P E Fine

Summary

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity of Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine in the UK: comparison with Glaxo-Evans 1077 BCG vaccine
    Patricia Gorak-Stolinska
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, and Redbridge Primary Care Trust, Goodmayes Hospital, Essex, UK
    Vaccine 24:5726-33. 2006
  2. pmc John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders
    Paul Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 381:1302-11. 2013
  3. pmc What happens to ART-eligible patients who do not start ART? Dropout between screening and ART initiation: a cohort study in Karonga, Malawi
    Nuala McGrath
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:601. 2010
  4. pmc Risk of infection in patients with lymphoma receiving rituximab: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Simone Lanini
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases, INMI Lazzaro Spallanzani Via Portuense, 292 00149 Rome, Italy
    BMC Med 9:36. 2011
  5. pmc Persistence of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination
    Rosemary E Weir
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 8:9. 2008
  6. pmc Differences between naive and memory T cell phenotype in Malawian and UK adolescents: a role for Cytomegalovirus?
    Anne Ben-Smith
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 8:139. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Poliomyelitis: very small risks and very large risks
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 3:703. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Tuberculin sensitivity: conversions and reversions in a rural African population
    P E Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3:962-75. 1999
  9. doi request reprint Epidemiological studies of the 'non-specific effects' of vaccines: I--data collection in observational studies
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 14:969-76. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Global poliomyelitis eradication: status and implications
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Lancet 369:1321-2. 2007

Detail Information

Publications63

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity of Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine in the UK: comparison with Glaxo-Evans 1077 BCG vaccine
    Patricia Gorak-Stolinska
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, and Redbridge Primary Care Trust, Goodmayes Hospital, Essex, UK
    Vaccine 24:5726-33. 2006
    ..There was no evidence of a difference in immunogenicity (IFN-gamma and DTH conversion rates) but evidence of lower reactogenicity (scar size) with Danish-SSI 1331 compared to Glaxo-Evans 1077 vaccines...
  2. pmc John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders
    Paul Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 381:1302-11. 2013
    ..In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world...
  3. pmc What happens to ART-eligible patients who do not start ART? Dropout between screening and ART initiation: a cohort study in Karonga, Malawi
    Nuala McGrath
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:601. 2010
    ..We aimed to investigate the outcome of those who are eligible but do not start ART in the Malawi programme, factors associated with this dropout, and reasons for not starting treatment, in a prospective cohort study...
  4. pmc Risk of infection in patients with lymphoma receiving rituximab: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Simone Lanini
    National Institute for Infectious Diseases, INMI Lazzaro Spallanzani Via Portuense, 292 00149 Rome, Italy
    BMC Med 9:36. 2011
    ..A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether or not the addition of R to C may increase the risk of severe infections in adults undergoing induction therapy for CD20+ ML...
  5. pmc Persistence of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination
    Rosemary E Weir
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 8:9. 2008
    ....
  6. pmc Differences between naive and memory T cell phenotype in Malawian and UK adolescents: a role for Cytomegalovirus?
    Anne Ben-Smith
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Keppel Street, London WC1E7HT, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 8:139. 2008
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Poliomyelitis: very small risks and very large risks
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Neurol 3:703. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Tuberculin sensitivity: conversions and reversions in a rural African population
    P E Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3:962-75. 1999
    ..Karonga District, northern Malawi, 1980-1989...
  9. doi request reprint Epidemiological studies of the 'non-specific effects' of vaccines: I--data collection in observational studies
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 14:969-76. 2009
    ..We review these potential sources of bias and suggest what and how data may be collected to optimise the validity of such studies...
  10. ncbi request reprint Global poliomyelitis eradication: status and implications
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Lancet 369:1321-2. 2007
  11. pmc Polio control after certification: major issues outstanding
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England
    Bull World Health Organ 82:47-52. 2004
    ..Given these important gaps in knowledge, no country should discontinue polio vaccination until a coordinated policy for the post-certification era has been developed and the recommended measures have been put in place...
  12. ncbi request reprint The interval between successive cases of an infectious disease
    Paul E M Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 158:1039-47. 2003
    ..Finally, it discusses the implications of such measures for studies of secondary attack rates, for the persistence of infection in human communities, for outbreak response, and for elimination or eradication programs...
  13. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis: associations with HIV and socioeconomic status in rural Malawi
    J R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:500-3. 2000
    ..Increased risks of TB with age and in men are expected. Associations with measures of higher socioeconomic status were unexpected. They may reflect a greater likelihood of diagnosis in this group...
  14. ncbi request reprint Interpreting DNA fingerprint clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. European Concerted Action on Molecular Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis
    J R Glynn
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3:1055-60. 1999
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint The development of the HIV epidemic in Karonga District, Malawi
    J R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    AIDS 15:2025-9. 2001
    ..To investigate the prevalence and sociodemographic risk factors for HIV infection, during the early stages of the epidemic, in a rural area of northern Malawi...
  16. ncbi request reprint BCG scars in northern Malawi: sensitivity and repeatability of scar reading, and factors affecting scar size
    S Floyd
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 4:1133-42. 2000
    ..Karonga district, northern Malawi...
  17. pmc Determinants of cluster size in large, population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis, northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1060-6. 2008
    ..3). Large clusters were associated with factors likely to be related to social mixing, but spoligotypes of common strains in this setting were also common types elsewhere, consistent with strain differences in transmissibility...
  18. pmc Tuberculosis transmission attributable to close contacts and HIV status, Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:729-35. 2006
    ..We estimate that 9%-13% of TB cases were attributable to recent transmission from identifiable close contacts and that nearly half of the TB cases arising from recent infection had acquired the infection from HIV-positive patients...
  19. ncbi request reprint Trends in tuberculosis and the influence of HIV infection in northern Malawi, 1988-2001
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    AIDS 18:1459-63. 2004
    ..To document the changing incidence and patterns of tuberculosis (TB) in rural Africa and the extent to which they are influenced by HIV...
  20. ncbi request reprint Lifetime risks, incubation period, and serial interval of tuberculosis
    E Vynnycky
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 152:247-63. 2000
    ..The results are important for interpreting data on transmission patterns, as are now being derived from molecular epidemiologic studies...
  21. pmc The effect of age and study duration on the relationship between 'clustering' of DNA fingerprint patterns and the proportion of tuberculosis disease attributable to recent transmission
    E Vynnycky
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
    Epidemiol Infect 126:43-62. 2001
    ....
  22. pmc Changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype families over 20 years in a population-based study in Northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e12259. 2010
    ..tuberculosis, very little is known about how genotypes within a population change over decades, or about relationships to HIV infection...
  23. ncbi request reprint The importance of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an area with high HIV prevalence: a long-term molecular epidemiological study in Northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    J Infect Dis 192:480-7. 2005
    ..Here, we present what is, to our knowledge, the first such study in an area with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence...
  24. doi request reprint The long-term social and economic impact of HIV on the spouses of infected individuals in northern Malawi
    Sian Floyd
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:520-31. 2008
    ..To assess the social and economic impact of HIV-related illness and death on the spouses of HIV-infected individuals...
  25. ncbi request reprint The risk of disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) disease in HIV-infected children
    Anneke C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:14-8. 2007
    ..We estimate the risk of disseminated BCG disease in HIV-infected children in a setting highly endemic for tuberculosis and HIV...
  26. ncbi request reprint The decline of leprosy in Japan: patterns and trends 1964-2008
    Ai Koba
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Lepr Rev 80:432-40. 2009
    ..leprae transmission persists in Japan...
  27. pmc Population-level effect of HIV on adult mortality and early evidence of reversal after introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi
    Andreas Jahn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 371:1603-11. 2008
    ..We aimed to investigate mortality in a population before and after the introduction of free antiretroviral therapy, and therefore to assess the effects of such programmes on survival at the population level...
  28. pmc Estimating the extent of vaccine-derived poliovirus infection
    Alison Wringe
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England
    PLoS ONE 3:e3433. 2008
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Individual, household and community factors associated with HIV test refusal in rural Malawi
    Katharina Kranzer
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1341-50. 2008
    ..To investigate individual, household and community factors associated with HIV test refusal in a counselling and testing programme offered at population level in rural Malawi...
  30. pmc HIV and the risk of tuberculosis due to recent transmission over 12 years in Karonga District, Malawi
    Rein M G J Houben
    Karonga Prevention Study, Malawi
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:1187-9. 2009
    ..40 (0.9-2.3) for 25-50 years and 10.44 (2.3-47.9) for >50 years and remained stable over two periods examined. These results suggest that HIV increases the proportion of TB due to recent transmission in the elderly...
  31. pmc Population differences in immune responses to Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination in infancy
    Maeve K Lalor
    Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 199:795-800. 2009
    ..We conclude that population differences in immune responses after BCG vaccination are observed among infants, as well as among young adults...
  32. doi request reprint Landscape analysis of interactions between nutrition and vaccine responses in children
    Mathilde Savy
    Medical Research Council International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    J Nutr 139:2154S-218S. 2009
    ..This would also help us understand the proposed, but still unproven, negative interactions between VAS and vaccine safety, a resolution of which is urgently required...
  33. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, northern Malawi
    Judith R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:150-3. 2005
    ..All the Beijing genotype strains were fully drug sensitive. Contact histories, TB type, and case-fatality rates were similar for Beijing and non-Beijing genotype TB...
  34. pmc Mycobacterial purified protein derivatives stimulate innate immunity: Malawians show enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses compared to those of adolescents in the United Kingdom
    Rosemary E Weir
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:1807-11. 2004
    ..Priming for regulatory IL-10 may contribute to the smaller increase in gamma interferon responses in Malawians compared to United Kingdom subjects following BCG vaccination...
  35. ncbi request reprint Kinetics of delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin induced by bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination in northern Malawi
    Sian Floyd
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 186:807-14. 2002
    ..The inability of some persons to mount a persistent DTH response probably reflects genetic background and/or environmental exposure history...
  36. ncbi request reprint DNA fingerprint changes in tuberculosis: reinfection, evolution, or laboratory error?
    Judith R Glynn
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 190:1158-66. 2004
    ..We explored the importance of these factors...
  37. ncbi request reprint Annual Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection risk and interpretation of clustering statistics
    Emilia Vynnycky
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:176-83. 2003
    ..We conclude that, in some settings, clustering is an unreliable indicator of the extent of recent transmission...
  38. ncbi request reprint Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa
    A C Crampin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:481-3. 2001
    ..We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings...
  39. pmc Measurement and determinants of tuberculosis outcome in Karonga District, Malawi
    J R Glynn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England
    Bull World Health Organ 76:295-305. 1998
    ..When new interventions are assessed it cannot be assumed that factors which influence the smear conversion rate will also influence the mortality rate...
  40. ncbi request reprint The effect of heterologous immunity upon the apparent efficacy of (e.g. BCG) vaccines
    P E Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Vaccine 16:1923-8. 1998
    ..These results provide important guidance for the interpretation of BCG's utility and for the development and evaluation of new vaccines, in particular against tuberculosis...
  41. pmc Implication of new WHO growth standards on identification of risk factors and estimated prevalence of malnutrition in rural Malawian infants
    Marc André Prost
    Epidemiology and Population Health Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e2684. 2008
    ..We assessed how switching from the NCHS to the newly released WHO Growth Standards affects the estimated prevalence of wasting, underweight and stunting, and the pattern of risk factors identified...
  42. ncbi request reprint Comparison of IFN-gamma responses to mycobacterial antigens as markers of response to BCG vaccination
    Rosemary E Weir
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 88:31-8. 2008
    ..We therefore conclude that Mtb PPD is the antigen preparation of choice for assessing the immunogenicity of BCG vaccination...
  43. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus: GACPAT and GACELISA as diagnostic tests for antibodies in urine
    J A Sterne
    Communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87:181-3. 1993
    ..2% respectively. Such assays may be useful either as a primary screen in populations where urine samples are considerably easier to obtain than serum samples, or as an alternative test for individuals unwilling to provide a serum sample...
  44. pmc Gaps in our knowledge about transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses
    P E Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England
    Bull World Health Organ 78:358-9. 2000
    ..Also, cessation of vaccination should be organized in such a way to minimize the probability of continued transmission. Moreover, stringent measures should be taken up to prevent the future reintroduction of the viruses...
  45. pmc Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India
    Saroj K Young
    Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e214. 2008
    ..Genotypic tests that allow tracking of individual bacterial strains would strengthen epidemiological studies and contribute to our understanding of the disease...
  46. ncbi request reprint Highly divergent HIV type 1 group M sequences evident in Karonga District, Malawi in early 1980s
    Grace P McCormack
    Sexually Transmitted anf Blood Borne Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:441-5. 2003
    ..Bootscanning analyses are consistent with their being mosaic viruses. These sequences highlight early HIV-1 diversity in a population otherwise dominated by subtype C...
  47. ncbi request reprint BCG: the challenge continues
    P E Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Scand J Infect Dis 33:243-5. 2001
    ..If true, these findings have important implications for efforts to develop a vaccine against adult pulmonary tuberculosis...
  48. pmc Child mortality in rural Malawi: HIV closes the survival gap between the socio-economic strata
    Andreas Jahn
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e11320. 2010
    ..As HIV-related deaths increase in a population the usual association between low socioeconomic status and child mortality may change, particularly as death rates from other causes decline...
  49. ncbi request reprint Commentary: is it really M. leprae?
    Paul E M Fine
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 72:317-9. 2004
  50. ncbi request reprint Commentary: Non-specific effects of measles vaccine--more grist for the mill
    Paul E M Fine
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 32:116-7. 2003
  51. pmc Gamma interferon responses induced by a panel of recombinant and purified mycobacterial antigens in healthy, non-mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated Malawian young adults
    Gillian F Black
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:602-11. 2003
    ..tuberculosis antigens tested it provided the best indication of exposure to, or infection with, M. tuberculosis...
  52. ncbi request reprint The PPD-specific T-cell clonal response in UK and Malawian subjects following BCG vaccination: a new repertoire evolves over 12 months
    Andrea R Bennett
    Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research, Compton, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK
    Vaccine 24:2617-26. 2006
    ..The magnitude of the clonal response did not correlate well with results of the other assays. These data indicate that single assays may not be reliable and that a stable memory T-cell repertoire is slow to develop...
  53. pmc Timing and reconstruction of the most recent common ancestor of the subtype C clade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Simon A A Travers
    Biology Department, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Maynooth, Co Kildare, Ireland
    J Virol 78:10501-6. 2004
    ..Here we suggest that the most recent common ancestor of subtype C appeared in the mid- to late 1960s. Sensitivity analyses, by which possible biases due to oversampling from one district were explored, gave very similar estimates...
  54. ncbi request reprint Long-term follow-up of HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in rural Malawi
    Amelia C Crampin
    Karonga Prevention Study, PO Box 46, Chilumba, Malawi
    AIDS 16:1545-50. 2002
    ..To measure the effect of HIV on survival in rural Africa...
  55. pmc Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-positive tuberculosis patients in Karonga District, Malawi
    Frank B D Mwaungulu
    Karonga Prevention Study, Karonga, Malawi
    Bull World Health Organ 82:354-63. 2004
    ..To estimate the impact of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on the survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients...
  56. ncbi request reprint BCG-induced increase in interferon-gamma response to mycobacterial antigens and efficacy of BCG vaccination in Malawi and the UK: two randomised controlled studies
    Gillian F Black
    Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi
    Lancet 359:1393-401. 2002
    ..To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, randomised controlled studies were set up to measure vaccine-induced immune responsiveness to mycobacterial antigens in both populations...
  57. pmc Distribution of environmental mycobacteria in Karonga District, northern Malawi
    Benson Z Chilima
    Plant Pathogen Interactions Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2343-50. 2006
    ..This study revealed a complex pattern for the environmental mycobacterial flora but identified no clear differences between the northern and southern parts of Karonga District...
  58. ncbi request reprint Large-scale candidate gene study of tuberculosis susceptibility in the Karonga district of northern Malawi
    Jodene Fitness
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:341-9. 2004
    ..Genetic susceptibility to TB in Africans appears polygenic. The relevant genes and variants may vary significantly between populations, and may be affected by HIV infection status...
  59. ncbi request reprint Large-scale candidate gene study of leprosy susceptibility in the Karonga district of northern Malawi
    Jodene Fitness
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:330-40. 2004
    ..These data provide evidence of inter-population heterogeneity in leprosy susceptibility...
  60. pmc Early evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C epidemic in rural Malawi
    Grace P McCormack
    Sexually Transmitted and Blood Borne Virus Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Virol 76:12890-9. 2002
    ..We conclude that there were multiple introductions of HIV-1 with limited spread, followed by explosive growth of a subtype C cluster, probably arising from a single introduction in or before 1983...
  61. pmc Leprosy: what is being "eliminated"?
    Paul E M Fine
    Bull World Health Organ 85:2. 2007
  62. ncbi request reprint 'Non-specific effects of vaccines'--an important analytical insight, and call for a workshop
    Paul E M Fine
    Trop Med Int Health 12:1-4. 2007
  63. pmc Non-specific "non-effects" of vaccination
    Paul E M Fine
    BMJ 329:1297-8. 2004