J R Glynn

Summary

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa--methods and results in Northern Malawi
    Rein M G J Houben
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    Int J Health Geogr 11:49. 2012
  2. pmc Characterizing the emergence and persistence of drug resistant mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infections using 454 ultra deep pyrosequencing
    Vijay Bansode
    Molecular Evolution and Systematics Laboratory, Zoology, Ryan Institute, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
    BMC Infect Dis 13:52. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Measuring concurrency: an empirical study of different methods in a large population-based survey and evaluation of the UNAIDS guidelines
    Judith R Glynn
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 26:977-85. 2012
  4. pmc Missed opportunities in TB diagnosis: a TB process-based performance review tool to evaluate and improve clinical care
    Nigel Field
    Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:127. 2011
  5. pmc What happens to ART-eligible patients who do not start ART? Dropout between screening and ART initiation: a cohort study in Karonga, Malawi
    Nuala McGrath
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:601. 2010
  6. pmc Reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients on ART in Karonga District, Malawi
    Vijay B Bansode
    Molecular Evolution and Systematics Laboratory, Zoology, Ryan Institute, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    AIDS Res Ther 8:38. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint The importance of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an area with high HIV prevalence: a long-term molecular epidemiological study in Northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    J Infect Dis 192:480-7. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Does increased general schooling protect against HIV infection? A study in four African cities
    Judith R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 9:4-14. 2004
  9. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:150-3. 2005
  10. pmc Assessing the validity of sexual behaviour reports in a whole population survey in rural Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e22840. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. pmc Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa--methods and results in Northern Malawi
    Rein M G J Houben
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    Int J Health Geogr 11:49. 2012
    ..Here we develop methods to monitor changes in travel time, using data from the antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out in a rural district in North Malawi...
  2. pmc Characterizing the emergence and persistence of drug resistant mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infections using 454 ultra deep pyrosequencing
    Vijay Bansode
    Molecular Evolution and Systematics Laboratory, Zoology, Ryan Institute, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
    BMC Infect Dis 13:52. 2013
    ..The primary focus of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity and evolution of HIV drug resistant variants in an individual's provirus during antiretroviral therapy using next generation sequencing...
  3. doi request reprint Measuring concurrency: an empirical study of different methods in a large population-based survey and evaluation of the UNAIDS guidelines
    Judith R Glynn
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 26:977-85. 2012
    ..Recent UNAIDS guidelines recommend measuring concurrency 6 months before the interview date, based on overlapping partnership dates. This has theoretical advantages, but little is known about how well it can be measured in practice...
  4. pmc Missed opportunities in TB diagnosis: a TB process-based performance review tool to evaluate and improve clinical care
    Nigel Field
    Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, UK
    BMC Public Health 11:127. 2011
    ..We evaluated a TB Process-Based Performance Review (TB-PBPR) tool, developed to identify "missed opportunities" for timely and accurate diagnosis of TB. The tool enables performance assessment at the level of process and quality of care...
  5. pmc What happens to ART-eligible patients who do not start ART? Dropout between screening and ART initiation: a cohort study in Karonga, Malawi
    Nuala McGrath
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:601. 2010
    ..We aimed to investigate the outcome of those who are eligible but do not start ART in the Malawi programme, factors associated with this dropout, and reasons for not starting treatment, in a prospective cohort study...
  6. pmc Reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients on ART in Karonga District, Malawi
    Vijay B Bansode
    Molecular Evolution and Systematics Laboratory, Zoology, Ryan Institute, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    AIDS Res Ther 8:38. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  7. ncbi request reprint The importance of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an area with high HIV prevalence: a long-term molecular epidemiological study in Northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    J Infect Dis 192:480-7. 2005
    ..Here, we present what is, to our knowledge, the first such study in an area with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence...
  8. ncbi request reprint Does increased general schooling protect against HIV infection? A study in four African cities
    Judith R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 9:4-14. 2004
    ..The association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection varies between populations and over time. Earlier studies in sub-Saharan Africa have found that those with more education are at increased risk of HIV infection...
  9. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:150-3. 2005
    ..All the Beijing genotype strains were fully drug sensitive. Contact histories, TB type, and case-fatality rates were similar for Beijing and non-Beijing genotype TB...
  10. pmc Assessing the validity of sexual behaviour reports in a whole population survey in rural Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e22840. 2011
    ..Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting...
  11. pmc Age at menarche, schooling, and sexual debut in northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15334. 2010
    ..We investigated trends and circumstances of sexual debut in relation to schooling and age at menarche...
  12. ncbi request reprint HIV risk in relation to marriage in areas with high prevalence of HIV infection
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:526-35. 2003
    ..In these sites, many infections in married men, even in those with HIV-infected wives, may be acquired from outside the marriage...
  13. ncbi request reprint DNA fingerprint changes in tuberculosis: reinfection, evolution, or laboratory error?
    Judith R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 190:1158-66. 2004
    ..We explored the importance of these factors...
  14. pmc Worldwide occurrence of Beijing/W strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygeine and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:843-9. 2002
    ..Although few reports have measured trends in prevalence, the ubiquity of the Beijing strains and their frequent association with outbreaks and drug resistance underline their importance...
  15. pmc Changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype families over 20 years in a population-based study in Northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e12259. 2010
    ..tuberculosis, very little is known about how genotypes within a population change over decades, or about relationships to HIV infection...
  16. doi request reprint Tuberculosis and survival of HIV-infected individuals by time since seroconversion
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 24:1067-9. 2010
    ..Overall mortality was similar to that in western seroconverter cohorts with much lower rates of tuberculosis, suggesting that tuberculosis is more a marker of HIV progression than a cause of it...
  17. pmc Herpes simplex virus type 2 trends in relation to the HIV epidemic in northern Malawi
    J R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 84:356-60. 2008
    ..HSV-2 prevalence trends in a rural African community were assessed over a period in which HIV prevalence rose sharply, and antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance was explored as a method of estimating community HSV-2 prevalence...
  18. doi request reprint Effects of duration of HIV infection and secondary tuberculosis transmission on tuberculosis incidence in the South African gold mines
    Judith R Glynn
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 22:1859-67. 2008
    ..We assess the contribution of these two mechanisms by time since seroconversion to HIV...
  19. doi request reprint High rates of recurrence in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with tuberculosis
    Judith R Glynn
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 201:704-11. 2010
    ..The rate of recurrent tuberculosis disease due to reinfection, compared with the incidence of new tuberculosis, in those with and without HIV infection is not known...
  20. ncbi request reprint Survival from HIV-1 seroconversion in Southern Africa: a retrospective cohort study in nearly 2000 gold-miners over 10 years of follow-up
    Judith R Glynn
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 21:625-32. 2007
    ..To obtain robust estimates of survival with HIV in individuals with known dates of seroconversion in Africa in the pre-antiretroviral era...
  21. ncbi request reprint Decreased fertility among HIV-1-infected women attending antenatal clinics in three African cities
    J R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 25:345-52. 2000
    ..Consistent results in different study sites help in the development of standard methods for improving ANC-based surveillance estimates of HIV prevalence. These may be easier to devise for multiparous women than for primiparous women...
  22. ncbi request reprint Why do young women have a much higher prevalence of HIV than young men? A study in Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia
    J R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 15:S51-60. 2001
    ..To examine the factors responsible for the disparity in HIV prevalence between young men and women in two urban populations in Africa with high HIV prevalence...
  23. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 and recurrence, relapse, and reinfection of tuberculosis after cure: a cohort study in South African mineworkers
    P Sonnenberg
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 358:1687-93. 2001
    ..We followed up a cohort of 326 South African mineworkers, who had successfully completed treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in 1995, to determine the rate and mechanisms of recurrence...
  24. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis: associations with HIV and socioeconomic status in rural Malawi
    J R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:500-3. 2000
    ..Increased risks of TB with age and in men are expected. Associations with measures of higher socioeconomic status were unexpected. They may reflect a greater likelihood of diagnosis in this group...
  25. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus associated tuberculosis more often due to recent infection than reactivation of latent infection
    R M G J Houben
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:24-31. 2011
    ..As HIV-positive TB cases are less likely to be source cases, equal or higher clustering in HIV-positives would suggest that HIV mainly increases the risk of TB following recent infection...
  26. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis treatment failure and drug resistance--same strain or reinfection?
    P Sonnenberg
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:603-7. 2000
    ..Despite a high risk of infection, with a moderate proportion of background drug-resistant strains (11% SDR, 6% MDR), reinfection is not a common cause of treatment failure or drug resistance at 6 months...
  27. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus increases the risk of tuberculosis due to recent re-infection in individuals with latent infection
    R M G J Houben
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:909-15. 2010
    ..tuberculosis. If contemporary TB cases share identical M. tuberculosis strains (i.e., are 'clustered'), the episode is likely to have followed recent (re-)infection, irrespective of evidence of previous latent infection...
  28. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting HIV concordancy in married couples in four African cities
    Esther E Freeman
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 18:1715-21. 2004
    ..To determine risk factors for HIV transmission within married couples in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa...
  29. doi request reprint Quantifying errors in the estimation of tuberculosis mortality in a population of South African miners
    P Sonnenberg
    Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16:1449-54. 2012
    ..All-cause mortality, based on national tuberculosis programme (NTP) register deaths, may under- or overestimate tuberculosis (TB) specific mortality in the population...
  30. pmc What has Karonga taught us? Tuberculosis studied over three decades
    A C Crampin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:153-64. 2009
    ..Current studies focus on immunological markers of infection, disease and protection, and on elucidating the impact of antiretroviral treatment on TB incidence at population level...
  31. ncbi request reprint Interpreting DNA fingerprint clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. European Concerted Action on Molecular Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis
    J R Glynn
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3:1055-60. 1999
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Understanding the differences between contrasting HIV epidemics in east and west Africa: results from a simulation model of the Four Cities Study
    Kate K Orroth
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 83:i5-16. 2007
    ....
  33. pmc Population-level effect of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa
    R G White
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 84:ii12-8. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint The social and economic impact of parental HIV on children in northern Malawi: retrospective population-based cohort study
    S Floyd
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS Care 19:781-90. 2007
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in England, 1998
    J Love
    Respiratory Diseases Department, Health Protection Agency HPA Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:201-7. 2009
    ..England...
  36. ncbi request reprint The development of the HIV epidemic in Karonga District, Malawi
    J R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    AIDS 15:2025-9. 2001
    ..To investigate the prevalence and sociodemographic risk factors for HIV infection, during the early stages of the epidemic, in a rural area of northern Malawi...
  37. pmc Determinants of cluster size in large, population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis, northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1060-6. 2008
    ..3). Large clusters were associated with factors likely to be related to social mixing, but spoligotypes of common strains in this setting were also common types elsewhere, consistent with strain differences in transmissibility...
  38. pmc Tuberculosis transmission attributable to close contacts and HIV status, Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:729-35. 2006
    ..We estimate that 9%-13% of TB cases were attributable to recent transmission from identifiable close contacts and that nearly half of the TB cases arising from recent infection had acquired the infection from HIV-positive patients...
  39. pmc Reproductive preferences and contraceptive use: a comparison of monogamous and polygamous couples in northern Malawi
    A Baschieri
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, LSHTM, UK
    J Biosoc Sci 45:145-66. 2013
    ..An analysis of the relationship between the level of agreement and disagreement between husbands' and wives' fertility preferences was then performed to gain insight into the reproductive decision-making process of polygamous couples...
  40. ncbi request reprint Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa
    A C Crampin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:481-3. 2001
    ..We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings...
  41. ncbi request reprint Factors influencing the difference in HIV prevalence between antenatal clinic and general population in sub-Saharan Africa
    J R Glynn
    Infectious Diease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 15:1717-25. 2001
    ..To compare HIV prevalence in antenatal clinics (ANC) and the general population, and to identify factors determining the differences that were found...
  42. ncbi request reprint Trends in tuberculosis and the influence of HIV infection in northern Malawi, 1988-2001
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 18:1459-63. 2004
    ..To document the changing incidence and patterns of tuberculosis (TB) in rural Africa and the extent to which they are influenced by HIV...
  43. pmc HIV epidemic trend and antiretroviral treatment need in Karonga District, Malawi
    R G White
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 135:922-32. 2007
    ..1% of adults were in need of ART in 2005. This prediction was sensitive to the assumed eligibility period, ranging from 1.6% to 2.6% if the eligibility period was instead assumed to be 1.5 or 2.5 years, respectively...
  44. ncbi request reprint Educational attainment and HIV-1 infection in developing countries: a systematic review
    James R Hargreaves
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 7:489-98. 2002
    ..To assess whether educational status is associated with HIV-1 infection in developing countries by conducting a systematic review of published literature...
  45. ncbi request reprint Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
    Esther E Freeman
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 20:73-83. 2006
    ..To estimate the sex-specific effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on the acquisition of HIV infection...
  46. ncbi request reprint HIV and pulmonary tuberculosis: the impact goes beyond those infected with HIV
    Pam Sonnenberg
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    AIDS 18:657-62. 2004
    ..This should be apparent as an increase in tuberculosis among HIV-negative individuals, but this has not previously been demonstrated directly...
  47. pmc Assessment and evaluation of contact as a risk factor for tuberculosis in rural Africa
    A C Crampin
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:612-8. 2008
    ..A rural district in Malawi...
  48. doi request reprint Male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: who, what and when?
    Richard G White
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 22:1841-50. 2008
    ..We explore how the population-level impact of circumcision varies by target age group, coverage, time-to-scale-up, level of risk compensation and circumcision of HIV infected men...
  49. pmc Molecular detection of mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in sputum samples from patients in Karonga District, Malawi
    Kim Mallard
    Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, LSHTM, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 48:4512-8. 2010
    ..Molecular methods, which avoid the selective nature of culture and target distinct strains, are well suited to detection of mixed infections...
  50. doi request reprint Individual, household and community factors associated with HIV test refusal in rural Malawi
    Katharina Kranzer
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1341-50. 2008
    ..To investigate individual, household and community factors associated with HIV test refusal in a counselling and testing programme offered at population level in rural Malawi...
  51. pmc Population-level effect of potential HSV2 prophylactic vaccines on HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa
    Esther E Freeman
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 27:940-6. 2009
    ..Over 20 years, in most scenarios fewer than 100 vaccinations were required to avert one HIV infection. HSV2 vaccines could have a substantial impact on HIV incidence. Intensified efforts are needed to develop an effective HSV2 vaccine...
  52. doi request reprint Is education the link between orphanhood and HIV/HSV-2 risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe?
    Isolde Birdthistle
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Soc Sci Med 68:1810-8. 2009
    ....
  53. pmc HIV and the risk of tuberculosis due to recent transmission over 12 years in Karonga District, Malawi
    Rein M G J Houben
    Karonga Prevention Study, Malawi
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:1187-9. 2009
    ..40 (0.9-2.3) for 25-50 years and 10.44 (2.3-47.9) for >50 years and remained stable over two periods examined. These results suggest that HIV increases the proportion of TB due to recent transmission in the elderly...
  54. pmc Recurrent TB: relapse or reinfection? The effect of HIV in a general population cohort in Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    AIDS 24:417-26. 2010
    ..To estimate rates of recurrent tuberculosis due to reinfection and relapse, by HIV status, in a general population...
  55. pmc Yield of HIV-associated tuberculosis during intensified case finding in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Katharina Kranzer
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:93-102. 2010
    ..Concerted action is needed to develop intensified case finding as an important method for control of tuberculosis...
  56. pmc Use of antenatal clinic surveillance to assess the effect of sexual behavior on HIV prevalence in young women in Karonga district, Malawi
    Amelia Catharine Crampin
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:196-202. 2008
    ..Sexual behavior monitoring to explain HIV distribution and trends is seldom attempted in ANC surveys. We explore the use of marital history in ANC surveillance as a proxy for sexual behavior...
  57. pmc Population-level effect of HIV on adult mortality and early evidence of reversal after introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi
    Andreas Jahn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 371:1603-11. 2008
    ..We aimed to investigate mortality in a population before and after the introduction of free antiretroviral therapy, and therefore to assess the effects of such programmes on survival at the population level...
  58. pmc Population-level reduction in adult mortality after extension of free anti-retroviral therapy provision into rural areas in northern Malawi
    Sian Floyd
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e13499. 2010
    ..It is important to see if the impact changes with time since the start of treatment scale-up, and as treatment moves to smaller clinics...
  59. doi request reprint Age-specific mortality patterns in HIV-infected individuals: a comparative analysis of African community study data
    Basia Zaba
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 21:S87-96. 2007
    ..Describe age-specific mortality patterns of HIV-infected adults in African communities before introduction of HAART...
  60. ncbi request reprint Estimating the need for antiretroviral treatment and an assessment of a simplified HIV/AIDS case definition in rural Malawi
    Nuala McGrath
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 21:S105-13. 2007
    ..We estimated HIV prevalence and assessed field staging of individuals to estimate the burden of HIV disease needing treatment in rural Malawi...
  61. pmc Treating curable sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV in Africa: still an effective control strategy?
    Richard G White
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:346-53. 2008
    ..We explore whether treating curable STIs remains a cost-effective HIV control strategy in Africa...
  62. doi request reprint Systematic review exploring time trends in the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa
    James R Hargreaves
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK
    AIDS 22:403-14. 2008
    ..To assess the evidence that the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection is changing over time in sub-Saharan Africa...
  63. doi request reprint The long-term social and economic impact of HIV on the spouses of infected individuals in northern Malawi
    Sian Floyd
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:520-31. 2008
    ..To assess the social and economic impact of HIV-related illness and death on the spouses of HIV-infected individuals...
  64. doi request reprint The role of context: neighbourhood characteristics strongly influence HIV risk in young women in Ndola, Zambia
    Sabine Gabrysch
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:162-70. 2008
    ..To examine the effect of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in young women (aged 15-24 years) in Zambia...
  65. doi request reprint From affected to infected? Orphanhood and HIV risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe
    Isolde J Birdthistle
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 22:759-66. 2008
    ..Despite the 15 million children orphaned by AIDS, and fears of sexual vulnerability, little is known about the link between orphanhood and HIV risk...
  66. ncbi request reprint How soon after infection with HIV does the risk of tuberculosis start to increase? A retrospective cohort study in South African gold miners
    Pam Sonnenberg
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    J Infect Dis 191:150-8. 2005
    ..Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), but no study has assessed how this risk changes with time since HIV seroconversion...
  67. doi request reprint Estimating 'net' HIV-related mortality and the importance of background mortality rates
    Milly Marston
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 21:S65-71. 2007
    ..To estimate mortality directly attributable to HIV in HIV-infected adults in low and middle income countries and discuss appropriate methodology...
  68. doi request reprint A systematic review and meta-analysis of molecular epidemiological studies of tuberculosis: development of a new tool to aid interpretation
    Rein M G J Houben
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 14:892-909. 2009
    ..We aimed to assess the relative impact of these factors and develop a tool to improve interpretation of the proportion clustered from an individual study...
  69. doi request reprint The benefits to communities and individuals of screening for active tuberculosis disease: a systematic review
    K Kranzer
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:432-46. 2013
    ..Before screening programmes are recommended, evidence is needed of individual and/or community-level benefits...
  70. ncbi request reprint Highly divergent HIV type 1 group M sequences evident in Karonga District, Malawi in early 1980s
    Grace P McCormack
    Sexually Transmitted anf Blood Borne Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:441-5. 2003
    ..Bootscanning analyses are consistent with their being mosaic viruses. These sequences highlight early HIV-1 diversity in a population otherwise dominated by subtype C...
  71. pmc Implication of new WHO growth standards on identification of risk factors and estimated prevalence of malnutrition in rural Malawian infants
    Marc André Prost
    Epidemiology and Population Health Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e2684. 2008
    ..We assessed how switching from the NCHS to the newly released WHO Growth Standards affects the estimated prevalence of wasting, underweight and stunting, and the pattern of risk factors identified...
  72. pmc Child mortality in rural Malawi: HIV closes the survival gap between the socio-economic strata
    Andreas Jahn
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e11320. 2010
    ..As HIV-related deaths increase in a population the usual association between low socioeconomic status and child mortality may change, particularly as death rates from other causes decline...
  73. ncbi request reprint The evolving epidemiology of HIV infection and tuberculosis in northern Thailand
    Potjaman Siriarayapon
    Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 31:80-9. 2002
    ..To examine the association between HIV infection and tuberculosis (TB) and the proportion of TB attributable to HIV in Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand, in response to a rapidly changing incidence of HIV infection...
  74. ncbi request reprint Long-term follow-up of HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in rural Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    Karonga Prevention Study, PO Box 46, Chilumba, Malawi
    AIDS 16:1545-50. 2002
    ..To measure the effect of HIV on survival in rural Africa...
  75. pmc Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-positive tuberculosis patients in Karonga District, Malawi
    Frank B D Mwaungulu
    Karonga Prevention Study, Karonga, Malawi
    Bull World Health Organ 82:354-63. 2004
    ..To estimate the impact of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on the survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients...
  76. ncbi request reprint Using capture-recapture methods to study recent transmission of tuberculosis
    Martien W Borgdorff
    Int J Epidemiol 33:905-6; author reply 907. 2004
  77. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype
    Troels Lillebaek
    National Institute for Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases and Congenital Disorders, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1553-7. 2003
    ..The true prevalence of Beijing strains worldwide is unknown because only a fraction of global strains have been analyzed...
  78. ncbi request reprint Trends and measurement of HIV prevalence in northern Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    AIDS 17:1817-25. 2003
    ..Most data on HIV prevalence in Malawi come from antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance and are, therefore, subject to bias...
  79. ncbi request reprint The long-term impact of HIV and orphanhood on the mortality and physical well-being of children in rural Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Karonga, Malawi
    AIDS 17:389-97. 2003
    ..To assess the influence of maternal HIV status and orphanhood on child mortality and physical well-being...
  80. doi request reprint Time from HIV seroconversion to death: a collaborative analysis of eight studies in six low and middle-income countries before highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jim Todd
    MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS 21:S55-63. 2007
    ..To estimate survival patterns after HIV infection in adults in low and middle-income countries...
  81. pmc Definition of the Beijing/W lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the basis of genetic markers
    Kristin Kremer
    Mycobacteria Reference Unit, Diagnostic Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P O Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4040-9. 2004
    ..tuberculosis strains belonging to the Beijing/W lineage, as described in this work, will facilitate further studies on the spread and characterization of this widespread genotype family of M. tuberculosis strains...
  82. pmc Timing and reconstruction of the most recent common ancestor of the subtype C clade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Simon A A Travers
    Biology Department, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Maynooth, Co Kildare, Ireland
    J Virol 78:10501-6. 2004
    ..Here we suggest that the most recent common ancestor of subtype C appeared in the mid- to late 1960s. Sensitivity analyses, by which possible biases due to oversampling from one district were explored, gave very similar estimates...
  83. doi request reprint Association of HIV infection and Mycobacterium ulcerans disease in Benin
    Roch C Johnson
    Buruli ulcer National Control Program Cotonou, Benin, Belgium
    AIDS 22:901-3. 2008
    ..The overall HIV prevalence was 2.6% (11/426) among patients and 0.3% among controls (2/613), giving an odds ratio for the association between HIV and Buruli ulcer of 8.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.8-75; P = 0.003)...
  84. doi request reprint Cause of death and presence of respiratory disease at autopsy in an HIV-1 seroconversion cohort of southern African gold miners
    Jill Murray
    National Institute for Occupational Health, PO Box 4788, Johannesburg2000, South Africa
    AIDS 21:S97-S104. 2007
    ..To describe causes of death and respiratory infections in HIV-infected miners in the pre-antiretroviral era, by duration of HIV infection...
  85. ncbi request reprint Association between haemoglobin variants S and C and Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer): a case-control study in Benin
    Fabienne Nackers
    Epidemiology Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 12:511-8. 2007
    ..8% vs. 1.0%, Fisher's exact P-value = 0.045), which may suggest that those disorders facilitate growth of Mycobacterium ulcerans in the bone matrix...
  86. ncbi request reprint Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics
    Esther E Freeman
    Harvard Medical School, Francis Weld Peabody Society, 260 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 83:i17-24. 2007
    ..To understand the changing impact of herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV incidence over time in four sub-Saharan African cities, using simulation models...
  87. ncbi request reprint Use of data from HIV counselling and testing services for HIV surveillance in Africa
    Gabriel Mwaluko
    Tanzania Netherlands Project to Support HIV AIDS Control, Mwanza, United Republic of Tanzania
    Lancet 369:612-3. 2007
  88. ncbi request reprint Effect of HIV on work-related injury rates in South African gold miners
    Jill Murray
    National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    AIDS 19:2019-24. 2005
    ..The objective was to calculate the effect of HIV on the rate and severity of work-related injuries by duration of infection...
  89. ncbi request reprint BCG vaccine effectiveness against Buruli ulcer: a case-control study in Benin
    Fabienne Nackers
    Unite d Epidemiologie, Ecole de Santé Publique, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:768-74. 2006
    ..2% in controls. There was no evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination against BU in southern Benin (vaccine effectiveness adjusted for socioeconomic status = 12%, 95% confidence interval = -24% to 37%)...
  90. pmc Vaccine effectiveness estimates, 2004-2005 mumps outbreak, England
    Cheryl Cohen
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:12-7. 2007
    ..5%) in 5- to 6-year-olds to 86% (95% CI 74%-93%) in 11- to 12-year-olds (p<0.001 for 1 or 2 doses). Waning immunity may contribute to mumps outbreaks in older vaccinated populations...
  91. ncbi request reprint Environmental and health-related risk factors for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) in Benin
    Fabienne Nackers
    Epidemiology Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:834-6. 2007
    ..Regular use of soap for washing, treating injuries with soap or antibiotic powder, and frequent contact with flowing water appeared protective against BU...
  92. pmc Early evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C epidemic in rural Malawi
    Grace P McCormack
    Sexually Transmitted and Blood Borne Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Virol 76:12890-9. 2002
    ..We conclude that there were multiple introductions of HIV-1 with limited spread, followed by explosive growth of a subtype C cluster, probably arising from a single introduction in or before 1983...
  93. pmc Performance of commercially available enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 in African populations
    Eddy van Dyck
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2961-5. 2004
    ..7%; specificity, 92.6%) tests. It cannot be assumed that enzyme immunoassays for the detection of HSV-2 infection that perform well in industrialized countries will perform equally well in other populations...