D M Clark

Summary

Affiliation: King's College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Why social anxiety persists: an experimental investigation of the role of safety behaviours as a maintaining factor
    Freda McManus
    Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 39:147-61. 2008
  2. pmc Rescripting early memories linked to negative images in social phobia: a pilot study
    Jennifer Wild
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry at King s College London, London, England
    Behav Ther 39:47-56. 2008
  3. pmc Psychological treatment outcomes in routine NHS services: a commentary on Stiles et al. (2007)
    D M Clark
    Institute of Psychiatry at Kings College London, London, UK
    Psychol Med 38:629-34. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Developing new treatments: on the interplay between theories, experimental science and clinical innovation
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Box 77, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 42:1089-104. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Cognitive therapy versus fluoxetine in generalized social phobia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom
    J Consult Clin Psychol 71:1058-67. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: A randomized controlled trial
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Consult Clin Psychol 74:568-78. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Cognitive factors involved in the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after physical or sexual assault
    E Dunmore
    Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 37:809-29. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint A prospective investigation of the role of cognitive factors in persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after physical or sexual assault
    E Dunmore
    Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 39:1063-84. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Unwanted memories of assault: what intrusion characteristics are associated with PTSD?
    T Michael
    Department of Psychology PO77, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 43:613-28. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Patients with generalized social phobia direct their attention away from faces
    Y P Chen
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Behav Res Ther 40:677-87. 2002

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. ncbi request reprint Why social anxiety persists: an experimental investigation of the role of safety behaviours as a maintaining factor
    Freda McManus
    Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 39:147-61. 2008
    ..Results support the role of safety behaviours and self-focused attention in the cognitive model of social phobia, and the value of dropping safety behaviours and reducing self-focus as therapeutic strategies in social phobia...
  2. pmc Rescripting early memories linked to negative images in social phobia: a pilot study
    Jennifer Wild
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry at King s College London, London, England
    Behav Ther 39:47-56. 2008
    ..The results suggest that rescripting unpleasant memories linked to negative self-images may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of social phobia...
  3. pmc Psychological treatment outcomes in routine NHS services: a commentary on Stiles et al. (2007)
    D M Clark
    Institute of Psychiatry at Kings College London, London, UK
    Psychol Med 38:629-34. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Developing new treatments: on the interplay between theories, experimental science and clinical innovation
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Box 77, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 42:1089-104. 2004
    ..For this reason, the way in which one group has used a mixture of phenomenological, experimental and treatment development studies to create effective cognitive therapy programmes for anxiety disorders is described...
  5. ncbi request reprint Cognitive therapy versus fluoxetine in generalized social phobia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom
    J Consult Clin Psychol 71:1058-67. 2003
    ..FLU + SE and PLA + SE did not differ. CT remained superior to FLU + SE at the end of the booster period and at 12-month follow-up. On general mood measures, there were few differences between the treatments..
  6. ncbi request reprint Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: A randomized controlled trial
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Consult Clin Psychol 74:568-78. 2006
    ..In addition, patients in EXP = AR were more likely to have sought additional treatment. Therapist effects were small and nonsignificant. CT appears to be superior to EXP = AR in the treatment of social phobia...
  7. ncbi request reprint Cognitive factors involved in the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after physical or sexual assault
    E Dunmore
    Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 37:809-29. 1999
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint A prospective investigation of the role of cognitive factors in persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after physical or sexual assault
    E Dunmore
    Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
    Behav Res Ther 39:1063-84. 2001
    ..These findings support the cognitive model of PTSD proposed by Ehlers and Clark and suggest that effective treatment will need to address these cognitive factors...
  9. ncbi request reprint Unwanted memories of assault: what intrusion characteristics are associated with PTSD?
    T Michael
    Department of Psychology PO77, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 43:613-28. 2005
    ..The results have implications for the early identification of trauma survivors at risk of chronic PTSD...
  10. ncbi request reprint Patients with generalized social phobia direct their attention away from faces
    Y P Chen
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Behav Res Ther 40:677-87. 2002
    ..In contrast, controls did not exhibit an attentional preference. The results are in line with recent theories of social phobia that emphasize the role of reduced processing of external social cues in maintaining social anxiety...
  11. ncbi request reprint Negative self-imagery blocks inferences
    C R Hirsch
    Department of Psychology, P O Box 77, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 41:1383-96. 2003
    ..In contrast, and as predicted, non-anxious volunteers who were trained to hold a negative image in mind lacked any non-threatening inferential bias, and also experienced higher levels of state anxiety...
  12. ncbi request reprint Belief disconfirmation versus habituation approaches to situational exposure in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a pilot study
    Paul M Salkovskis
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, PO Box 077, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 45:877-85. 2007
    ..7-2.7), which suggests it may be a particularly efficient way of managing therapeutic exposure to feared situations in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of change involved...
  13. ncbi request reprint Intrusive memories and rumination in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a phenomenological comparison
    Anne E M Speckens
    Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Memory 15:249-57. 2007
    ....
  14. pmc Perception of arousal in social anxiety: effects of false feedback during a social interaction
    Jennifer Wild
    Department of Psychology PO77, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 39:102-16. 2008
    ..Observers rated the behaviour of participants who believed that their arousal had decreased most favourably. The results have implications for the treatment of social phobia...
  15. ncbi request reprint Intrusive memories and ruminations related to violent crime among young offenders: phenomenological characteristics
    Ceri Evans
    Department of Psychological Medicine, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    J Trauma Stress 20:183-96. 2007
    ..The intrusive memories tended to concern the moment when the event turned for the worse for the perpetrator. The findings have implications for risk assessment and therapeutic interventions for violent offenders...
  16. ncbi request reprint Intrusive memories in perpetrators of violent crime: emotions and cognitions
    Ceri Evans
    Department of Psychological Medicine, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, England
    J Consult Clin Psychol 75:134-44. 2007
    ..The results suggest that cognitive factors that predict reexperiencing symptoms in victims of crime generalize to perpetrators...
  17. ncbi request reprint Facilitating a benign interpretation bias in a high socially anxious population
    Rebecca Murphy
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Behav Res Ther 45:1517-29. 2007
    ..Possible implications of the findings for therapeutic interventions in social phobia are discussed...
  18. pmc Post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of terrorism and other civil conflict in Northern Ireland: randomised controlled trial
    Michael Duffy
    University of Ulster at Magee, Londonderry, Northern Ireland BT48 7JL
    BMJ 334:1147. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder related to terrorism and other civil conflict in Northern Ireland...
  19. ncbi request reprint An open trial of cognitive therapy for chronic insomnia
    Allison G Harvey
    Department of Psychology, Sleep and Psychological Disorders Lab, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 1650, USA
    Behav Res Ther 45:2491-501. 2007
    ..The significant improvement in both nighttime and daytime impairment evident at the posttreatment assessment was retained up to the 12 month followup...
  20. pmc Promoting mental health following the London bombings: a screen and treat approach
    Chris R Brewin
    Traumatic Stress Clinic, London, UK
    J Trauma Stress 21:3-8. 2008
    ..The program succeeded in its aim of generating many more referrals of affected individuals than came through normal referral channels...
  21. ncbi request reprint Feeling anxious: a twin study of panic/somatic ratings, anxiety sensitivity and heartbeat perception in children
    Thalia C Eley
    Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:1184-91. 2007
    ..We examined genetic and environmental influences on childhood AS, HBP, panic/somatic ratings, and their associations...
  22. ncbi request reprint Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder: what combination of symptoms predicts best?
    Thomas Ehring
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Nerv Ment Dis 195:1004-12. 2007
    ..The results underscore the need to cross-validate findings before using screening instruments for clinical applications...
  23. ncbi request reprint Residential cognitive therapy versus residential interpersonal therapy for social phobia: a randomized clinical trial
    Finn Magnus Borge
    Research Institute, Modum Bad, Norway
    J Anxiety Disord 22:991-1010. 2008
    ..RCT in the present trial was associated with less improvement compared to individual CT in other recent trials...
  24. ncbi request reprint Imagery special issue: underestimation of auditory performance in social phobia and the use of audio feedback
    Colette R Hirsch
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:447-58. 2007
    ..Auditory feedback partially corrected this underestimation of auditory performance...
  25. pmc When the present visits the past: updating traumatic memories in social phobia
    Jennifer Wild
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 38:386-401. 2007
    ..This paper presents our exploratory investigation of how to work with the memories and encourages more rigorous investigation in this area...
  26. ncbi request reprint In the face of uncertainty: a twin study of ambiguous information, anxiety and depression in children
    Thalia C Eley
    Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, De Crespigny Park, P O Box P080, London, SE5 8AF, UK
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:55-65. 2008
    ..The data also support a role for genetic influence on threat interpretations, which may mediate responses to stress...
  27. ncbi request reprint Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: a preliminary randomized controlled trial
    Patrick Smith
    Kings College London, Institute of Psychiatry, UK
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:1051-61. 2007
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people...
  28. ncbi request reprint Inducing an interpretation bias changes self-imagery: a preliminary investigation
    Colette R Hirsch
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 45:2173-81. 2007
    ..We suggest that this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that inferential biases and content of self-images can interact with each other and may together serve to maintain social anxiety...
  29. ncbi request reprint Reduced heart rate responding to trauma reliving in trauma survivors with PTSD: correlates and consequences
    Sarah L Halligan
    School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
    J Trauma Stress 19:721-34. 2006
    ..B. Foa and M. J. Kozak's (1986) hypothesis that full activation of trauma memories facilitates emotional processing...
  30. ncbi request reprint Rumination in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Tanja Michael
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Depress Anxiety 24:307-17. 2007
    ..These characteristics explained significantly more variance in PTSD severity than the mere presence of rumination, thereby indicating that not all ways of ruminative thinking are equally maladaptive...
  31. ncbi request reprint Cognitive processing, memory, and the development of PTSD symptoms: two experimental analogue studies
    Sarah L Halligan
    Department of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AL, UK S L
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 33:73-89. 2002
    ..The results indicated that data-driven processing is associated with the development of PTSD-like memories and analogue symptoms...
  32. ncbi request reprint Internal versus external attention in social anxiety: an investigation using a novel paradigm
    Warren Mansell
    Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, University of London, SE5 8AF, London, UK
    Behav Res Ther 41:555-72. 2003
    ..Compared to low speech anxious individuals, high speech anxious individuals showed an internal attentional bias, that was specific to conditions of social-evaluative threat...
  33. ncbi request reprint Posttraumatic stress disorder following assault: the role of cognitive processing, trauma memory, and appraisals
    Sarah L Halligan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, England
    J Consult Clin Psychol 71:419-31. 2003
    ..Assault severity measures explained 22% of symptom variance; measures of cognitive processing, memory disorganization, and appraisals increased prediction accuracy to 71%...
  34. ncbi request reprint Self-images play a causal role in social phobia
    Colette R Hirsch
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 41:909-21. 2003
    ..Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that negative self-imagery has a causal role in maintaining social phobia...
  35. ncbi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy, a self-help booklet, and repeated assessments as early interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Anke Ehlers
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:1024-32. 2003
    ..Similarly, there is a lack of clarity about the best way of identifying people who are unlikely to recover from early posttraumatic symptoms without intervention...
  36. ncbi request reprint Anticipatory processing in social anxiety: two pilot studies
    Hendrik Hinrichsen
    Department of Psychiatry, St George s Hospital Medical School, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 34:205-18. 2003
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Heart-beat perception, panic/somatic symptoms and anxiety sensitivity in children
    Thalia C Eley
    Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Box P080, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 42:439-48. 2004
    ..These results extend the literature on HBP and panic and suggest that in children, as in adults, increased panic/somatic symptoms are associated with enhanced ability to perceive internal physiological cues, and fear of such sensations...
  38. ncbi request reprint Characteristics and content of intrusive memories in PTSD and their changes with treatment
    Ann Hackmann
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Trauma Stress 17:231-40. 2004
    ..Ehlers et al.'s (2002) hypothesis that intrusive memories are usually of warning stimuli that signalled the moments with the greatest emotional impact. The results were consistent with this hypothesis...
  39. ncbi request reprint Negative self-imagery in social anxiety contaminates social interactions
    Colette R Hirsch
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Memory 12:496-506. 2004
    ..Furthermore, the conversation was contaminated since both groups of participants rated its quality as poorer in the negative image condition...
  40. ncbi request reprint Information-processing bias in social phobia
    Colette R Hirsch
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Clin Psychol Rev 24:799-825. 2004
    ..The clinical implications of social-phobia-related information-processing biases are discussed and possible avenues for future research are outlined...
  41. ncbi request reprint An experimental study on fear of public speaking using a virtual environment
    Mel Slater
    Department of Computer Science, University College London, United Kingdom
    Cyberpsychol Behav 9:627-33. 2006
    ..The result was strong in spite of the relatively low representational and behavioral fidelity of the virtual characters...
  42. ncbi request reprint Imagery and interpretations in social phobia: support for the combined cognitive biases hypothesis
    Colette R Hirsch
    Institute of Psychiatry, King s College, University of London, De Crespigny Park, UK
    Behav Ther 37:223-36. 2006
    ..Clinical implications and the potential utility of examining the combined influence of other cognitive biases are highlighted...
  43. ncbi request reprint Preliminary evidence for an association between social anxiety symptoms and avoidance of negative faces in school-age children
    Lucy J Stirling
    Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Camberwell, London, England
    J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 35:431-9. 2006
    ..This association was largely due to avoidance of angry and fearful expressions. These results provide preliminary evidence that anxiety is associated with attentional biases in children as in adults...
  44. ncbi request reprint Changes in intrusive memories associated with imaginal reliving in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Anne E M Speckens
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Centre for Anxiety Disorders and Trauma, 99 Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK
    J Anxiety Disord 20:328-41. 2006
    ..The patient's anxiety, depression, self-blame, and dissociation were not predictive of response to reliving...
  45. ncbi request reprint The causal role of negative imagery in social anxiety: a test in confident public speakers
    Colette R Hirsch
    Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8NX, UK
    J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 37:159-70. 2006
    ..Given that participants do not currently have anxiety problems, the findings are consistent with the idea that negative self-imagery has a causal role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety...
  46. ncbi request reprint Cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: development and evaluation
    Anke Ehlers
    Department of Psychology PO77, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Res Ther 43:413-31. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Information processing in social phobia
    David M Clark
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Biol Psychiatry 51:92-100. 2002
    ..Methodological limitations of existing information processing studies are highlighted. Finally, possible neurobiological correlates are discussed and suggestions are made for future attempts to link neurobiology and cognitive psychology...
  48. ncbi request reprint Exposure therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy
    David M Clark
    Psychol Med 35:149-50; author reply 150-1. 2005
  49. ncbi request reprint Community based cognitive therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb
    Kate Gillespie
    Community Trauma and Recovery Team, The Bridge Centre, Omagh, Northern Ireland, UK
    Behav Res Ther 40:345-57. 2002
    ..Patients who were physically injured improved less than those who were not physically injured. Overall, the results indicate that the positive findings obtained in research settings generalize well to a frontline, non-selective service...