Ajit Lalvani

Summary

Affiliation: Imperial College
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Diagnosing tuberculosis infection in the 21st century: new tools to tackle an old enemy
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2, UK
    Chest 131:1898-906. 2007
  2. doi request reprint T Cells and Tuberculosis: Beyond Interferon-gamma
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 197:941-3. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Interferon gamma release assays: principles and practice
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 28:245-52. 2010
  4. doi request reprint Immigrant screening for TB: a missed opportunity to improve TB control in the United Kingdom
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Pathog Glob Health 106:5-7. 2012
  5. pmc Screening for tuberculosis infection prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Autoimmun Rev 8:147-52. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint T cell-based diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis infection
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:264-71. 2007
  7. doi request reprint A 100 year update on diagnosis of tuberculosis infection
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Br Med Bull 93:69-84. 2010
  8. pmc Improved diagnostic evaluation of suspected tuberculosis
    Davinder P S Dosanjh
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Intern Med 148:325-36. 2008
  9. doi request reprint Evaluation of screening methods for identification of patients with chronic rheumatological disease requiring tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis prior to commencement of TNF-α antagonist therapy
    Aran Singanayagam
    Chest and Allergy Department, St Mary s Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, UK
    Thorax 68:955-61. 2013
  10. pmc T-cell immunophenotyping distinguishes active from latent tuberculosis
    Katrina M Pollock
    Tuberculosis Research Centre, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 208:952-68. 2013

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi request reprint Diagnosing tuberculosis infection in the 21st century: new tools to tackle an old enemy
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2, UK
    Chest 131:1898-906. 2007
    ..However, longitudinal studies are needed to define the predictive value of positive blood test results for progression to tuberculosis...
  2. doi request reprint T Cells and Tuberculosis: Beyond Interferon-gamma
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 197:941-3. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Interferon gamma release assays: principles and practice
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 28:245-52. 2010
    ..The role of IGRAs in active TB is less clear but they may be useful as adjunctive tests in the diagnostic work-up of an individual with suspected TB. Finally, recent developments and future directions in IGRA development are reviewed...
  4. doi request reprint Immigrant screening for TB: a missed opportunity to improve TB control in the United Kingdom
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Pathog Glob Health 106:5-7. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Screening for tuberculosis infection prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Autoimmun Rev 8:147-52. 2008
    ..Therefore, a positive result to either an IGRA or TST, in addition to currently recommended clinical screening for risk factors for LTBI, should prompt consideration of preventive treatment of LTBI in this population...
  6. ncbi request reprint T cell-based diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis infection
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:264-71. 2007
    ..We review all publications using TIGRAs in children to appraise paediatricians of the advantages and limitations of these new blood tests...
  7. doi request reprint A 100 year update on diagnosis of tuberculosis infection
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Br Med Bull 93:69-84. 2010
    ..In the last century, the tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only means of diagnosing LTBI. ELISpot and whole-blood ELISA, collectively known as interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), are promising new tools...
  8. pmc Improved diagnostic evaluation of suspected tuberculosis
    Davinder P S Dosanjh
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann Intern Med 148:325-36. 2008
    ..The role of new T-cell-based blood tests for tuberculosis in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis is unclear...
  9. doi request reprint Evaluation of screening methods for identification of patients with chronic rheumatological disease requiring tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis prior to commencement of TNF-α antagonist therapy
    Aran Singanayagam
    Chest and Allergy Department, St Mary s Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, London, UK
    Thorax 68:955-61. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the optimum available screening strategy for identifying patients for tuberculosis (TB) chemoprophylaxis...
  10. pmc T-cell immunophenotyping distinguishes active from latent tuberculosis
    Katrina M Pollock
    Tuberculosis Research Centre, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 208:952-68. 2013
    ..tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection...
  11. pmc Dynamic relationship between IFN-gamma and IL-2 profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells and antigen load
    Kerry A Millington
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 178:5217-26. 2007
    ..These distinct T cell functional signatures before and after treatment suggest a novel immunological marker of mycobacterial load and clinical status in tuberculosis that now requires validation in larger prospective studies...
  12. doi request reprint Cellular immune correlates of protection against symptomatic pandemic influenza
    Saranya Sridhar
    Respiratory Infections Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Nat Med 19:1305-12. 2013
    ..This protective immune correlate could guide universal influenza vaccine development. ..
  13. doi request reprint Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific cellular immune profiles suggest bacillary persistence decades after spontaneous cure in untreated tuberculosis
    Kerry A Millington
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 202:1685-9. 2010
    ..Of 10 individuals with no M. tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells detectable ex vivo, 7 had evidence of central memory T cells, consistent with clearance of infection...
  14. pmc Undetected multidrug-resistant tuberculosis amplified by first-line therapy in mixed infection
    Suzanne M Hingley-Wilson
    Imperial College London, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 19:1138-41. 2013
    ..tuberculosis strain in a patient with mixed infection. Diagnostic techniques that identify mixed tubercle bacilli populations are needed to curb the spread of multidrug resistance...
  15. pmc Rv3615c is a highly immunodominant RD1 (Region of Difference 1)-dependent secreted antigen specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Kerry A Millington
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5730-5. 2011
    ..The high immunodominance of EspC, equivalent to that of ESAT-6 and CFP-10, makes it a TB vaccine candidate, and its high specificity confers strong potential for T-cell-based immunodiagnosis...
  16. doi request reprint Ethnicity and mycobacterial lineage as determinants of tuberculosis disease phenotype
    Manish Pareek
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Thorax 68:221-9. 2013
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage and host ethnicity can determine tuberculosis (TB) clinical disease patterns but their relative importance and interaction are unknown...
  17. pmc Novel M tuberculosis antigen-specific T-cells are early markers of infection and disease progression
    Davinder P S Dosanjh
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e28754. 2011
    ..tuberculosis infection, yet immune responses to only two gene-products, Early Secretory Antigenic Target-6 (ESAT-6) and Culture Filtrate Protein-10 (CFP-10), have been comprehensively investigated...
  18. ncbi request reprint Dynamic antigen-specific T-cell responses after point-source exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Katie Ewer
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:831-9. 2006
    ..The kinetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific Th1-type T-cell responses after M. tuberculosis infection are likely to be important in determining clinical outcome...
  19. doi request reprint Predominance of heterosubtypic IFN-γ-only-secreting effector memory T cells in pandemic H1N1 naive adults
    Saranya Sridhar
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Paddington, London, UK
    Eur J Immunol 42:2913-24. 2012
    ....
  20. pmc Evaluation of immigrant tuberculosis screening in industrialized countries
    Manish Pareek
    Imperial College London, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1422-9. 2012
    ..Industrialized countries performed LTBI screening infrequently and policies varied widely. There is an urgent need to define the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening strategies for immigrants...
  21. pmc Screening of immigrants in the UK for imported latent tuberculosis: a multicentre cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis
    Manish Pareek
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:435-44. 2011
    ..We aimed to determine the prevalence of latent infection in immigrants to the UK to define which groups should be screened and to quantify cost-effectiveness...
  22. pmc Interpreting tuberculin skin tests in a population with a high prevalence of HIV, tuberculosis, and nonspecific tuberculin sensitivity
    Peter J Dodd
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary s Medical School, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 171:1037-45. 2010
    ..However, the optimal cutpoint for HIV-infected individuals was consistently 0 mm. This calibration method may provide a valuable tool for interpreting TST results in other populations...
  23. pmc Impact of a T cell-based blood test for tuberculosis infection on clinical decision-making in routine practice
    Sarah Gooding
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    J Infect 54:e169-74. 2007
    ..Rapid determination of tuberculosis infection by ELISpot accelerated the diagnosis of tuberculosis, enabling early treatment initiation...
  24. pmc A mycolic acid-specific CD1-restricted T cell population contributes to acute and memory immune responses in human tuberculosis infection
    Damien J Montamat-Sicotte
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 121:2493-503. 2011
    ..T cell recognition of MA is therefore a significant component of the acute adaptive and memory immune response in TB, suggesting that mycobacterial lipids may be promising targets for improved TB vaccines...
  25. doi request reprint IGRAs--the gateway to T cell based TB diagnosis
    Hilary S Whitworth
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Respiratory Infection Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
    Methods 61:52-62. 2013
    ..By establishing for the first time technological platforms for T cell based diagnosis in diagnostic service laboratories, IGRAs provide a bridgehead to clinical application of T cell based diagnosis in routine practice...
  26. doi request reprint Community-based evaluation of immigrant tuberculosis screening using interferon γ release assays and tuberculin skin testing: observational study and economic analysis
    Manish Pareek
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tuberculosis Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Thorax 68:230-9. 2013
    ..National screening guidelines have been revised but cost-effectiveness analyses are hampered by the lack of data on the comparative performance of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) in immigrants...
  27. pmc Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis cytokine profiles: indistinguishable in bronchoalveolar lavage but different in blood
    Muhunthan Thillai
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e38083. 2012
    ..We hypothesised that immunological profiling might provide insight into a possible relationship between the diseases or allow us to distinguish between them...
  28. doi request reprint A comparison between two strategies for monitoring hepatic function during antituberculous therapy
    Aran Singanayagam
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Mary s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185:653-9. 2012
    ..The optimum strategy for monitoring liver function during antituberculous therapy is unclear...
  29. ncbi request reprint Performance of a T-cell-based diagnostic test for tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals is independent of CD4 cell count
    Keertan Dheda
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Population Sciences and Primary Care, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, London, UK
    AIDS 19:2038-41. 2005
    ..ELISPOT test performance appears to be independent of HIV-associated immunosuppression...
  30. doi request reprint Biomarkers of tuberculosis: a research roadmap
    Hilary S Whitworth
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
    Biomark Med 7:349-62. 2013
    ..Although there are clear remaining paucities, continued efforts within scientific, translational and clinical studies are likely to yield a number of clinically useful biomarkers of TB in the foreseeable future...
  31. doi request reprint How should I interpret an interferon gamma release assay result for tuberculosis infection?
    Ibrahim Abubakar
    Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UK
    Thorax 68:298-301. 2013
    ..They are cell-mediated immune-based blood tests that have revolutionised LTBI diagnosis and are increasingly recommended by national guidelines...
  32. pmc Enumeration of functional T-cell subsets by fluorescence-immunospot defines signatures of pathogen burden in tuberculosis
    Rosalyn Casey
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, St Mary s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15619. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Comparison of screening strategies to improve the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in the HIV-positive population: a cohort study
    Katrina M Pollock
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    BMJ Open 2:e000762. 2012
    ..Detection and treatment of LTBI is necessary to reduce the increasing burden of TB in the UK, but a unified LTBI screening approach has not been adopted...
  34. ncbi request reprint Innate Immunity to TB: A Druggable Balancing Act
    Ajit Lalvani
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Cell 148:389-91. 2012
    ..Identifying a critical role for the genetically determined balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids in regulating TNFα levels provides a roadmap to tailored TB treatment based on host genotype...
  35. doi request reprint Redefining latent tuberculosis
    Saranya Sridhar
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK
    Future Microbiol 6:1021-35. 2011
    ..We discuss recent and future advances in the fields of TB immunology and diagnostics that will improve public health strategies to control TB...
  36. ncbi request reprint Regulatory T cells are expanded in blood and disease sites in patients with tuberculosis
    Valerie Guyot-Revol
    Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Level 7, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:803-10. 2006
    ..CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells mediate suppressed cellular immunity in several chronic infections but have not been described in TB...
  37. doi request reprint Tuberculosis screening of migrants to low-burden nations: insights from evaluation of UK practice
    M Pareek
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Dept of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Eur Respir J 37:1175-82. 2011
    ..Forming an accurate picture of current front-line practice will help to inform future development of European new entrant screening policy...
  38. ncbi request reprint Counting antigen-specific T cells: a new approach for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatment?
    Ajit Lalvani
    Clin Infect Dis 38:757-9. 2004
  39. ncbi request reprint Comparison of T-cell-based assay with tuberculin skin test for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a school tuberculosis outbreak
    Katie Ewer
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 361:1168-73. 2003
    ..We postulated that if the ELISPOT is a more accurate test of latent infection than TST, it should correlate better with degree of exposure to M tuberculosis...
  40. ncbi request reprint T cell-based tracking of multidrug resistant tuberculosis infection after brief exposure
    Luca Richeldi
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:288-95. 2004
    ..tuberculosis after brief exposure. These results help to explain the apparent importance of casual contact for tuberculosis transmission, and may have implications for prevention...
  41. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of tuberculosis in South African children with a T-cell-based assay: a prospective cohort study
    Susan Liebeschuetz
    Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
    Lancet 364:2196-203. 2004
    ..HIV co-infection exacerbates this problem and accounts for an increasing proportion of paediatric tuberculosis worldwide...
  42. ncbi request reprint Rapid detection of active and latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-positive individuals by enumeration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells
    Ann L N Chapman
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 16:2285-93. 2002
    ..We investigated whether T cells specific for these antigens could serve as accurate markers of M. tuberculosis infection in an area of high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence...
  43. pmc Evaluation of T-cell responses to novel RD1- and RD2-encoded Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene products for specific detection of human tuberculosis infection
    Xiao Qing Liu
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:2574-81. 2004
    ..tuberculosis infection...
  44. ncbi request reprint Interferon gamma assays for tuberculosis
    Ajit Lalvani
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:322-4; author reply 325-7. 2005
  45. ncbi request reprint T-cell-based diagnosis of neonatal multidrug-resistant latent tuberculosis infection
    Luca Richeldi
    Department of Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
    Pediatrics 119:e1-5. 2007
    ..Our findings demonstrate that this blood test detected latent infection with dormant, yet viable, bacilli and illustrate how enzyme-linked immunospot could improve diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis infection...
  46. pmc Enzyme-linked immunospot and tuberculin skin testing to detect latent tuberculosis infection
    Homayoun Shams
    CPIDC, University of Texas Health Center, 11937 U S Highway 271, Tyler, TX 75708 3154
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1161-8. 2005
    ..Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is currently based on the tuberculin skin test. The enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) is a new blood test to diagnose LTBI...
  47. ncbi request reprint High incidence of the Beijing genotype among multidrug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tertiary care center in Mumbai, India
    Deepak Almeida
    Research Labs, P D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mahim, Mumbai, India
    Clin Infect Dis 40:881-6. 2005
    ..We also report a high frequency of the Delhi genotype (31% of isolates). Our data indicate considerable ongoing transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype in Mumbai...
  48. ncbi request reprint Rapid diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis by bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot
    Claudia Jafari
    Division of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Research Center Borstel, Parkallee 35, Borstel, Germany
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:1048-54. 2006
    ..Detectable growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in cultures takes several weeks and MTB-specific DNA amplification results on sputum and bronchial secretions are variable in these patients...
  49. ncbi request reprint Incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in urban and rural India and implications for prevention
    Deepak Almeida
    Research Laboratories, P D Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mahim, Mumbai, India
    Clin Infect Dis 36:e152-4. 2003
    ..The study highlights an alarmingly high percentage of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates in Mumbai (51%) as compared with that at the rural center (2%)...
  50. ncbi request reprint Effect of BCG vaccination on risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household tuberculosis contact: a prospective community-based study
    Ahmet Soysal
    Department of Paediatrics, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
    Lancet 366:1443-51. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Tuberculin skin testing underestimates a high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in hemodialysis patients
    Martina Sester
    Medical Department IV, University of the Saarland, Homburg, Germany
    Kidney Int 65:1826-34. 2004
    ..We investigated whether in vitro quantitation of purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific T cells using a rapid 6-hour assay may represent an alternative approach for detecting latent infection...
  52. ncbi request reprint CD8 cytotoxic T cells and the development of new tuberculosis vaccines
    Ajit Lalvani
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:789-90. 2002
  53. ncbi request reprint Early diagnosis of subclinical multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    Luca Richeldi
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico di Modena, Modena, Italy
    Ann Intern Med 140:709-13. 2004
    ..Rapid blood tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are a new alternative to the tuberculin skin test, but whether they improve clinical outcomes is unknown...
  54. ncbi request reprint Characterization of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptide that is recognized by human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the context of multiple HLA alleles
    Homayoun Shams
    Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, and Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Health Center, Tyler, TX 75708, USA
    J Immunol 173:1966-77. 2004
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Ex vivo characterization of early secretory antigenic target 6-specific T cells at sites of active disease in pleural tuberculosis
    Katalin A Wilkinson
    Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 40:184-7. 2005
    ..The recruitment of ESAT-6-specific T cells to inflamed tuberculous tissue demonstrates their function in vivo and suggests a novel way to diagnose tuberculous pleuritis...