S Cairncross

Summary

Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies
    Majid Ezzati
    Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 59:15-22. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS: a review
    Isaac Chun Hai Fung
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1749-58. 2006
  3. doi request reprint Why is dracunculiasis eradication taking so long?
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 28:225-30. 2012
  4. pmc Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Emerg Themes Epidemiol 7:5. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint What causes sustainable changes in hygiene behaviour? A cross-sectional study from Kerala, India
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Soc Sci Med 61:2212-20. 2005
  6. pmc Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 39:i193-205. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Sanitation in the developing world: current status and future solutions
    S Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Environ Health Res 13:S123-31. 2003
  8. pmc Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative
    Sandy Cairncross
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:223-46. 2002
  9. pmc Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingom
    PLoS Med 7:e1000365. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Water sources and other determinants of dracunculiasis in the northern region of Ghana
    A Tayeh
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Science, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    J Helminthol 67:213-25. 1993

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications42

  1. pmc Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies
    Majid Ezzati
    Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 59:15-22. 2005
    ..Current large scale data collection efforts are generally disconnected from micro-scale studies in health sciences, which in turn have insufficiently investigated the behavioural and socioeconomic factors that influence exposure...
  2. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS: a review
    Isaac Chun Hai Fung
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1749-58. 2006
    ..The evidence for the effectiveness of handwashing as a measure against SARS transmission in health care and community settings is suggestive, but not conclusive...
  3. doi request reprint Why is dracunculiasis eradication taking so long?
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 28:225-30. 2012
    ..The variable success of dracunculiasis eradication in different countries provides lessons for future disease eradication programmes...
  4. pmc Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Emerg Themes Epidemiol 7:5. 2010
    ..In contrast to incidence which usually requires continuous sampling, LP can be measured at intervals. This study explored how many more participants are needed for infrequent sampling to achieve the same study power as frequent sampling...
  5. ncbi request reprint What causes sustainable changes in hygiene behaviour? A cross-sectional study from Kerala, India
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Soc Sci Med 61:2212-20. 2005
    ..The finding that hygiene behaviour persisted for years implies that hygiene promotion is a more cost-effective health intervention than previously supposed...
  6. pmc Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 39:i193-205. 2010
    ..The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality...
  7. ncbi request reprint Sanitation in the developing world: current status and future solutions
    S Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Environ Health Res 13:S123-31. 2003
    ..The expertise and marketing capacity of the private sector needs to be brought into play, and public bodies must learn to assist it effectively in bringing sanitation to all...
  8. pmc Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative
    Sandy Cairncross
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:223-46. 2002
    ..Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined...
  9. pmc Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?
    Sandy Cairncross
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingom
    PLoS Med 7:e1000365. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Water sources and other determinants of dracunculiasis in the northern region of Ghana
    A Tayeh
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Science, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    J Helminthol 67:213-25. 1993
    ..Factors related to socio-economic status were not associated with the risk of infection. The paper concludes by presenting the policy implications of the study findings...
  11. ncbi request reprint Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea - pinpointing the problem
    V Curtis
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 5:22-32. 2000
    ..In the absence of local evidence to the contrary, hygiene promotion programmes should give priority to the safe disposal of faecal material and the adequate washing of hands after contact with adult and child stools...
  12. ncbi request reprint The impact of health education to promote cloth filters on dracunculiasis prevalence in the northern region, Ghana
    A Tayeh
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, UK
    Soc Sci Med 43:1205-11. 1996
    ..Ownership of at least one filter for every 10 people in the household was associated with a reduction of at least 20% in the risk of dracunculiasis...
  13. ncbi request reprint The public and domestic domains in the transmission of disease
    S Cairncross
    Environmental Health Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 1:27-34. 1996
    ..Two examples show how environmental interventions for disease control tend to address transmission in one or the other domain; interventions are needed in both domains in order to interrupt transmission...
  14. ncbi request reprint Creating demand for sanitation and hygiene through Community Health Clubs: a cost-effective intervention in two districts in Zimbabwe
    Juliet Waterkeyn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Soc Sci Med 61:1958-70. 2005
    ..This methodology could be scaled up to contribute to ambitious global targets...
  15. ncbi request reprint Household water treatment in poor populations: is there enough evidence for scaling up now?
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Environmental Health Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
    Environ Sci Technol 43:986-92. 2009
    ..Further acceptability studies and large blinded trials or trials with an objective health outcome are needed before HWT can be recommended to policy makers and implementers...
  16. pmc Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Thomas Clasen
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 334:782. 2007
    ..To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea...
  17. pmc Should data from demographic surveillance systems be made more widely available to researchers?
    Daniel Chandramohan
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e57. 2008
    ..This debate is further discussed in this month's Editorial...
  18. pmc Recent diarrhoeal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 38:766-72. 2009
    ..We explored whether this is due to common risk factors for both conditions or whether diarrhoea can increase the risk of ALRI directly...
  19. pmc Weight-for-age z-score as a proxy marker for diarrhoea in epidemiological studies
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, WC1E 7HT London, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 64:1074-9. 2010
    ..However, even a transient decrease in WAZ could indicate recent diarrhoea, and be interpreted as the effect of an intervention...
  20. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of water quality interventions for preventing diarrhoeal disease in developing countries
    Thomas Clasen
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    J Water Health 5:599-608. 2007
    ..In addition to cost-effectiveness, choices among water quality interventions must be guided by local conditions, user preferences, potential for cost recovery from beneficiaries and other factors...
  21. ncbi request reprint Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia
    Thomas F Clasen
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:651-7. 2004
    ..001). These results show that affordable ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water...
  22. ncbi request reprint Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review
    Val Curtis
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:275-81. 2003
    ..More and better-designed trials are needed to measure the impact of washing hands on diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in developing countries...
  23. ncbi request reprint Community participation in the eradication of guinea worm disease
    S Cairncross
    Dept of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Acta Trop 61:121-36. 1996
    ..It is to be hoped that the networks of village health workers established for Guinea worm eradication will find a useful role in health promotion after the worms have gone...
  24. pmc Revisiting the tsunami: health consequences of flooding
    Oliver Morgan
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 2:e184. 2005
  25. ncbi request reprint Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea
    T Clasen
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Keppel Street, London, UK WC1E 7HT
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD004794. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint The impact of dracunculiasis on the nutritional status of children in South Kordofan, Sudan
    A Tayeh
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Ann Trop Paediatr 16:221-6. 1996
    ..It was found that in 16.9% of the 136 'affected' households the children were wasted (with mean Z-scores of -2 or less), compared with only 6% of the other households...
  27. ncbi request reprint How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003
    Isaac C H Fung
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    Int J Environ Health Res 17:161-83. 2007
    ..The impact of education is uncertain. Perceived susceptibility to and severity of SARS, and perceived efficacy of hand-washing in preventing SARS, also predicted self-reported hand-washing compliance...
  28. ncbi request reprint Community-based surveillance: a pilot study from rural Cambodia
    Sophal Oum
    Ministry of Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Trop Med Int Health 10:689-97. 2005
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Water supply and sanitation: some misconceptions
    Sandy Cairncross
    Trop Med Int Health 8:193-5. 2003
  30. ncbi request reprint Household water management: refining the dominant paradigm
    Thomas F Clasen
    Trop Med Int Health 9:187-91. 2004
  31. ncbi request reprint Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries
    Peter Kjaer Jensen
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Trop Med Int Health 7:604-9. 2002
    ..e. filling and washing of the water pitchers. This finding has implications for interventions that aim at the elimination of these extreme contaminations...
  32. pmc Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies
    Mauricio L Barreto
    Instituto De Saude Coletiva, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
    Lancet 370:1622-8. 2007
    ..Our aim was to investigate the epidemiological effect of this city-wide sanitation programme on diarrhoea morbidity in children less than 3 years of age...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan
    Peter K Jensen
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Stigbøjlen 4, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    J Health Popul Nutr 21:26-31. 2003
    ..However, the study was of limited size and cannot provide conclusive evidence...
  34. ncbi request reprint Assessing water-related risk factors for Buruli ulcer: a case-control study in Ghana
    Hirotsugu Aiga
    Emergency Needs Assessment Unit, FASID, United Nations World Food Programme, Via Cesare Giulio Viola, 68 70 Parco de Medici, 00148 Rome, Italy
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:387-92. 2004
    ..Use of water from rivers and ponds for drinking, cooking, bathing, and washing purposes were not significant risk factors. Our data suggest that swimming, or activities on riverbanks associated with it, is a risk factor...
  35. pmc Water, sanitation, and hygiene at Kyoto
    Val Curtis
    BMJ 327:3-4. 2003
  36. ncbi request reprint Handwashing with soap - a new way to prevent ARIs?
    Sandy Cairncross
    Trop Med Int Health 8:677-9. 2003
  37. ncbi request reprint Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil
    L R Moraes
    Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:153-8. 2003
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of dengue virus circulation: a silent epidemic in a complex urban area
    Maria da Gloria Teixeira
    Instituto De Saude Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Padre Feijó, 29 Canela, 40 110 170 Salvador Bahia, Brazil
    Trop Med Int Health 7:757-62. 2002
    ..6%. These findings highlighted the existence of a silent epidemic during a period perceived by the Health Services as of low endemicity, indicating the strength and speed of dengue transmission in the city of Salvador...
  39. ncbi request reprint The intensity of transmission of hepatitis A and heterogeneities in socio-environmental risk factors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Liz Maria de Almeida
    Núcleo de Estudos de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av Brig Trompowski, S N, HUCFF, 5o andar Ala Sul, sala 25, Ilha do Fundao, 21941 590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:605-10. 2002
    ..This may have public health implications, since hepatitis A is more severe in adults. In this context, specific vaccination programmes may be necessary, as in developed countries...
  40. ncbi request reprint Editorial: Dracunculiasis eradication by 2009: will endemic countries meet the target?
    Ahmed Tayeh
    Trop Med Int Health 12:1403-8. 2007
  41. ncbi request reprint Childhood diarrhoea symptoms, management and duration: observations from a longitudinal community study
    Agostino Strina
    Instituto De Saude Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Padre Feijó 29, 4 andar, Canela, 40110 170 Salvador BA, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99:407-16. 2005
    ..Since most cases of diarrhoea are managed at home, it is important to understand how to encourage better management of the longer episodes, which cause an increasing proportion of mortality in some countries...
  42. ncbi request reprint Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil
    L R S Moraes
    Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:197-204. 2004
    ..The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain...