Graham R Williams

Summary

Affiliation: Imperial College
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Bone turnover and bone mineral density are independently related to selenium status in healthy euthyroid postmenopausal women
    Antonia Hoeg
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Imperial College London, 7N2a Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:4061-70. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Actions of thyroid hormones in bone
    Graham R Williams
    Department of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, UK
    Endokrynol Pol 60:380-8. 2009
  3. ncbi request reprint Hypogonadal bone loss: sex steroids or gonadotropins?
    Graham R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:2610-2. 2007
  4. doi request reprint Extrathyroidal expression of TSH receptor
    G R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 72:68-73. 2011
  5. doi request reprint Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase
    Graham R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
    J Endocrinol 209:261-72. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Neurodevelopmental and neurophysiological actions of thyroid hormone
    G R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, London, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:784-94. 2008
  7. pmc A lack of thyroid hormones rather than excess thyrotropin causes abnormal skeletal development in hypothyroidism
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 22:501-12. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormone excess rather than thyrotropin deficiency induces osteoporosis in hyperthyroidism
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 21:1095-107. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormones regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling during chondrogenesis
    Joanna C Barnard
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, UK
    Endocrinology 146:5568-80. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Contrasting skeletal phenotypes in mice with an identical mutation targeted to thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 or beta
    Patrick J O'Shea
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, 5th Floor Clinical Research Building, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 19:3045-59. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. doi request reprint Bone turnover and bone mineral density are independently related to selenium status in healthy euthyroid postmenopausal women
    Antonia Hoeg
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Imperial College London, 7N2a Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:4061-70. 2012
    ..Selenium status may have direct effects on bone and indirect effects through changes in thyroid hormone sensitivity...
  2. ncbi request reprint Actions of thyroid hormones in bone
    Graham R Williams
    Department of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, UK
    Endokrynol Pol 60:380-8. 2009
    ..Such studies are likely to identify key components of the T(3) signalling pathway that may represent suitable drug targets for treatment of osteoporosis...
  3. ncbi request reprint Hypogonadal bone loss: sex steroids or gonadotropins?
    Graham R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:2610-2. 2007
  4. doi request reprint Extrathyroidal expression of TSH receptor
    G R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 72:68-73. 2011
    ..Current understanding of the actions of the TSH receptor in extrathyroidal tissues and their possible physiological implications is discussed...
  5. doi request reprint Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase
    Graham R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
    J Endocrinol 209:261-72. 2011
    ..In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which DIO2 controls intracellular T(3) availability and action...
  6. doi request reprint Neurodevelopmental and neurophysiological actions of thyroid hormone
    G R Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, London, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:784-94. 2008
    ..This article reviews the contributions of molecular biology and genetics to our new understanding of the physiological effects of thyroid hormones on neurodevelopment and in the adult brain...
  7. pmc A lack of thyroid hormones rather than excess thyrotropin causes abnormal skeletal development in hypothyroidism
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 22:501-12. 2008
    ..Furthermore, TSH did not affect the differentiation or function of osteoblasts or osteoclasts in vitro. These data indicate the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis regulates skeletal development via the actions of T(3)...
  8. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormone excess rather than thyrotropin deficiency induces osteoporosis in hyperthyroidism
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 21:1095-107. 2007
    ..These studies demonstrate that bone loss in thyrotoxicosis is independent of circulating TSH levels and mediated predominantly by TRalpha, thus identifying TRalpha as a novel drug target in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis...
  9. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormones regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling during chondrogenesis
    Joanna C Barnard
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, UK
    Endocrinology 146:5568-80. 2005
    ..These studies identify novel interactions between T(3) and FGFs that regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during chondrogenesis...
  10. ncbi request reprint Contrasting skeletal phenotypes in mice with an identical mutation targeted to thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 or beta
    Patrick J O'Shea
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, 5th Floor Clinical Research Building, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 19:3045-59. 2005
    ..These studies provide a new understanding of the complex relationship between central and peripheral thyroid status...
  11. doi request reprint Mice lacking the calcineurin inhibitor Rcan2 have an isolated defect of osteoblast function
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 153:3537-48. 2012
    ..Overall, these studies establish that Rcan2 regulates osteoblast function and its expression in bone is regulated by thyroid status in vivo...
  12. pmc Optimal bone strength and mineralization requires the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in osteoblasts
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7604-9. 2010
    ..These data reveal an essential role for D2 in osteoblasts in the optimization of bone strength and mineralization...
  13. doi request reprint Thyroid function within the upper normal range is associated with reduced bone mineral density and an increased risk of nonvertebral fractures in healthy euthyroid postmenopausal women
    Elaine Murphy
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, 7th Floor Commonwealth Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:3173-81. 2010
    ..The relationship between thyroid function and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Existing studies are conflicting and confounded by differences in study design, small patient numbers, and sparse prospective data...
  14. ncbi request reprint Thyroid status during skeletal development determines adult bone structure and mineralization
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Center, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 21:1893-904. 2007
    ..Thus, TRalpha1 regulates both skeletal development and adult bone maintenance, with euthyroid status during development being essential to establish normal adult bone structure and mineralization...
  15. pmc Rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 100 knockout mice identifies 9 new genes that determine bone strength
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002858. 2012
    ..Application of the approach to diseases affecting other physiological systems will help to realize the full potential of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium...
  16. doi request reprint The skeletal phenotypes of TRalpha and TRbeta mutant mice
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    J Mol Endocrinol 42:269-82. 2009
    ..Detailed future analysis of the molecular mechanisms of T(3) action in bone will enhance our understanding of this emerging field and has the potential to identify novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis...
  17. ncbi request reprint A thyrotoxic skeletal phenotype of advanced bone formation in mice with resistance to thyroid hormone
    Patrick J O'Shea
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 17:1410-24. 2003
    ..Thus, the skeleton in TRbetaPV/PV mice is thyrotoxic and displays phenotypic features typical of juvenile hyperthyroidism...
  18. ncbi request reprint The molecular actions of thyroid hormone in bone
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 14:356-64. 2003
    ..The possible roles of T(3) and TRs in nuclear receptor crosstalk, prereceptor ligand metabolism, heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and angiogenesis are also considered...
  19. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormone activates fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in bone
    David A Stevens
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Clinical Research Building, 5th Floor, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 17:1751-66. 2003
    ..These findings implicate FGFR1 signaling in T3-dependent bone development and the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders resulting from thyroid disease...
  20. doi request reprint Critical role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in bone
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN, UK
    Bone 43:418-26. 2008
    ..By contrast, situations in which this inverse relationship is disrupted have the potential to resolve the roles of T3 and TSH in the skeleton. We discuss these situations and the relative importance of T3 and TSH in skeletal homeostasis...
  21. ncbi request reprint Complex interactions between thyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor signalling
    Allan J Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 14:410-5. 2007
    ..We discuss mechanisms of thyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor action, and identify downstream signalling responses that offer opportunities for regulatory crosstalk...
  22. doi request reprint Transplantation of human fetal blood stem cells in the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse leads to improvement in multiscale tissue properties
    Maximilien Vanleene
    Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College, London, UK
    Blood 117:1053-60. 2011
    ..In conclusion, expression of normal collagen from mature osteoblast of donor origin significantly decreased bone brittleness by improving the mechanical integrity of the bone at the molecular, tissue, and whole bone levels...
  23. doi request reprint The skeletal consequences of thyrotoxicosis
    Jonathan J Nicholls
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Room 7N2b, Commonwealth Building, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    J Endocrinol 213:209-21. 2012
    ..In this review, we discuss the role of thyroid hormones in bone and the skeletal consequences of hyperthyroidism...
  24. ncbi request reprint The thyroid and the skeleton
    Elaine Murphy
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, 5th Floor MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 61:285-98. 2004
  25. pmc Iodothyronine deiodinase enzyme activities in bone
    Allan J Williams
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
    Bone 43:126-34. 2008
    ..These data suggest that T3 availability especially during skeletal development may be limited by D3-mediated catabolism rather than by MCT8 mediated cellular uptake or D2-dependent T3 production...
  26. pmc The rat thyroid hormone receptor (TR) Deltabeta3 displays cell-, TR isoform-, and thyroid hormone response element-specific actions
    Clare B Harvey
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Clinical Research Building 5th Floor, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:1764-73. 2007
    ..Analysis of these complex responses implicates a range of nuclear corepressors and coactivators as cell-, TR isoform-, and TRE-specific modulators of T3 action...
  27. doi request reprint Significant deterioration in nanomechanical quality occurs through incomplete extrafibrillar mineralization in rachitic bone: evidence from in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering and backscattered electron imaging
    Angelo Karunaratne
    School of Engineering and Material Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    J Bone Miner Res 27:876-90. 2012
    ..Our study demonstrates the value of in situ X-ray nanomechanical imaging in linking the alterations in bone nanostructure to nanoscale mechanical deterioration in a metabolic bone disease...
  28. doi request reprint Activated invariant NKT cells regulate osteoclast development and function
    Ming Hu
    Center for Hematology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 186:2910-7. 2011
    ..These data demonstrate a novel role of iNKT cells that couples osteoclastogenesis with myeloid cell egress in conditions of immune activation...
  29. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of thyroid hormone receptor-specific nuclear and extra nuclear actions
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 213:1-11. 2003
    ..Here we compare these recently identified receptors with the genomic, non-genomic and mitochondrial actions of thyroid hormones and consider their implications...
  30. ncbi request reprint Multiple messenger ribonucleic acid variants regulate cell-specific expression of human thyroid hormone receptor beta1
    Sarah Frankton
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Endocrinol 18:1631-42. 2004
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Quantitative X-ray imaging of rodent bone by Faxitron
    J H Duncan Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 816:499-506. 2012
    ..This chapter describes the use of digital micro-radiography with the Faxitron machine as a means of imaging and quantitating bone mineral content in mice and rats...
  32. doi request reprint Thyroid and bone
    Apostolos I Gogakos
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 503:129-36. 2010
    ..Nevertheless, TSH has also been proposed to be a direct negative regulator of bone turnover, although the relative importance of T3 and TSH actions in the skeleton has yet to be clarified...
  33. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of thyroid hormone action
    Clare B Harvey
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Thyroid 12:441-6. 2002
    ..We discuss patterns of gene expression and specific actions of the various TR isoforms and consider the novel TR isoform specific ligands...
  34. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormone regulates heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression in the growth plate
    J H D Bassett
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 147:295-305. 2006
    ..These novel observations suggest that the cartilage matrix and especially HSPGs are critical mediators of the skeletal response to thyroid hormone...
  35. doi request reprint Thyroid hormone metabolism in skeletal development and adult bone maintenance
    Julian A Waung
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 23:155-62. 2012
    ..These new data reveal an essential role for the local control of T3 availability in osteoblasts and chondrocytes during maintenance and repair of bone and cartilage...
  36. ncbi request reprint Severe hypercalcaemia from secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide
    Maha T Barakat
    Department of Metabolic Medicine, Division of Investigative Sciences, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
    Lancet Oncol 5:633-5. 2004
  37. ncbi request reprint Intrauterine transplantation of human fetal mesenchymal stem cells from first-trimester blood repairs bone and reduces fractures in osteogenesis imperfecta mice
    Pascale V Guillot
    Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, London, United Kingdom
    Blood 111:1717-25. 2008
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone effects on bone growth and function
    Clare B Harvey
    Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    Mol Genet Metab 75:17-30. 2002
  39. doi request reprint Mechanisms of action of thyroid hormones in the skeleton
    Anna Wojcicka
    The Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ul Marymoncka 99 103, 01 813 Warsaw, Poland
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3979-86. 2013
    ..Abnormal thyroid status during childhood disrupts bone maturation and linear growth, while in adulthood it results in altered bone remodeling and an increased risk of fracture..
  40. ncbi request reprint Unexpected shortness of breath in a patient with Cushing's syndrome
    Niall Keenan
    Endocrine Unit, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 ONN, UK
    Lancet 367:446. 2006
  41. ncbi request reprint Renal magnesium loss causing hypomagnesaemia and autonomous hyperparathyroidism
    Maha T Barakat
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, 5th Floor, Clinical Research Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:977-80. 2004
  42. ncbi request reprint Insight into the physiological actions of thyroid hormone receptors from genetically modified mice
    P J O'Shea
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    J Endocrinol 175:553-70. 2002
    ..The aim of this review is to provide a picture of the physiological actions of thyroid hormones by considering the phenotypes of these genetically modified mice...
  43. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormones and bone development
    C E Combs
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
    Minerva Endocrinol 36:71-85. 2011
    ..In this review, we consider in detail the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone on bone and the molecular mechanisms involved...
  44. ncbi request reprint Effects of thyroid status on bone metabolism: a primary role for thyroid stimulating hormone or thyroid hormone?
    T M Galliford
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Minerva Endocrinol 30:237-46. 2005
    ..Here we provide an overview of the molecular actions of thyroid hormone in bone and discuss in detail the current evidence relating to a possible role for TSH in bone metabolism...
  45. pmc Cloning and characterization of two novel thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms
    G R Williams
    ICSM Molecular Endocrinology Group, Division of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 ONN, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 20:8329-42. 2000
    ..These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms of T(3) action and define a new level of specificity that may regulate thyroid status in tissue...
  46. ncbi request reprint The thyroid hormone receptor beta-specific agonist GC-1 selectively affects the bone development of hypothyroid rats
    Fatima R S Freitas
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Bone Miner Res 20:294-304. 2005
    ..Our findings indicate that T3 exerts some essential effects on bone development that are mediated by TRbeta1...
  47. ncbi request reprint Regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) by thyroid hormone: identification of a thyroid hormone response element in the murine Fgfr1 promoter
    Patrick J O'Shea
    Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
    Endocrinology 148:5966-76. 2007
    ..Thus, in addition to indirect regulation of FGFR1 expression by T(3) reported previously, T(3) also activates the Fgfr1 promoter directly via a thyroid hormone response element located at positions -279/-264...
  48. ncbi request reprint TR expression and function in human bone marrow stromal and osteoblast-like cells
    Ayesha Siddiqi
    Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, West Smithfield, London, United Kingdom EC1A 7BE
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:906-14. 2002
    ..Whether there are distinct mechanisms of thyroid hormone action mediated by TRalpha1, TRbeta1, and TRbeta2 in hOb and hBMS cells remains to be shown...
  49. ncbi request reprint Interactions between GH, IGF-I, glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormones during skeletal growth
    Helen Robson
    Department of Clinical Research, Christie Hospital National Health Service Trust, Manchester, UK
    Pediatr Res 52:137-47. 2002
    ..Interacting effects on peripheral tissues such as liver are also well understood, but we concentrate here on the epiphyseal growth plate as an important and newly appreciated target organ for convergent hormone action...
  50. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormone gene targets in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells identified by differential display analysis
    Cecilia H Gouveia
    Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Department of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90073, USA
    Thyroid 12:663-71. 2002
    ..Cell type, and the extent of cell differentiation, influences T(3) regulation of genes in osteoblast-derived cells...
  51. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormone-stimulated differentiation of primary rib chondrocytes in vitro requires thyroid hormone receptor beta
    Bénédicte Rabier
    INSERM U577 Biomatériaux et Réparation Tissulaire, université Bordeaux 2 Victor Segalen, Zone Nord, Batiment 4A, 2eme etage, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    J Endocrinol 191:221-8. 2006
    ..These data indicate that T(3)-stimulated differentiation of primary rib chondrocytes in vitro requires TRbeta and suggest that the TRbeta1 isoform mediates important T(3) actions in mouse rib chondrocytes...