2012
  6. doi request reprint Can we defeat meningococcal disease in low and middle income countries?
    Brian Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 30:B63-6. 2012
  7. pmc Immunological consequences of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in Senegalese preschool children
    Denis Boulanger
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 145, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and Université Montpellier 1, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP64501, 34394 Montpellier, France
    Malar J 9:363. 2010
  8. pmc Patterns and seasonality of malaria transmission in the forest-savannah transitional zones of Ghana
    Dominic B Dery
    Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, Kintampo, Ghana
    Malar J 9:314. 2010
  9. pmc Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Africa: what's new, what's needed?
    Andrew Vallely
    National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Centre, PO Box 1462, Mwanza, Tanzania
    Malar J 6:16. 2007
  10. pmc Malaria vaccines and their potential role in the elimination of malaria
    Geoffrey A Targett
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 7:S10. 2008

Detail Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Epidemiology of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infection: implications for detection of hotspots with imperfect diagnostics
    Jacklin F Mosha
    National Institute for Medical Research NIMR, Mwanza Medical Research Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
    Malar J 12:221. 2013
    ..Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in north-western Tanzania were used to examine the spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and the relationship between household exposure and parasite density...
  2. pmc Seroepidemiological and parasitological evaluation of the heterogeneity of malaria infection in the Gambia
    Abraham R Oduro
    Medical Research Council Unit, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia
    Malar J 12:222. 2013
    ..The study explored the usefulness of parasite prevalence, seroprevalence and model-estimated seroconversion rates for detecting local differences in malaria transmission in a West African country...
  3. pmc Trends in multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infections among asymptomatic residents in the middle belt of Ghana
    Akua Agyeman-Budu
    Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, Kintampo, Ghana
    Malar J 12:22. 2013
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Priorities for research on meningococcal disease and the impact of serogroup A vaccination in the African meningitis belt
    Danny Altmann
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 31:1453-7. 2013
    ..menafricar.org) and on the web site of the Centers for Disease Control (www.cdc.gov)...
  5. doi request reprint The Gates Malaria Partnership: a consortium approach to malaria research and capacity development
    Brian Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 17:558-63. 2012
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Can we defeat meningococcal disease in low and middle income countries?
    Brian Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 30:B63-6. 2012
    ..In middle income countries, financial challenges predominate. These could be met by demonstration of the cost effectiveness of new meningococcal vaccines and through the introduction of a tiered-pricing system...
  7. pmc Immunological consequences of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in Senegalese preschool children
    Denis Boulanger
    Unité Mixte de Recherche 145, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and Université Montpellier 1, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP64501, 34394 Montpellier, France
    Malar J 9:363. 2010
    ..A significant concern is whether IPTc increases children's susceptibility to subsequent malaria infection by altering their anti-Plasmodium acquired immunity...
  8. pmc Patterns and seasonality of malaria transmission in the forest-savannah transitional zones of Ghana
    Dominic B Dery
    Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, Kintampo, Ghana
    Malar J 9:314. 2010
    ..Therefore, entomological surveys were carried out in the forest-savannah transitional belt of Ghana (Kintampo) from November 2003 to November 2005 in preparation for drug and vaccine trials...
  9. pmc Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Africa: what's new, what's needed?
    Andrew Vallely
    National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Centre, PO Box 1462, Mwanza, Tanzania
    Malar J 6:16. 2007
    ..This paper reviews published safety and efficacy data on various antimalarials and proposes several candidate combination regimens for assessment in phase II/III clinical trials...
  10. pmc Malaria vaccines and their potential role in the elimination of malaria
    Geoffrey A Targett
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 7:S10. 2008
    ..This might be achieved with some pre-erythrocytic stage candidate vaccines or by targeting the sexual stages directly with transmission-blocking vaccines. An expanded malaria vaccine programme with such objectives is now a priority...
  11. pmc Efficacy of amodiaquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and their combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Cameroon at the time of policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy
    Wilfred F Mbacham
    Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Malar J 9:34. 2010
    ..The prevalence of molecular markers for resistance to these drugs was studied to set the baseline for surveillance of their evolution with time...
  12. pmc The epidemiology of malaria in adults in a rural area of southern Mozambique
    Alfredo Mayor
    Center for International Health, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Malar J 6:3. 2007
    ..The present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, parasitological and haematological status of adults exposed to malaria, and to characterize parasites in these individuals who progressively acquire protective immunity...
  13. pmc Can changes in malaria transmission intensity explain prolonged protection and contribute to high protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants?
    Roly D Gosling
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 7:54. 2008
    ..Five of the six trials using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for IPTi showed protective efficacies (PEs) against clinical malaria ranging from 20.1 - 33.3% whilst one, the Ifakara study, showed a protective efficacy of 58.6%...
  14. pmc Epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of Ghana
    Seth Owusu-Agyei
    Kintampo Health Research Centre, Kintampo, Ghana
    Malar J 8:220. 2009
    ..As a background to the establishment of a site for anti-malarial drugs and vaccine trials, the epidemiology of malaria in a rural site in central Ghana was investigated...
  15. pmc Comparison of all-cause and malaria-specific mortality from two West African countries with different malaria transmission patterns
    Robert P Ndugwa
    Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Malar J 7:15. 2008
    ..All-cause and malaria-specific mortality rates for children under-five years old in a mesoendemic malaria area (The Gambia) were compared with those from a hyper/holoendemic area (Burkina Faso)...
  16. pmc A trial of intermittent preventive treatment and home-based management of malaria in a rural area of The Gambia
    Sanie Sesay
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Malar J 10:2. 2011
    ..The potential benefits of combining IPT in children (IPTc) with home management of malaria (HMM) was investigated...
  17. pmc Seasonality and outbreak of a predominant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 clone from The Gambia: expansion of ST217 hypervirulent clonal complex in West Africa
    Martin Antonio
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Microbiol 8:198. 2008
    ..This study compares the molecular epidemiology of S. pneumoniae serotype 1 causing invasive disease in The Gambia between 1996 and 2005 to those carried in the nasopharynx between 2004 and 2006...
  18. pmc Molecular epidemiology of pneumococci obtained from Gambian children aged 2-29 months with invasive pneumococcal disease during a trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Martin Antonio
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 8:81. 2008
    ..The study describes the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Gambian children..
  19. ncbi request reprint The molecular epidemiology of malaria
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 7:1012-21. 2002
    ..This review discusses how the use of molecular genetic techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction are helping in the management and prevention of malaria...
  20. doi request reprint Progress in malaria control in endemic areas
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Travel Med Infect Dis 6:173-6. 2008
    ....
  21. pmc Vaccines and global health
    Brian Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2733-42. 2011
    ..Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B...
  22. ncbi request reprint Malaria
    Brian M Greenwood
    Gates Malaria Partnership, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1B 3DP, UK
    Lancet 365:1487-98. 2005
    ..Other vaccines are being studied in clinical trials, but it will probably be at least 10 years before a malaria vaccine is ready for widespread use...
  23. ncbi request reprint Malaria vaccines. Evaluation and implementation
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC 1E 7HT, UK
    Acta Trop 95:298-304. 2005
    ..Malaria vaccines will need to be more effective or more cost effective than these alternative control strategies or be able to provide substantial added value, when deployed with them if they are to be adopted widely...
  24. ncbi request reprint Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: 100 years old
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Lancet 370:811-3. 2007
  25. ncbi request reprint What can the residents of malaria endemic countries do to protect themselves against malaria?
    B Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Parassitologia 41:295-9. 1999
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Capacity strengthening in malaria research: the Gates Malaria Partnership
    Brian M Greenwood
    Gates Malaria Partnership, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 50 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK
    Trends Parasitol 22:278-84. 2006
    ..Capacity development, notably through a PhD programme, has been an underlying feature of all aspects of the programme...
  27. ncbi request reprint Malaria in pregnancy: priorities for research
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:169-74. 2007
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Review: Intermittent preventive treatment--a new approach to the prevention of malaria in children in areas with seasonal malaria transmission
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 11:983-91. 2006
    ..The potential benefits of intermittent preventive treatment in children are substantial; more research is needed to determine if this is a practical approach to malaria control...
  29. doi request reprint Can malaria be eliminated?
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:S2-5. 2009
    ..However, malaria elimination (cessation of local transmission) is a realistic short- to medium-term goal for an increasing number of countries that are already bringing malaria under control...
  30. doi request reprint Malaria vaccines and the new malaria agenda
    B M Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1600-7. 2011
    ..It is likely vaccines that are effective enough to block transmission, and thus contribute to increasing drives towards malaria elimination, will need to contain antigens from different stages of the parasite's life cycle...
  31. doi request reprint Control to elimination: implications for malaria research
    Brian M Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7 HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 24:449-54. 2008
    ..Novel approaches to surveillance will be necessary to ensure that once elimination has been achieved, it is not threatened by a rapid reintroduction of malaria from neighbouring areas...
  32. ncbi request reprint The use of anti-malarial drugs to prevent malaria in the population of malaria-endemic areas
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:1-7. 2004
    ....
  33. doi request reprint Do we still need a malaria vaccine?
    B Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC 1E 7HT, UK
    Parasite Immunol 31:582-6. 2009
    ..Malaria vaccines with transmission-blocking properties could play a key role in future elimination programmes...
  34. pmc Anti-malarial drugs and the prevention of malaria in the population of malaria endemic areas
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Malar J 9:S2. 2010
    ..Mass drug administration probably has little role to play in control of mortality and morbidity from malaria but may have an important role in the final stages of an elimination campaign...
  35. ncbi request reprint Malaria vaccine trials
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Chem Immunol 80:366-95. 2002
  36. doi request reprint Combining community case management and intermittent preventive treatment for malaria
    Brian Greenwood
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 27:477-80. 2011
    ....
  37. pmc Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in Tanzanian infants
    Matthew Cairns
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e9467. 2010
    ..This study investigated how protection against malaria given by SP, chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) and mefloquine (MQ), varied with time since administration of IPTi...
  38. doi request reprint Protective efficacy and safety of three antimalarial regimens for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Roly D Gosling
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 374:1521-32. 2009
    ..However, rising resistance to this combination is a concern. We investigated a shortacting and longacting antimalarial drug as alternative regimens for IPTi...
  39. pmc Options for the delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria to children: a community randomised trial
    Margaret Kweku
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e7256. 2009
    ..We have evaluated the coverage of IPTc that can be achieved by two different delivery systems in Ghana...
  40. pmc Cost effectiveness of seasonal intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine & artesunate or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Ghanaian children
    Lesong Conteh
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e12223. 2010
    ..It is important to determine the costs associated with IPTc delivery via community based volunteers and also the potential savings to health care providers and caretakers due to malaria episodes averted as a consequence of IPTc...
  41. pmc Protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and parasite resistance
    Jamie T Griffin
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e12618. 2010
    ..Here we examine the relationship between the protective efficacy of SP-IPTi and measures of SP resistance...
  42. pmc Mode of action and choice of antimalarial drugs for intermittent preventive treatment in infants
    Matthew Cairns
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:1199-201. 2009
    ..However, because of concerns about development of drug resistance, new combinations of long-acting drugs are urgently needed...
  43. pmc Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of anaemia and malaria in Ghanaian children: a randomized, placebo controlled trial
    Margaret Kweku
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e4000. 2008
    ....
  44. pmc Modelling the protective efficacy of alternative delivery schedules for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants and children
    Matthew Cairns
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e18947. 2011
    ..However, improvements to this approach may be possible where malaria transmission is seasonal, or where the malaria burden lies mainly outside infancy...
  45. pmc Cluster randomised trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in area of high, seasonal transmission in Ghana
    Daniel Chandramohan
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 331:727-33. 2005
    ..To evaluate the effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in an area of intense, seasonal transmission...
  46. pmc Intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: provider knowledge and acceptability
    Lucy Smith Paintain
    Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e24035. 2011
    ..Health worker support for any MiP intervention delivered through ANC clinics is critical...
  47. pmc Azithromycin-chloroquine and the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy
    R Matthew Chico
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK
    Malar J 7:255. 2008
    ..Several scientific and programmatic questions of interest to policymakers and programme managers are also presented that would need to be addressed before azithromycin-chloroquine could be adopted for use in IPTp...
  48. pmc Duration of protection against malaria and anaemia provided by intermittent preventive treatment in infants in Navrongo, Ghana
    Matthew Cairns
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e2227. 2008
    ..This study investigated how the protective efficacy of IPTi against malaria and anaemia changes over time...
  49. ncbi request reprint Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in Senegalese children: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial
    Badara Cisse
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 367:659-67. 2006
    ..We assessed the efficacy of seasonal intermittent preventive treatment-a full dose of antimalarial treatment given at defined times without previous testing for malaria infection...
  50. pmc Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a decision-support tool for sub-Saharan Africa
    Ilona Carneiro
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England
    Bull World Health Organ 88:807-14. 2010
    ..To develop a decision-support tool to help policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa assess whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) would be effective for local malaria control...
  51. pmc Coverage, adherence and costs of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children employing different delivery strategies in Jasikan, Ghana
    Edith Patouillard
    Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England
    PLoS ONE 6:e24871. 2011
    ..A key challenge is the identification of a cost-effective delivery strategy...
  52. pmc Intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: user acceptability
    Lucy A Smith
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Malar J 9:18. 2010
    ..This paper reports on a complementary study investigating the acceptability of the different strategies to women enrolled in the trial...
  53. pmc The age patterns of severe malaria syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa across a range of transmission intensities and seasonality settings
    Arantxa Roca-Feltrer
    Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK
    Malar J 9:282. 2010
    ..A greater understanding of the relationship between transmission intensity, seasonality and the age-pattern of malaria is needed to guide appropriate targeting of malaria interventions in different epidemiological settings...
  54. pmc Evaluating health workers' potential resistance to new interventions: a role for discrete choice experiments
    Mylene Lagarde
    Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e23588. 2011
    ..Whilst trials are underway to test the efficacy of future alternative approaches, it is important to start exploring the feasibility of their implementation...
  55. ncbi request reprint A health facility based case-control study of effectiveness of insecticide treated nets: potential for selection bias due to pre-treatment with chloroquine
    Jayne Webster
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 8:196-201. 2003
    ..Generalisation of results over a wide geographic region, or between urban and rural settings, may not be appropriate...
  56. doi request reprint Identification of hot spots of malaria transmission for targeted malaria control
    Teun Bousema
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 201:1764-74. 2010
    ..This heterogeneity creates opportunities for targeted interventions but only if hot spots of malaria transmission can be easily identified...
  57. doi request reprint Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
    James R Hargreaves
    Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, UK
    Lancet 378:1885-93. 2011
    ..Progress towards GAVI's strategic aims is needed and funding is crucial. Approaches that decrease the financial pressure on GAVI and greatly increase political and financial engagement by low-income countries should also be considered...
  58. ncbi request reprint The development of Lapdap, an affordable new treatment for malaria
    Trudie Lang
    Deparment for Infection and Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:162-8. 2003
    ..Experience with the development of Lapdap may provide a model for the introduction of other new drugs developed primarily for use in developing countries...
  59. pmc The safety of artemisinins during pregnancy: a pressing question
    Stephanie Dellicour
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 50, Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK
    Malar J 6:15. 2007
    ..There is an urgent need to assess the safety of these drugs in pregnant women who may be inadvertently exposed to or actively treated with ACTs...
  60. ncbi request reprint Malaria in 2002
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Nature 415:670-2. 2002
    ..But these new tools will achieve their maximum impact only if additional resources are deployed to strengthen malaria research and control communities in countries where the new tools will be used...
  61. ncbi request reprint A new approach to the definition of seroconversion following vaccination in a population with high background antibody concentrations
    Daniel Chandramohan
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 25:A58-62. 2007
    ..The seroconversion rate (91%) based on a variable-fold increase in rSBA titre derived from the model was a more plausible estimate of immunogenicity than the seroconversion rate (32%) based on the fixed four-fold increase in rSBA...
  62. pmc Age-patterns of malaria vary with severity, transmission intensity and seasonality in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and pooled analysis
    Ilona Carneiro
    Disease Control and Vector Biology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e8988. 2010
    ..We have, therefore, undertaken a pooled analysis of existing data from multiple sites to enable a comprehensive overview of the age-patterns of malaria outcomes under different epidemiological conditions in sub-Saharan Africa...
  63. doi request reprint C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in the evaluation of the efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Gambian children
    Yin Bun Cheung
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:603-11. 2008
    ..To determine the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin in the evaluation of the efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Gambian children...
  64. pmc Intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial
    Harry Tagbor
    Department of Community Health, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
    PLoS ONE 5:e14425. 2010
    ..Therefore, we have investigated whether screening with a rapid diagnostic test and treatment of those who are positive (IST) at routine antenatal clinic attendances is as effective and as safe as SP-IPTp in pregnant women...
  65. ncbi request reprint The safety of amodiaquine use in pregnant women
    Harry K Tagbor
    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Department of Community Health, School of Medical Sciences, Private Mail Bag, University Post Office, Kumasi, Ghana
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:631-5. 2007
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine used alone or in combination for malaria treatment in pregnancy: a randomised trial
    Harry Tagbor
    St Theresa s Hospital, Nkoranza, Ghana
    Lancet 368:1349-56. 2006
    ..We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of amodiaquine alone or in combination with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as alternative regimens...
  67. ncbi request reprint Traditional medicine to DNA vaccines: the advance of medical research in West Africa
    B Greenwood
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 3:166-76. 1998
    ..One of the main challenges facing medical researchers in West Africa is how these new technologies can be used most effectively to improve health in countries with limited resources...
  68. ncbi request reprint Season of birth is not associated with delayed childhood mortality in Upper River Division, The Gambia
    S Jaffar
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 5:628-32. 2000
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint A clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of malaria: results of an evaluation in an area of low endemicity
    D Chandramohan
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 6:505-10. 2001
    ..5%). The clinical features differed and algorithm performances were poorer than in previous studies in highly endemic areas. The conclusion is that malaria diagnosis in areas of low endemicity requires microscopy to be accurate...
  70. pmc Determinants of the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests in malaria case management: evidence from low and moderate transmission settings in the East African highlands
    Tarekegn A Abeku
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Malar J 7:202. 2008
    ..HRP2-based RDTs are highly sensitive and stable; however, their specificity is a cause for concern, particularly in areas of intense malaria transmission due to persistence of HRP2 antigens from previous infections...
  71. ncbi request reprint Effects of misclassification of causes of death on the power of a trial to assess the efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in The Gambia
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Medical Research Council Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1 E7HT, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 32:430-6. 2003
    ..Causes assigned in this way have poor sensitivity and specificity. We illustrate the effects of this misclassification on the power of a large trial of a pneumococcal polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccine with a mortality endpoint...
  72. ncbi request reprint Maternal immunisation in developing countries
    Brian Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 21:3436-41. 2003
    ..Thus, a strong case can be made for a trial of the effectiveness of maternal immunisation with a pneumococcal vaccine in preventing serious illness or death in young infants in developing countries...
  73. ncbi request reprint Use of clinical algorithms for diagnosing malaria
    Daniel Chandramohan
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 7:45-52. 2002
    ..In highly endemic areas where laboratory support is not available, the policy of offering antimalarial drugs to all children presenting with a febrile illness recommended by the integrated child management initiative is appropriate...
  74. pmc Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children: a qualitative study of community perceptions and recommendations in Burkina Faso and Mali
    Catherine Pitt
    Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e32900. 2012
    ..However, no studies published to date have examined community perceptions of IPTc...
  75. ncbi request reprint Community perceptions of a mass administration of an antimalarial drug combination in The Gambia
    S De Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Medical Research Council Laboratories, Farafenni Field Station, Fajara, The Gambia
    Trop Med Int Health 6:442-8. 2001
    ..We found that our sensitization meetings could be improved by giving more information on how the MDA works and finding means to generate small group discussions after the meeting...
  76. ncbi request reprint Low-level malaria infections detected by a sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay and use of this technique in the evaluation of malaria vaccines in an endemic area
    Egeruan B Imoukhuede
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:486-93. 2007
    ..These findings support the feasibility and potential of this approach to screen pre-erythrocytic vaccines for efficacy against infection in small numbers of vaccinees in endemic areas...
  77. ncbi request reprint The spectrum of hypoxaemia in children admitted to hospital in The Gambia, West Africa
    Sonja Junge
    University Children s Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 11:367-72. 2006
    ..Hypoxia predicts mortality in children with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs). We investigated the prevalence and predictive value of hypoxia in ALRI and other acute infectious diseases...
  78. ncbi request reprint Protective efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02 Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine is not strain specific
    Ali Alloueche
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:97-101. 2003
    ..The overall distribution of csp allelic variants was similar in infections occurring in vaccine and control groups. Also, the mean number of genotypes per infection in the RTS,S/AS02 group was not reduced compared with the controls...
  79. ncbi request reprint Sustained use of insecticide-treated curtains is not associated with greater circulation of drug-resistant malaria parasites, or with higher risk of treatment failure among children with uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso
    Diadier A Diallo
    Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme CNRFP, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:237-44. 2007
    ..In this setting, ITC use was not associated with increased circulation of parasites resistant to standard antimalarial drugs, or with a greater risk of treatment failure among children less than 5 years of age...
  80. pmc Manslaughter by fake artesunate in Asia--will Africa be next?
    Paul N Newton
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 3:e197. 2006
  81. ncbi request reprint Haptoglobin genotypes are not associated with resistance to severe malaria in The Gambia
    Christophe Aucan
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:327-8. 2002
    ..No significant association was found between severe malaria and either haptoglobin genotypes or phenotypes. The advantages of using a deoxyribonucleic acid-based haptoglobin typing method are discussed...
  82. ncbi request reprint Gambian children successfully treated with chloroquine can harbor and transmit Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes carrying resistance genes
    Colin J Sutherland
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:578-85. 2002
    ..83 x 10(-4)), and were infective to Anopheles mosquitoes. Therapeutic success may thus be accompanied by public health failure as cured children pass resistance genes on to mosquitoes at an enhanced rate...
  83. ncbi request reprint Serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in The Gambia 1996-2003
    Richard A Adegbola
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1128-35. 2006
    ..To describe the characteristics of pneumococcal isolates obtained from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia...
  84. ncbi request reprint Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 is a target of allele-specific immunity and alleles are maintained by natural selection
    Spencer D Polley
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 195:279-87. 2007
    ..Sequence polymorphisms divide alleles into 2 major types, but the adaptive and immunological significance of the types has not been defined...
  85. ncbi request reprint A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of atovaquone-proguanil vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of malarial anaemia in Zambian children
    Modest Mulenga
    Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1643-52. 2006
    ..To compare the efficacy of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in the treatment of malarial anaemia in Zambian children...
  86. ncbi request reprint Association of Fcgamma receptor IIa (CD32) polymorphism with severe malaria in West Africa
    Graham S Cooke
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:565-8. 2003
    ..This is the first evidence for an association between CD32 polymorphism and severe malaria and provides an example of balancing selective pressures from different infectious diseases operating at the same genetic locus...
  87. pmc Impact of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment on the growth and nutritional status of preschool children in rural Senegal (west Africa)
    Balthazar Ntab
    Epidemiology and Prevention Research Unit, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Montpellier, France and Dakar, Senegal
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:411-7. 2007
    ..6% before versus 9.5% after, P < 0.0001), but remained constant in intervention children: 5.6% versus 7.0% (P = 0.62). The prevention of malaria would improve child nutritional status in areas with seasonal transmission...
  88. pmc Repeat sequences in block 2 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 are targets of antibodies associated with protection from malaria
    Spencer D Polley
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Infect Immun 71:1833-42. 2003
    ..The results are important for design of a vaccine to induce protective antibodies, and they address hypotheses about repeat sequences in malaria antigens...
  89. pmc Overdiagnosis of malaria in patients with severe febrile illness in Tanzania: a prospective study
    Hugh Reyburn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WCIE 7HT
    BMJ 329:1212. 2004
    ..To study the diagnosis and outcomes in people admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of severe malaria in areas with differing intensities of malaria transmission...
  90. pmc Changes in malaria indices between 1999 and 2007 in The Gambia: a retrospective analysis
    Serign J Ceesay
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia
    Lancet 372:1545-54. 2008
    ..We investigated the changes in malaria indices in this country, and the causes and public-health significance of these changes...
  91. pmc An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia
    Martin W Weber
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Bull World Health Organ 80:562-8. 2002
    ..To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country...
  92. ncbi request reprint Association of transmission intensity and age with clinical manifestations and case fatality of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Hugh Reyburn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England
    JAMA 293:1461-70. 2005
    ..An understanding of the relationships among the level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum, age, and severity of malaria can provide evidence of whether this is likely...
  93. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with severe anaemia in Zambian children admitted with Plasmodium falciparum malarial anaemia
    Modest Mulenga
    Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia
    Ann Trop Paediatr 25:87-90. 2005
    ..Being female, or febrile, or a referral and having low parasitaemia or hepatomegaly were the risk factors for severe anaemia...
  94. ncbi request reprint Amodiaquine alone, amodiaquine+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine+artesunate, and artemether-lumefantrine for outpatient treatment of malaria in Tanzanian children: a four-arm randomised effectiveness trial
    Theonest K Mutabingwa
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 365:1474-80. 2005
    ..However, there are few effectiveness data for these combinations. Our aim was to study the effectiveness of three drug combinations that have proven efficacious in east Africa compared with amodiaquine monotherapy...
  95. pmc Malaria: progress, perils, and prospects for eradication
    Brian M Greenwood
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 118:1266-76. 2008
    ..Insights into parasite biology, human immunity, and vector behavior will guide efforts to translate parasite and mosquito genome sequences into novel interventions...
  96. ncbi request reprint Children in Burkina Faso who are protected by insecticide-treated materials are able to clear drug-resistant parasites better than unprotected children
    Diadier A Diallo
    Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
    J Infect Dis 196:138-44. 2007
    ..It is also thought that an individual's ability to clear drug-resistant malarial parasites after treatment is enhanced by acquired immunity...
  97. pmc A randomised, double-blind, controlled vaccine efficacy trial of DNA/MVA ME-TRAP against malaria infection in Gambian adults
    Vasee S Moorthy
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, Gambia
    PLoS Med 1:e33. 2004
    ....
  98. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of community-acquired invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella among children aged 2 29 months in rural Gambia and discovery of a new serovar, Salmonella enterica Dingiri
    Usman N Ikumapayi
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    J Med Microbiol 56:1479-84. 2007
    ..S. Dingiri, which possesses an antigenic formula of 17:z:1,6, was sensitive to ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and tetracycline but resistant to gentamicin, and was ST338...
  99. ncbi request reprint A CD4(+) T-cell immune response to a conserved epitope in the circumsporozoite protein correlates with protection from natural Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease
    William H H Reece
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nat Med 10:406-10. 2004
    ..These findings provide direct evidence for a protective role for CD4(+) T cells in humans, and a precise target for the design of improved vaccines against P. falciparum...
  100. ncbi request reprint Serum IgG3 to the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 is strongly associated with a reduced prospective risk of malaria
    Wolfram G Metzger
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Parasite Immunol 25:307-12. 2003
    ..Importantly, this effect remained significant after adjusting for a simultaneous strong protective association of antibodies to another antigen (MSP1 block 2) which itself remained highly significant...
  101. ncbi request reprint Mass administrations of antimalarial drugs
    Lorenz von Seidlein
    International Vaccine Institute, Kwanak, PO Box 14, Seoul 151 600, Korea
    Trends Parasitol 19:452-60. 2003