Len Bowers

Summary

Affiliation: King's College London
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Identification of the "minimal triangle" and other common event-to-event transitions in conflict and containment incidents
    Len Bowers
    Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 34:514-23. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Correlation between levels of conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards: the city-128 study
    Len Bowers
    Department of Health Service and Population Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Psychiatr Serv 64:423-30. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Managing distressed and disturbed patients: the thoughts and feelings experienced by Italian nurses
    C A Camuccio
    University of Padova, Venice Mestre, Italy
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 19:807-15. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Event sequencing of forced intramuscular medication in England
    L Bowers
    East London Foundation NHS Trust, Queen Mary University, London, UK
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 19:799-806. 2012
  5. doi request reprint The scope for replacing seclusion with time out in acute inpatient psychiatry in England
    Len Bowers
    Nursing Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 68:826-35. 2012
  6. doi request reprint Learning from prevented suicide in psychiatric inpatient care: an analysis of data from the National Patient Safety Agency
    Len Bowers
    Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom
    Int J Nurs Stud 48:1459-65. 2011
  7. doi request reprint Nursing staff numbers and their relationship to conflict and containment rates on psychiatric wards-a cross sectional time series poisson regression study
    Len Bowers
    Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, United Kingdom
    Int J Nurs Stud 49:15-20. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Manual restraint and shows of force: the City-128 study
    Len Bowers
    Section of Mental Health Nursing, Institute of Psychiatry Department of Mental Health Nursing, City University, London, UK
    Int J Ment Health Nurs 21:30-40. 2012
  9. ncbi request reprint Student psychiatric nurses' approval of containment measures: relationship to perception of aggression and attitudes to personality disorder
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, London, UK
    Int J Nurs Stud 44:349-56. 2007
  10. doi request reprint Identifying key factors associated with aggression on acute inpatient psychiatric wards
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, England
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 30:260-71. 2009

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. doi request reprint Identification of the "minimal triangle" and other common event-to-event transitions in conflict and containment incidents
    Len Bowers
    Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 34:514-23. 2013
    ..Verbal aggression is a critical initiator of conflict events, and requires more detailed and sustained research on optimal management and prevention strategies. Similar research is required into medication refusal by inpatients. ..
  2. doi request reprint Correlation between levels of conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards: the city-128 study
    Len Bowers
    Department of Health Service and Population Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
    Psychiatr Serv 64:423-30. 2013
    ..No overall differences were associated with low-conflict, low-containment wards. CONCLUSIONS Wards can make positive changes to achieve a low-containment, nonpunitive culture, even when rates of patient conflict are high...
  3. doi request reprint Managing distressed and disturbed patients: the thoughts and feelings experienced by Italian nurses
    C A Camuccio
    University of Padova, Venice Mestre, Italy
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 19:807-15. 2012
    ..The paper concludes by emphasizing the need to increase availability of education related to patient management, in particular team working and its internal relationships...
  4. doi request reprint Event sequencing of forced intramuscular medication in England
    L Bowers
    East London Foundation NHS Trust, Queen Mary University, London, UK
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 19:799-806. 2012
    ..Where only verbal violence has occurred staff should try to resolve the crisis without enforcing medication. More research on the best way to respond to inpatients' medication refusal is required...
  5. doi request reprint The scope for replacing seclusion with time out in acute inpatient psychiatry in England
    Len Bowers
    Nursing Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 68:826-35. 2012
    ..Time out is rated by nurses and patients as more acceptable. Several countries have initiated exercises to reduce the use of seclusion, but England has not...
  6. doi request reprint Learning from prevented suicide in psychiatric inpatient care: an analysis of data from the National Patient Safety Agency
    Len Bowers
    Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom
    Int J Nurs Stud 48:1459-65. 2011
    ..Inpatient suicide is a tragedy, and removal of the means is only a partially effective strategy...
  7. doi request reprint Nursing staff numbers and their relationship to conflict and containment rates on psychiatric wards-a cross sectional time series poisson regression study
    Len Bowers
    Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, United Kingdom
    Int J Nurs Stud 49:15-20. 2012
    ..Evidence on staffing levels and outcomes for mental health nursing is more sparse, contradictory and complicated by the day to day allocation of staff resources to wards with more seriously ill patients...
  8. doi request reprint Manual restraint and shows of force: the City-128 study
    Len Bowers
    Section of Mental Health Nursing, Institute of Psychiatry Department of Mental Health Nursing, City University, London, UK
    Int J Ment Health Nurs 21:30-40. 2012
    ..Attempts to lessen usage of these interventions could usefully focus on increasing the availability of medical staff to patients, reducing reliance on security guards and establishing a good ward structure...
  9. ncbi request reprint Student psychiatric nurses' approval of containment measures: relationship to perception of aggression and attitudes to personality disorder
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, London, UK
    Int J Nurs Stud 44:349-56. 2007
    ..The results highlighted the importance of (and linkage between) staffs' feelings of anger and fear towards patients, and their preparedness to use containment measures...
  10. doi request reprint Identifying key factors associated with aggression on acute inpatient psychiatric wards
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, England
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 30:260-71. 2009
    ..Insufficient evidence is available to draw conclusions about the nature of the link between staffing numbers and violence...
  11. ncbi request reprint Adverse incidents, patient flow and nursing workforce variables on acute psychiatric wards: the Tompkins Acute Ward Study
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    Int J Soc Psychiatry 53:75-84. 2007
    ..Adverse incidents (violence, self-harm and absconding) can cause significant harm to patients and staff, are difficult to predict, and are driving an increase in security measures and defensive practice...
  12. ncbi request reprint Serious untoward incidents and their aftermath in acute inpatient psychiatry: the Tompkins Acute Ward study
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    Int J Ment Health Nurs 15:226-34. 2006
    ..Substantial planning, organization, and investment are required to properly prepare for such events and manage their outcome. Without this planning and action, acute inpatient work has the capacity to be damaging to staff...
  13. doi request reprint Constant special observation and self-harm on acute psychiatric wards: a longitudinal analysis
    Duncan Stewart
    School of Community and Health Sciences, City University, E1 2EA London, UK
    Gen Hosp Psychiatry 31:523-30. 2009
    ..This study assessed the relationship between constant special observation (keeping a patient within eyesight or reach) and rates of self-harm on acute psychiatric wards...
  14. ncbi request reprint On conflict, containment and the relationship between them
    Len Bowers
    Psychiatric Nursing, St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    Nurs Inq 13:172-80. 2006
    ..This exercise challenges our perception of the severity of some containment measures that are becoming more commonly used in acute psychiatry...
  15. ncbi request reprint Aggressive behaviour on acute psychiatric wards: prevalence, severity and management
    Chloe Foster
    Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 58:140-9. 2007
    ..This paper reports a study to investigate the nature and prevalence of inpatient aggressive behaviour directed at staff and other patients and, in the case of patient self-harm, the methods used by nursing staff to manage this...
  16. doi request reprint Relationship between service ecology, special observation and self-harm during acute in-patient care: City-128 study
    Len Bowers
    Psychiatric Nursing, City University, Philpot Street, London E1 2EA, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 193:395-401. 2008
    ..Special observation (the allocation of nurses to watch over nominated patients) is one means by which psychiatric services endeavour to keep in-patients safe from harm. The practice is both contentious and of unknown efficacy...
  17. doi request reprint Morale is high in acute inpatient psychiatry
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, E1 2EA, UK
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 44:39-46. 2009
    ..Morale on acute psychiatric wards has been considered to be problematic, and is reported to contribute to low quality patient care...
  18. ncbi request reprint International variation in containment measures for disturbed psychiatric inpatients: a comparative questionnaire survey
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    Int J Nurs Stud 44:357-64. 2007
    ..g. seclusion, mechanical restraint) whose use differs by country. Little is known about why these differences exist, or about how staff choose between the different methods available to them...
  19. doi request reprint Managing risk and conflict behaviours in acute psychiatry: the dual role of constant special observation
    Duncan Stewart
    Health Service and Population Research, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 68:1340-8. 2012
    ..This is a report of a study of events before and after the use of constant special observation on acute psychiatric wards, and the characteristics of patients who received it...
  20. ncbi request reprint Attitude to personality disorder among prison officers working in a dangerous and severe personality disorder unit
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot St, London E1 2EA, UK
    Int J Law Psychiatry 29:333-42. 2006
    ..A recent study in forensic psychiatric hospitals has described the psychological and social factors underlying positive attitudes, and suggested that staff with more positive attitudes perform better and are less stressed...
  21. ncbi request reprint Junior staffing changes and the temporal ecology of adverse incidents in acute psychiatric wards
    Len Bowers
    Psychiatric Nursing, St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 57:153-60. 2007
    ..This paper reports an examination of the relationship between adverse incident rates, the arrival of new junior staff on wards, and days of the week on acute psychiatric wards...
  22. doi request reprint A review of interventions to reduce mechanical restraint and seclusion among adult psychiatric inpatients
    Duncan Stewart
    City University, London, United Kingdom
    Issues Ment Health Nurs 31:413-24. 2010
    ..The research did not address which programme components were most successful. More attention should be paid to understanding how interventions work, particularly from the perspective of nursing staff, an issue that is largely overlooked...
  23. ncbi request reprint Prevention and management of aggression training and violent incidents on U.K. Acute psychiatric wards
    Len Bowers
    Department of Mental Health and Learning Disability, City University, Philpot Street, Whitechapel, London, E1 2EA, United Kingdom
    Psychiatr Serv 57:1022-6. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between PMVA training of acute psychiatric ward nursing staff and officially reported violent incident rates...
  24. doi request reprint The practice of seclusion and time-out on English acute psychiatric wards: the City-128 Study
    Len Bowers
    City University, London, United Kingdom
    Arch Psychiatr Nurs 24:275-86. 2010
    ..Seclusion is widely used internationally to manage disturbed behavior by psychiatric patients, although many countries are seeking to reduce or eliminate this practice. Time-out has been little described and almost completely unstudied...
  25. ncbi request reprint Patient characteristics and behaviours associated with self-harm and attempted suicide in acute psychiatric wards
    Duncan Stewart
    Health Service and Population Research, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London, UK
    J Clin Nurs 21:1004-13. 2012
    ..The study examined events before and after incidents of self-harm and attempted suicide and the characteristics of patients who engage in these behaviours...
  26. ncbi request reprint Patient homicide causes nursing staff to leave
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 13:778-9. 2006
  27. ncbi request reprint Runaway success
    Alan Simpson
    Department of Mental Health and Learning Disability, City University, London
    Nurs Stand 18:18-9. 2004
  28. ncbi request reprint Estimating the costs of conflict and containment on adult acute inpatient psychiatric wards
    Chris Flood
    City University, London, England
    Nurs Econ 26:325-330, 324. 2008
    ..This study also suggests that approximately half of all nursing resources are expended in managing conflict and deploying containment...
  29. doi request reprint Coerced medication in psychiatric inpatient care: literature review
    Manuela Jarrett
    Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 64:538-48. 2008
    ....
  30. pmc The relationship between leadership, teamworking, structure, burnout and attitude to patients on acute psychiatric wards
    Len Bowers
    City University, Philpot Street, London, E1 2EA, UK
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 46:143-8. 2011
    ..This paper describes the exploration of a large dataset to assess the relationship between structure and other staff variables...
  31. doi request reprint Association between staff factors and levels of conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards in England
    Len Bowers
    Department of Mental Health and Learning Disability, City University, Philpot St, Whitechapel, London E1 2EA, United Kingdom
    Psychiatr Serv 60:231-9. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to test this theory...
  32. ncbi request reprint Patient-staff conflict: results of a survey on acute psychiatric wards
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, London E1 2EA, UK
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 38:402-8. 2003
    ..Disruptive behaviours of acute psychiatric inpatients have typically been studied separately, as have the methods used to contain them. There are indications that behaviours and containment methods are systematically related...
  33. ncbi request reprint Changes in attitudes to personality disorder on a DSPD unit
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, London E1 2EA, UK
    Crim Behav Ment Health 15:171-83. 2005
    ..Previous studies suggest that such attitudes are influenced by sufferer behaviours, organizational factors and the characteristics of individual professionals, but do similar considerations apply outside health services?..
  34. doi request reprint Behavioural antecedents to pro re nata psychotropic medication administration on acute psychiatric wards
    Duncan Stewart
    Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London
    Int J Ment Health Nurs 21:540-9. 2012
    ..The study concludes that improved monitoring, review procedures, training for nursing staff, and guidelines for the administration of PRN medications are needed...
  35. ncbi request reprint Cultures of psychiatry and the professional socialization process: the case of containment methods for disturbed patients
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, London E1 2EA, UK
    Nurse Educ Today 24:435-42. 2004
    ..The findings support the interpretation that the relative evaluations of psychiatric containment methods are a property of wider national cultures, rather than an isolated tradition of professional psychiatric practice...
  36. ncbi request reprint Psychiatric intensive care units: a literature review
    Len Bowers
    City University, London, UK
    Int J Soc Psychiatry 54:56-68. 2008
    ..Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) have been part of most inpatient psychiatric services for some time, although information about their functioning and outcome has not previously been collated...
  37. doi request reprint The demography of nurses and patients on acute psychiatric wards in England
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    J Clin Nurs 18:884-92. 2009
    ..To describe the ethnic and demographic composition of staff and patients on acute psychiatric wards in England...
  38. doi request reprint Suicide inside: a systematic review of inpatient suicides
    Len Bowers
    Department of Psychiatric Nursing, City University, London, United Kingdom
    J Nerv Ment Dis 198:315-28. 2010
    ..Future research should take into account the heterogeneous subgroups of patients who commit suicide, with case-control studies addressing these separately...
  39. doi request reprint Self harm in adult inpatient psychiatric care: a national study of incident reports in the UK
    Karen James
    The Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, United Kingdom
    Int J Nurs Stud 49:1212-9. 2012
    ..The few studies in this area have mainly investigated the correlates self harm, or have been restricted to forensic services, within single hospitals...
  40. doi request reprint Psychiatric patients' views on why their involuntary hospitalisation was right or wrong: a qualitative study
    Christina Katsakou
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Newham Centre for Mental Health, Cherry Tree Way, Glen Road, London, E13 8SP, UK
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47:1169-79. 2012
    ..To explore involuntary patients' retrospective views on why their hospitalisation was right or wrong...
  41. ncbi request reprint The Attempted and Actual Assault Scale (Attacks)
    Len Bowers
    Department of Mental Health and Learning Disability, City University, London, UK
    Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 16:171-6. 2007
    ..70). It is concluded that the psychometric properties of the newly developed Attacks are promising...
  42. doi request reprint Under the gaze of staff: special observation as surveillance
    Duncan Stewart
    Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, UK
    Perspect Psychiatr Care 48:2-9. 2012
    ..This study explores the relationship of special observation (SO) to a range of patient, staff, and ward variables...
  43. doi request reprint Self-harm and attempted suicide within inpatient psychiatric services: a review of the literature
    Karen James
    Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London, UK
    Int J Ment Health Nurs 21:301-9. 2012
    ..Wards used a variety of strategies to prevent self-harm; however, there is little research into their effectiveness...
  44. ncbi request reprint Disruptive and dangerous behaviour by patients on acute psychiatric wards in three European centres
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, London, E1 2EA, UK
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40:822-8. 2005
    ..Little is known about this variation and its relationship to the characteristics of in-patient populations...
  45. ncbi request reprint The attitude to personality disorder questionnaire: psychometric properties and results
    Len Bowers
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, UK
    J Pers Disord 20:281-93. 2006
    ..The scale has a robust structure, good psychometric properties, and is useful for outcome studies, benchmarking between units, and regular audits of staff attitude. Full details of the scale are provided, with normative data...
  46. ncbi request reprint Psychiatric nurses' views on criteria for psychiatric intensive care: acute and intensive care staff compared
    Len Bowers
    St Batholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, Philpot Street, E1 2EA, London, UK
    Int J Nurs Stud 40:145-52. 2003
    ..To explore and investigate differences between the views of qualified nurses working in psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) and acute care wards on which patients are appropriate for PICU care...
  47. ncbi request reprint Patient feedback on liaison mental health care in A&E
    Patrick Callaghan
    Department of Mental Health and Learning Disability, City University, London
    Nurs Times 98:34-6. 2002
    ..Quantitative data was collected on referrals made to the service and qualitative data was collected through interviews with clients and a postal questionnaire to determine client satisfaction...
  48. doi request reprint Conflict and containment events in inpatient psychiatric units
    Jamie Ross
    e Health Unit, UCL Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, Upper 3rd Floor, Royal Free Hospital, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
    J Clin Nurs 21:2306-15. 2012
    ..To describe the types and frequency of conflict behaviours exhibited by patients during the first 2 weeks of admission to acute psychiatric units, the methods staff use to manage them and bring to the surface underlying common patterns...
  49. ncbi request reprint How prevalent is violence towards nurses working in general hospitals in the UK?
    John Wells
    Intensive Care Unit, St Bartholomew s Hosptial, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UK
    J Adv Nurs 39:230-40. 2002
    ..However, it is not clear whether violence and abuse have in fact become more prevalent. At present little is known about the scale of the problem for general nurses working in general hospitals in the UK...