S D Lawn

Summary

Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution disease: incidence, risk factors and impact in an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 21:335-41. 2007
  2. pmc Tuberculosis incidence rates during 8 years of follow-up of an antiretroviral treatment cohort in South Africa: comparison with rates in the community
    Ankur Gupta
    Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e34156. 2012
  3. pmc Video Q&A: Rapid urine LAM test for HIV-associated TB - potential to reduce deaths? An interview with Stephen Lawn
    Stephen D Lawn
    Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    BMC Med 11:158. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Diagnostic yield of tuberculosis using sputum induction in HIV-positive patients before antiretroviral therapy
    S D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16:1354-7. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Clinical significance of lipoarabinomannan detection in urine using a low-cost point-of-care diagnostic assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 26:1635-43. 2012
  6. pmc High diagnostic yield of tuberculosis from screening urine samples from HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 60:289-94. 2012
  7. pmc Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review
    Stephen D Lawn
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 12:103. 2012
  8. pmc Lipoarabinomannan in urine during tuberculosis treatment: association with host and pathogen factors and mycobacteriuria
    Robin Wood
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 12:47. 2012
  9. pmc Treatment outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents attending a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa
    Mweete D Nglazi
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, and the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 12:21. 2012
  10. pmc Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis using the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10:631-5. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution disease: incidence, risk factors and impact in an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 21:335-41. 2007
    ..To determine the burden and impact of immune reconstitution disease (IRD) associated with tuberculosis (TB) among patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa...
  2. pmc Tuberculosis incidence rates during 8 years of follow-up of an antiretroviral treatment cohort in South Africa: comparison with rates in the community
    Ankur Gupta
    Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e34156. 2012
    ..We compared these rates with those of HIV-uninfected individuals living in the same community...
  3. pmc Video Q&A: Rapid urine LAM test for HIV-associated TB - potential to reduce deaths? An interview with Stephen Lawn
    Stephen D Lawn
    Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    BMC Med 11:158. 2013
    ..In this video Q&A, we talk to Dr Stephen Lawn about the point-of-care LAM test for HIV-associated TB, which has the potential to save lives by improving rapid diagnosis and treatment. ..
  4. doi request reprint Diagnostic yield of tuberculosis using sputum induction in HIV-positive patients before antiretroviral therapy
    S D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16:1354-7. 2012
    ..8-18.8). Spontaneously expectorated spot samples yielded 79.8% of all culture-positive TB diagnoses. The incremental yield from those needing an induced first sample was 5.3% and the yield from induced second samples was 14.9%...
  5. doi request reprint Clinical significance of lipoarabinomannan detection in urine using a low-cost point-of-care diagnostic assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 26:1635-43. 2012
    ..We determined the characteristics and outcomes of such patients...
  6. pmc High diagnostic yield of tuberculosis from screening urine samples from HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 60:289-94. 2012
    ..Urine Xpert testing provides a means of rapid TB diagnosis in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and poor prognosis. These data are indicative of high rates of TB dissemination and renal involvement in this clinical population...
  7. pmc Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review
    Stephen D Lawn
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 12:103. 2012
    ..Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed...
  8. pmc Lipoarabinomannan in urine during tuberculosis treatment: association with host and pathogen factors and mycobacteriuria
    Robin Wood
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 12:47. 2012
    ..However, the LAM-ELISA assay has demonstrated variable sensitivity in diagnosing TB in diverse clinical populations. We therefore explored pathogen and host factors potentially impacting LAM detection...
  9. pmc Treatment outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents attending a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa
    Mweete D Nglazi
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, and the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 12:21. 2012
    ..The present study therefore compared the treatment outcomes in adolescents with those of young adults at a public sector community-based ART programme in Cape Town, South Africa...
  10. pmc Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis using the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10:631-5. 2012
    ..8%; 95% CI: 99.4-100). We discuss how this paper forms an important addition to the growing body of literature demonstrating the utility of Xpert MTB/RIF for EPTB diagnosis when applied to diverse types of clinical samples..
  11. pmc Characteristics and early outcomes of patients with Xpert MTB/RIF-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed during screening before antiretroviral therapy
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Rd, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 54:1071-9. 2012
    ..We determined the characteristics and early ART program outcomes of such patients...
  12. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost, urine antigen, point-of-care screening assay for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy: a descriptive study
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:201-9. 2012
    ..We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a urine antigen test Determine TB-LAM Ag (Determine TB-LAM; Alere, Waltham, MA, USA) for screening for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  13. pmc Prevalence of HIV-associated ophthalmic disease among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in India: a cross-sectional study
    Sophia Pathai
    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 9:158. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of HIV-associated ocular conditions in patients referred for ART in India...
  14. pmc Identification of losses to follow-up in a community-based antiretroviral therapy clinic in South Africa using a computerized pharmacy tracking system
    Mweete D Nglazi
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:329. 2010
    ..We determined the duration of pharmacy delay that optimally identified true LTFU...
  15. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral therapy and the control of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Will ART do it?
    S D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:571-81. 2011
    ..Much earlier ART initiation with high coverage is required if ART is to substantially influence the incidence of TB...
  16. pmc Pathogenesis and prevention of immune reconstitution disease during antiretroviral therapy
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9:415-30. 2011
    ..In addition, use of a range of pharmacological agents with immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory activity is being explored...
  17. ncbi request reprint Potential utility of empirical tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency in high TB-HIV burden settings
    S D Lawn
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:287-95. 2011
    ..Following fruitful debate, the conclusion that this strategy should be carefully evaluated in randomised controlled trials was strongly supported. This paper provides an in-depth consideration of this proposed intervention...
  18. ncbi request reprint Burden of tuberculosis in an antiretroviral treatment programme in sub-Saharan Africa: impact on treatment outcomes and implications for tuberculosis control
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, South Africa
    AIDS 20:1605-12. 2006
    ..To determine burden and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme and its impact on ART outcomes...
  19. ncbi request reprint Determinants of mortality and nondeath losses from an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa: implications for program evaluation
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 43:770-6. 2006
    ..Understanding the determinants of key outcome measures--including death and nondeath losses--would assist in program evaluation and development...
  20. pmc Time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy among patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 57:136-40. 2011
    ..7%, and 51.1% of patients started ART within 2, 4, and 8 weeks of tuberculosis treatment, respectively. Operational barriers must be tackled to permit further acceleration of ART initiation as recommended by 2010 WHO ART guidelines...
  21. pmc Immune reconstitution disease associated with parasitic infections following antiretroviral treatment
    S D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Parasite Immunol 28:625-33. 2006
    ..Here we review the clinical spectrum and pathogenesis of IRD associated with parasitic infections...
  22. pmc Immune reconstitution and "unmasking" of tuberculosis during antiretroviral therapy
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:680-5. 2008
    ....
  23. pmc Short-term and long-term risk of tuberculosis associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 23:1717-25. 2009
    ..To determine the short-term and long-term risks of tuberculosis (TB) associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  24. ncbi request reprint Immune reconstitution disease associated with parasitic infections following initiation of antiretroviral therapy
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:482-8. 2007
    ..The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning immune reconstitution disease associated with parasitic infections during antiretroviral therapy...
  25. pmc Utility of interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay responses in highly tuberculosis-exposed patients with advanced HIV infection in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 7:99. 2007
    ..We studied determinants of ELISPOT responses among patients with advanced HIV infection (but without active TB) living in a South African community with very high TB notification rates...
  26. doi request reprint Epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:325-33. 2009
    ..We review literature concerning the epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis (HIV-TB), focusing on articles published between 2007 and 2008...
  27. ncbi request reprint When should antiretroviral treatment be started in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in South Africa?
    Stephen D Lawn
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
    S Afr Med J 97:412, 414-5. 2007
  28. pmc Plasma levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and early mortality risk among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 7:41. 2007
    ..The practical utility of plasma suPAR in assessing short-term all-cause mortality risk was evaluated in patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in South Africa...
  29. pmc Antiretroviral therapy for control of the HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic in resource-limited settings
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Chest Med 30:685-99, viii. 2009
    ..This article provides an in-depth review of these issues...
  30. pmc Strategies to reduce early morbidity and mortality in adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 5:18-26. 2010
    ..We focus on articles providing insights into this burden of disease and strategies to address it...
  31. pmc Tuberculosis during the first year of antiretroviral therapy in a South African cohort using an intensive pretreatment screening strategy
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:1323-8. 2010
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in the prevention of HIV-associated tuberculosis in settings with limited health-care resources
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:489-98. 2010
    ..Data from randomised controlled trials are needed to underpin further development of public-health policy...
  33. pmc Tuberculosis in antiretroviral treatment services in resource-limited settings: addressing the challenges of screening and diagnosis
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 204:S1159-67. 2011
    ..Further development and implementation of these tools is vital to permit rapid and effective screening for TB in ART services, which is an essential component of patient care...
  34. pmc CD4 cell count recovery among HIV-infected patients with very advanced immunodeficiency commencing antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 6:59. 2006
    ..Patients accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa frequently have very advanced immunodeficiency. Previous data suggest that such patients may have diminished capacity for CD4 cell count recovery...
  35. ncbi request reprint Impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in a peri-urban community in South Africa: the need for age-specific interventions
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1040-7. 2006
    ..Evaluation of additional control interventions requires detailed understanding of the epidemiological relationship between these diseases at the community level...
  36. ncbi request reprint Provider-initiated HIV testing increases access of patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis to antiretroviral treatment
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 101:258-62. 2011
    ..We sought to determine the impact of the introduction of provider-initiated HIV-testing in TB clinics in 2005 on subsequent referrals of patients with HIV-associated TB at a community-based ART service in Cape Town...
  37. ncbi request reprint AIDS in Africa: the impact of coinfections on the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection
    S D Lawn
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, SW17 ORE, London, UK
    J Infect 48:1-12. 2004
    ..The mechanisms underlying these effects on virus-host dynamics are reviewed and data describing the impact of tuberculosis, malaria, schistosomiasis and genital ulceration on HIV-1 infection are presented...
  38. pmc Changing mortality risk associated with CD4 cell response to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 23:335-42. 2009
    ..To determine the relationship between mortality risk and the CD4 cell response to antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  39. ncbi request reprint Dengue hemorrhagic fever with fulminant hepatic failure in an immigrant returning to Bangladesh
    Stephen D Lawn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London SW17 ORE, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 37:e1-4. 2003
    ..Serology and detection of dengue virus serotype 3 by PCR established a postmortem diagnosis of hepatic failure secondary to dengue hemorrhagic fever...
  40. ncbi request reprint A black necrotic ulcer
    Stephen D Lawn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Georges Hospital Medical School, SW17 0RE, London, UK
    Lancet 361:1518. 2003
  41. ncbi request reprint Postmalaria neurological syndrome: two cases from the Gambia
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London WC1E 6AU, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:e29-31. 2003
    ..Inflammatory changes were found in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Postmalaria neurological syndrome was diagnosed in each patient, and a therapeutic response to oral corticosteroids was seen in the second patient...
  42. ncbi request reprint Borderline tuberculoid leprosy: an immune reconstitution phenomenon in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected person
    S D Lawn
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, North Middlesex Hospital, London WC1E 6AU, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:e5-6. 2003
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis unleashed: the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the host granulomatous response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Stephen D Lawn
    Tuberculosis Mycobacteriology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Microbes Infect 4:635-46. 2002
    ..This review examines the immunological mechanisms whereby HIV-1 impairs the establishment, maintenance and function of the tuberculous granuloma...
  44. ncbi request reprint Anatomically compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus replication in HLA-DR+ cells and CD14+ macrophages at the site of pleural tuberculosis coinfection
    S D Lawn
    Tuberculosis and Mycobacteriology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 184:1127-33. 2001
    ..In summary, HIV-1 replication was increased at sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection within activated cells, including lymphocytes and CD14+ macrophages...
  45. pmc Contribution of immune activation to the pathogenesis and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    S D Lawn
    HIV and Retrovirology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:753-77, table of contents. 2001
    ..The aim of this paper is to provide a broad review of the interrelationship between immune activation and the immunopathogenesis, transmission, progression, and treatment of HIV-1 infection in vivo...
  46. ncbi request reprint Lack of induction of interleukin-2-receptor-alpha in patients with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection: implications for pathogenesis
    S D Lawn
    Tuberculosis Mycobacteriology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:449-52. 2001
    ..Impairment to IL-2-signalling might contribute to the profound impact that HIV has had on both the incidence and the clinicopathological manifestations of TB...
  47. ncbi request reprint Case report: Schistosoma mansoni infection: failure of standard treatment with praziquantel in a returned traveller
    Stephen D Lawn
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:100-1. 2003
    ..We describe a British traveller who acquired Schistosoma mansoni infection in East Africa and in whom repeated standard 40 mg/kg doses of praziquantel failed to clear the infection despite no opportunity for reinfection...
  48. ncbi request reprint Human cystic echinococcosis: evaluation of post-treatment serologic follow-up by IgG subclass antibody detection
    Stephen D Lawn
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:329-35. 2004
    ..During post-treatment follow up, the IgG2 antibody response provided the best correlate of disease activity...
  49. ncbi request reprint Case reports: acute hookworm infection: an unusual cause of profuse watery diarrhoea in returned travellers
    S D Lawn
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mortimer Market Centre, Capper Street, London WC1E 6AU, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:414-5. 2003
    ..Low activity of ivermectin against hookworm resulted in failure of empiric treatment with this agent prior to parasitological diagnosis...
  50. pmc Screening for HIV-associated tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance before antiretroviral therapy using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay: a prospective study
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS Med 8:e1001067. 2011
    ..However, its utility for routine TB screening and detection of rifampicin resistance among HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in antiretroviral therapy (ART) services is unknown...
  51. pmc Delays in starting antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis accessing non-integrated clinical services in a South African township
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:258. 2011
    ..We examined the timing of ART among patients receiving care provided by non-integrated TB and ART services in Cape Town, South Africa...
  52. ncbi request reprint Electrocardiographic and biochemical adverse effects of sodium stibogluconate during treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis among returned travellers
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mortimer Market, Capper Street, London, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:264-9. 2006
    ..Identification of factors before and during treatment that may increase the risk of QTc prolongation and arrhythmias is important...
  53. pmc Xpert® MTB/RIF assay: development, evaluation and implementation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Future Microbiol 6:1067-82. 2011
    ..Following endorsement by the WHO in 2010, we consider the next steps in the implementation of the assay and its potential impact in high burden settings...
  54. ncbi request reprint Early mortality among adults accessing a community-based antiretroviral service in South Africa: implications for programme design
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 19:2141-8. 2005
    ..To determine rates, risk factors and causes of death among patients accessing a community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme both prior to and following initiation of treatment...
  55. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients receiving HAART: long term incidence and risk factors in a South African cohort
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 19:2109-16. 2005
    ..To determine the long-term incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and associated risk factors among individuals receiving HAART in South Africa...
  56. ncbi request reprint Immune reconstitution disease associated with mycobacterial infections in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretrovirals
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:361-73. 2005
    ..We also discuss the problem of IRD associated with mycobacterial diseases in developing countries where tuberculosis prevalence is high and access to HAART is currently expanding...
  57. ncbi request reprint New world mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging health problem among British travellers
    S D Lawn
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT
    QJM 97:781-8. 2004
    ..Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is an important complication of new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by species of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. Previous reports of ML among travellers to Latin America are few...
  58. ncbi request reprint Case reports: pernicious complications of benign tertian malaria
    Stephen D Lawn
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:551-3. 2003
    ..One required mechanical ventilation because of life-threatening hypoxia due to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
  59. ncbi request reprint New World cutaneous leishmaniasis in returned travellers: treatment failures using intravenous sodium stibogluconate
    S D Lawn
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mortimer Market Centre, Capper Street, London WC1E 6AU, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:443-5. 2003
    ..Drug susceptibility testing in vitro of the clinical isolate from 1 of these patients confirmed tolerance to high concentrations of NaSb...
  60. pmc Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum C-reactive protein for screening for HIV-associated tuberculosis
    S D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:636-43. 2013
    ..Rapid means of ruling in or ruling out tuberculosis (TB) would permit more efficient management of patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART)...
  61. pmc Chest radiograph reading and recording system: evaluation for tuberculosis screening in patients with advanced HIV
    R Dawson
    University of Cape Town Lung Institute, Division of Pulmonology and E16 Respiratory Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:52-8. 2010
    ..An antiretroviral treatment (ART) service in Gugulethu township, Cape Town, South Africa...
  62. pmc Changing prevalence of tuberculosis infection with increasing age in high-burden townships in South Africa
    R Wood
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:406-12. 2010
    ..Crowded townships of Cape Town, South Africa, where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and tuberculosis (TB) notification rates are among the highest in the world...
  63. ncbi request reprint Resolution of the acute-phase response in West African patients receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis
    S D Lawn
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 4:340-4. 2000
    ..The Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa...
  64. pmc Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection are independently associated with elevated serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor receptor type 1 and beta2-microglobulin, respectively
    S D Lawn
    HIV and Retrovirology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 122:79-84. 2000
    ..Thus, serum beta2-microglobulin and sTNF-RI serve as relatively independent markers of HIV infection and TB, respectively, in studies of co-infected persons...
  65. ncbi request reprint Conservation of first-line antiretroviral treatment regimen where therapeutic options are limited
    Catherine Orrell
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 12:83-8. 2007
    ....
  66. doi request reprint Impact of human immunodeficiency virus and CD4 count on tuberculosis diagnosis: analysis of city-wide data from Cape Town, South Africa
    R K Gupta
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:1014-22. 2013
    ..The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and CD4 count on the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at population level is incompletely defined...
  67. pmc Utility of CD4 cell counts for early prediction of virological failure during antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting
    Motasim Badri
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:89. 2008
    ..However, the practical utility of CD4 cell count measurements as an alternative monitoring strategy has not been rigorously assessed...
  68. ncbi request reprint Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels in the female genital tract and immune activation associated with ulceration of the cervix
    S D Lawn
    Tuberculosis and Mycobacteriology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:1950-6. 2000
    ..We suggest that local immune activation increases HIV-1 load in genital secretions, potentially increasing the risk of HIV-1 transmission...
  69. ncbi request reprint Urine lipoarabinomannan assay for tuberculosis screening before antiretroviral therapy diagnostic yield and association with immune reconstitution disease
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, and Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 23:1875-80. 2009
    ..In one half of such patients, this assay could reduce the mean time to diagnosis by approximately 3 weeks. Furthermore, detectable urinary LAM may predict the development of TB immune reconstitution disease...
  70. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis control in South Africa--will HAART help?
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 96:502-4. 2006
  71. pmc Screening for cryptococcal antigenemia in patients accessing an antiretroviral treatment program in South Africa
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:856-62. 2009
    ..Screening for cryptococcal antigen in patients who enroll in ART programs may identify those at risk of cryptococcal meningitis and permit targeted use of preemptive therapy...
  72. pmc Elevated serum concentrations of soluble CD14 in HIV- and HIV+ patients with tuberculosis in Africa: prolonged elevation during anti-tuberculosis treatment
    S D Lawn
    Division of Communicable Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 120:483-7. 2000
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Short-term risk of AIDS or death in people infected with HIV-1 before antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a longitudinal study
    Motasim Badri
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 368:1254-9. 2006
    ..Our aim was to investigate these risks in patients who had no access to ART or who were given zidovudine alone...
  74. pmc Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: case definitions for use in resource-limited settings
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:516-23. 2008
    ..It is envisaged that these definitions could be used by clinicians and researchers in a variety of settings to promote standardisation and comparability of data...
  75. doi request reprint Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities
    Mickey Chopra
    Health Systems Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 374:1023-31. 2009
    ..The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?..
  76. doi request reprint Tuberculosis research update
    W A Hanekom
    South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Trop Med Int Health 15:981-9. 2010
    ..In this brief review, we provide a focused update on these four key areas of TB research...
  77. ncbi request reprint Immune activation and induction of HIV-1 replication within CD14 macrophages during acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria coinfection
    Tracy L Pisell
    HIV and Retrovirology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    AIDS 16:1503-9. 2002
    ..To determine the impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria coinfection and its treatment on cellular reservoirs of viral replication in HIV-1-infected persons and to relate this to changes in systemic immune activation...
  78. pmc Treatment interruption in a primary care antiretroviral therapy program in South Africa: cohort analysis of trends and risk factors
    Katharina Kranzer
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:e17-23. 2010
    ..To investigate antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption in a long-term treatment cohort in South Africa...
  79. pmc Undiagnosed tuberculosis in a community with high HIV prevalence: implications for tuberculosis control
    Robin Wood
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Health Science Faculty, UCT Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:87-93. 2007
    ..We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pulmonary TB (PTB) and HIV infection in a community of 13,000 with high HIV prevalence and high TB notification rate and a well-functioning DOTS TB control program...
  80. pmc Yield of HIV-associated tuberculosis during intensified case finding in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Katharina Kranzer
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:93-102. 2010
    ..Concerted action is needed to develop intensified case finding as an important method for control of tuberculosis...
  81. pmc Tuberculosis transmission to young children in a South African community: modeling household and community infection risks
    Robin Wood
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 51:401-8. 2010
    ..A model was used to explore the interactions between prevalence of adult tuberculosis infection, adult-to-child contacts, and household ventilation, which could result in such a high annual risk of tuberculosis infection...
  82. pmc Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-1-infected individuals: proposed clinical case definitions
    Lewis J Haddow
    Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammatory Disease, King s College London, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:791-802. 2010
    ..As for definitions of tuberculosis-associated IRIS, definitions for cryptococcal IRIS should be regarded as preliminary until further insights into the immunopathology of IRIS permit their refinement...
  83. ncbi request reprint Interactions between HIV infection and leprosy: a paradox
    Andrew P Ustianowski
    The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:350-60. 2006
    ..The interactions between leprosy and HIV have been little studied and further research on the clinical, pathological, and management aspects of this coinfection is warranted...
  84. ncbi request reprint Impact of antituberculosis treatment on virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy: implications for resource-limited settings?
    Stephen D Lawn
    J Infect Dis 194:1467-8; author reply 1468. 2006
  85. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings: are outcomes comparable to those in the developed world?
    Stephen D Lawn
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1683-4; author reply 1684. 2005
  86. ncbi request reprint Hepatic involvement with tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution disease
    Stephen D Lawn
    AIDS 21:2362-3. 2007
  87. ncbi request reprint How effectively does HAART restore immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis? Implications for tuberculosis control
    Stephen D Lawn
    AIDS 19:1113-24. 2005
    ....
  88. pmc Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: an imported infection among travellers to central and South America
    Sukhbir Ahluwalia
    Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London
    BMJ 329:842-4. 2004
  89. ncbi request reprint Pyomyositis and cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium avium: an immune reconstitution manifestation in a patient with AIDS
    Stephen D Lawn
    Clin Infect Dis 38:461-3. 2004
  90. ncbi request reprint Hypercalcemia: a manifestation of immune reconstitution complicating tuberculosis in an HIV-infected person
    Stephen D Lawn
    Clin Infect Dis 38:154-5. 2004
  91. ncbi request reprint Cryptococcocal immune reconstitution disease: a major cause of early mortality in a South African antiretroviral programme
    Stephen D Lawn
    AIDS 19:2050-2. 2005
  92. ncbi request reprint Promoting retention in care: an effective model in an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    Clin Infect Dis 45:803. 2007
  93. ncbi request reprint Optimum time to initiate antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis: there may be more than one right answer
    Stephen D Lawn
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:121-3; author reply 123. 2007
  94. doi request reprint Monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings
    Stephen D Lawn
    Lancet 372:287-8; author reply 289. 2008
  95. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment
    Stephen D Lawn
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1348; author reply 1348-9. 2005
  96. ncbi request reprint CD4 cell count distributions and HIV-associated mortality in Africa
    Stephen D Lawn
    J Infect Dis 195:1078-9; author reply 1079. 2007
  97. ncbi request reprint Incidence of tuberculosis during highly active antiretroviral therapy in high-income and low-income countries
    Stephen D Lawn
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1783-6. 2005
  98. ncbi request reprint Acute respiratory failure due to Mycobacterium kansasii infection: immune reconstitution disease in a patient with AIDS
    Stephen D Lawn
    J Infect 51:339-40. 2005
  99. ncbi request reprint How can earlier entry of patients into antiretroviral programs in low-income countries be promoted?
    Stephen D Lawn
    Clin Infect Dis 42:431-2; author reply 432-3. 2006