Simon Gregson

Summary

Affiliation: Imperial College
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Sexual mixing patterns and sex-differentials in teenage exposure to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, University of London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Lancet 359:1896-903. 2002
  2. pmc Impact and process evaluation of integrated community and clinic-based HIV-1 control: a cluster-randomised trial in eastern Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 4:e102. 2007
  3. pmc Critique of early models of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa based on contemporary empirical data from Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14586-91. 2007
  4. doi request reprint HIV incidence in 3 years of follow-up of a Zimbabwe cohort--1998-2000 to 2001-03: contributions of proximate and underlying determinants to transmission
    Ben Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 37:88-105. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint HIV decline associated with behavior change in eastern Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    Science 311:664-6. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Age at first sex and HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe
    Timothy B Hallett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    Stud Fam Plann 38:1-10. 2007
  7. pmc HIV incidence and poverty in Manicaland, Zimbabwe: is HIV becoming a disease of the poor?
    Ben Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
    AIDS 21:S57-66. 2007
  8. pmc Effects of unconditional and conditional cash transfers on child health and development in Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial
    Laura Robertson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Lancet 381:1283-92. 2013
  9. pmc Estimating incidence from prevalence in generalised HIV epidemics: methods and validation
    Timothy B Hallett
    Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e80. 2008
  10. pmc Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003)
    Ben A Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, England
    Bull World Health Organ 84:189-97. 2006

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Sexual mixing patterns and sex-differentials in teenage exposure to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, University of London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Lancet 359:1896-903. 2002
    ..We investigated the latter hypothesis using data from a field study in rural Manicaland, Zimbabwe...
  2. pmc Impact and process evaluation of integrated community and clinic-based HIV-1 control: a cluster-randomised trial in eastern Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 4:e102. 2007
    ..HIV-1 control in sub-Saharan Africa requires cost-effective and sustainable programmes that promote behaviour change and reduce cofactor sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the population and individual levels...
  3. pmc Critique of early models of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa based on contemporary empirical data from Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14586-91. 2007
    ..Data collected since the late 1980s show that there was a mismatch between the observed growth in the HIV epidemic and assumptions made about viral transmission...
  4. doi request reprint HIV incidence in 3 years of follow-up of a Zimbabwe cohort--1998-2000 to 2001-03: contributions of proximate and underlying determinants to transmission
    Ben Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 37:88-105. 2008
    ..Here, we analyse the determinants of HIV incidence in this period of decline and estimate the population-level impact of identified risk factors...
  5. ncbi request reprint HIV decline associated with behavior change in eastern Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    Science 311:664-6. 2006
    ..Sexually experienced men and women reported reductions in casual sex of 49 and 22%, respectively, whereas recent cohorts reported delayed sexual debut. Selective AIDS-induced mortality contributed to the decline in HIV prevalence...
  6. ncbi request reprint Age at first sex and HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe
    Timothy B Hallett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    Stud Fam Plann 38:1-10. 2007
    ..This finding can be explained by their having a greater lifetime number of sexual partners than those whose first sexual experience occurs later...
  7. pmc HIV incidence and poverty in Manicaland, Zimbabwe: is HIV becoming a disease of the poor?
    Ben Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
    AIDS 21:S57-66. 2007
    ..Longitudinal data are needed to disentangle the cyclical effects of poverty and HIV as well as to separate historical patterns from contemporary trends of infection...
  8. pmc Effects of unconditional and conditional cash transfers on child health and development in Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial
    Laura Robertson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Lancet 381:1283-92. 2013
    ..We investigated the effects of unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) and conditional cash transfers (CCTs) on birth registration, vaccination uptake, and school attendance in children in Zimbabwe...
  9. pmc Estimating incidence from prevalence in generalised HIV epidemics: methods and validation
    Timothy B Hallett
    Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e80. 2008
    ..Repeated cross-sectional measures of HIV prevalence are now becoming available for general populations in many countries, and we aim to develop and validate methods that use these data to estimate HIV incidence...
  10. pmc Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003)
    Ben A Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, England
    Bull World Health Organ 84:189-97. 2006
    ..To compare alternative methods to vital registration systems for estimating adult mortality, and describe patterns of mortality in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by HIV...
  11. pmc Measuring and correcting biased child mortality statistics in countries with generalized epidemics of HIV infection
    Timothy B Hallett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, England
    Bull World Health Organ 88:761-8. 2010
    ....
  12. pmc Patterns of uptake of HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa in the pre-treatment era
    Ide Cremin
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 17:e26-37. 2012
    ..To compare nationally representative trends in self-reported uptake of HIV testing and receipt of results in selected countries prior to treatment scale-up...
  13. pmc Patterns of self-reported behaviour change associated with receiving voluntary counselling and testing in a longitudinal study from Manicaland, Zimbabwe
    Ide Cremin
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Marys Campus, Norfolk Place, Paddington, London, W2 1PG, UK
    AIDS Behav 14:708-15. 2010
    ..This study suggests that, among women, particularly those who are infected, behavioural risk reduction does occur following VCT...
  14. pmc When did HIV incidence peak in Harare, Zimbabwe? Back-calculation from mortality statistics
    Ben Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e1711. 2008
    ..This finding, considered alongside the timing and location of HIV prevention activities, will give insight into the decline of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe...
  15. pmc Monitoring trends in HIV prevalence among young people, aged 15 to 24 years, in Manicaland, Zimbabwe
    Kimberly A Marsh
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    J Int AIDS Soc 14:27. 2011
    ..Changes in socio-demographic characteristics and reported sexual behaviour are investigated...
  16. doi request reprint Is education the link between orphanhood and HIV/HSV-2 risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe?
    Isolde Birdthistle
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Soc Sci Med 68:1810-8. 2009
    ....
  17. pmc HIV decline in Zimbabwe due to reductions in risky sex? Evidence from a comprehensive epidemiological review
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 39:1311-23. 2010
    ..We assessed the contributions of rising mortality, falling HIV incidence and sexual behaviour change to the decline in HIV prevalence...
  18. pmc Grassroots community organizations' contribution to the scale-up of HIV testing and counselling services in Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London School of Public Health, London, UK
    AIDS 27:1657-66. 2013
    ..To investigate whether community engagement (participation in grassroots organizations) contributed to increases in HIV testing in Zimbabwe...
  19. doi request reprint Assessing evidence for behaviour change affecting the course of HIV epidemics: a new mathematical modelling approach and application to data from Zimbabwe
    Timothy B Hallett
    Imperial College London, London, UK
    Epidemics 1:108-17. 2009
    ..We aimed to develop a method to evaluate evidence for changes in risk behaviour altering the course of an HIV epidemic...
  20. pmc HIV-associated orphanhood and children's psychosocial distress: theoretical framework tested with data from Zimbabwe
    Constance A Nyamukapa
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, England, UK
    Am J Public Health 98:133-41. 2008
    ..We measured the psychosocial effect of orphanhood in a sub-Saharan African population and evaluated a new framework for understanding the causes and consequences of psychosocial distress among orphans and other vulnerable children...
  21. ncbi request reprint Beer halls as a focus for HIV prevention activities in rural Zimbabwe
    James J C Lewis
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London, UK
    Sex Transm Dis 32:364-9. 2005
    ..The authors conducted an assessment of the role of beer halls in the HIV epidemic of rural Zimbabwe as part of the ongoing identification of risky places for the targeting of prevention activities...
  22. pmc Household-based cash transfer targeting strategies in Zimbabwe: are we reaching the most vulnerable children?
    Laura Robertson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Soc Sci Med 75:2503-8. 2012
    ..The wealth index approach was the most efficient at reaching children with poor outcomes whilst socio-demographic targeting reached more vulnerable children but was less efficient...
  23. pmc The forgotten half of the equation: randomized controlled trial of a male invitation to attend couple voluntary counselling and testing
    Boshishi K F Mohlala
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    AIDS 25:1535-41. 2011
    ..Increased male participation in antenatal care and uptake of couple voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV could reduce horizontal and vertical HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa...
  24. ncbi request reprint Adult mortality and erosion of household viability in AIDS-afflicted towns, estates, and villages in eastern Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44:188-95. 2007
    ..Household viability is threatened by sustained crisis-level mortality in widely disseminated HIV epidemics. This article describes the impact of adult deaths on households in small towns, estates, and villages in eastern Zimbabwe...
  25. pmc Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?
    Jeffrey W Eaton
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e70447. 2013
    ..HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents...
  26. doi request reprint Modelling the global competing risks of a potential interaction between injectable hormonal contraception and HIV risk
    Ailsa R Butler
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    AIDS 27:105-13. 2013
    ..Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested an increase in the risk of HIV acquisition for women using injectable hormonal contraception (IHC)...
  27. pmc Estimates of HIV incidence from household-based prevalence surveys
    Timothy B Hallett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    AIDS 24:147-52. 2010
    ..To estimate HIV incidence in the general population in countries where there have been two recent household-based HIV prevalence surveys (the Dominican Republic, Mali, Niger, Tanzania, and Zambia)...
  28. pmc Individual level injection history: a lack of association with HIV incidence in rural Zimbabwe
    Ben A Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 2:e37. 2005
    ..It has recently been argued that unsafe medical injections are a major transmission route of HIV infection in the generalised epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa...
  29. ncbi request reprint Methods to reduce social desirability bias in sex surveys in low-development settings: experience in Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
    Sex Transm Dis 29:568-75. 2002
    ..GOAL The goal of this report was to describe and evaluate an informal, confidential, low-technology method-Informal Confidential Voting Interviews (ICVIs)-for collecting sexual behavior data in less developed settings...
  30. pmc Sexual risk among orphaned adolescents: is country-level HIV prevalence an important factor?
    Laura Robertson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    AIDS Care 22:927-38. 2010
    ..This suggests that orphaned adolescent women are an important target group for HIV prevention and that efforts should be made to integrate prevention messages into existing support programmes for orphans and vulnerable children...
  31. pmc Creating and validating an algorithm to measure AIDS mortality in the adult population using verbal autopsy
    Ben A Lopman
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 3:e312. 2006
    ..A reliable tool that is independent of HIV status is needed for measuring the frequency of AIDS deaths and ultimately the impact of antiretroviral therapy on mortality...
  32. doi request reprint The Distribution of Sex Acts and Condom Use within Partnerships in a Rural Sub-Saharan African Population
    Jennifer Smith
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e88378. 2014
    ..We analysed the distribution and predictors of within-partnership sexual behaviour and condom use in rural Zimbabwe and generated parameters for use in future modelling analyses...
  33. pmc Barriers to involvement of men in ANC and VCT in Khayelitsha, South Africa
    Boshishi K F Mohlala
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    AIDS Care 24:972-7. 2012
    ..It was clear that community sensitization programmes coupled with improvement of the health facility environment to be receptive to men are essential for increasing male attendance of ANC...
  34. pmc The impact of monitoring HIV patients prior to treatment in resource-poor settings: insights from mathematical modelling
    Timothy B Hallett
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e53. 2008
    ..We investigated the potential influence of alternative patient management and ART initiation strategies on the impact of ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa...
  35. ncbi request reprint Study of bias in antenatal clinic HIV-1 surveillance data in a high contraceptive prevalence population in sub-Saharan Africa
    Simon Gregson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    AIDS 16:643-52. 2002
    ..To describe patterns, sources and consequences of bias in antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV prevalence estimates in a high contraceptive prevalence population...
  36. ncbi request reprint Rising incidence and prevalence of orphanhood in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, 1998 to 2003
    Helen Watts
    Imperial College, London, UK
    AIDS 19:717-25. 2005
    ..To quantify and describe orphan incidence in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe...
  37. ncbi request reprint Poorer health and nutritional outcomes in orphans and vulnerable young children not explained by greater exposure to extreme poverty in Zimbabwe
    Helen Watts
    Department of Infectious Disease Eidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 12:584-93. 2007
    ....
  38. pmc A 'good hospital': nurse and patient perceptions of good clinical care for HIV-positive people on antiretroviral treatment in rural Zimbabwe--a mixed-methods qualitative study
    Catherine Campbell
    Health, Community and Development, Institute of Social Psychology, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom
    Int J Nurs Stud 48:175-83. 2011
    ..This treatment involves repeated interaction between health staff and patients for ongoing check-ups and prescription refills...
  39. doi request reprint Estimating vertically acquired HIV infections and the impact of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in Zimbabwe: insights from decision analysis models
    Sabada Dube
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:72-81. 2008
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Temporal Dynamics of Religion as a Determinant of HIV Infection in East Zimbabwe: A Serial Cross-Sectional Analysis
    Rumbidzai Manzou
    Manicaland HIV STI Prevention Project Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e86060. 2014
    ..Religion is an important underlying determinant of HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about how religion influences changes in HIV prevalence and associated sexual behaviours over time...
  41. pmc Is the risk of HIV acquisition increased during and immediately after pregnancy? A secondary analysis of pooled HIV community-based studies from the ALPHA network
    Milly Marston
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e82219. 2013
    ..However these studies are unable to tell us what the overall impact of pregnancy is on HIV acquisition in the general population...
  42. pmc Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa
    Helene A C M Voeten
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Sex Transm Dis 37:240-3. 2010
    ..In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration...
  43. ncbi request reprint The population impact of HIV on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa
    James J C Lewis
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, University of London, Norfolk Place, W2 1PG, UK
    AIDS 18:S35-43. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Evaluating the proximate determinants framework for HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe
    James J C Lewis
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 83:i61-69. 2007
    ..One suggested solution has been a proximate determinants framework, in which risk factors are grouped into "underlying", "proximate" and "biological" determinants...
  45. ncbi request reprint Population-level risk factors for HIV transmission and 'the 4 Cities Study': temporal dynamics and the significance of sexual mixing patterns
    Marie Claude Boily
    AIDS 16:2101-2. 2002
  46. ncbi request reprint Understanding the uneven spread of HIV within Africa: comparative study of biologic, behavioral, and contextual factors in rural populations in Tanzania and Zimbabwe
    J Ties Boerma
    Department of Epidemiology and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 30:779-87. 2003
    ..Large differences in the spread of HIV have been observed within sub-Saharan Africa...
  47. ncbi request reprint Community group participation: can it help young women to avoid HIV? An exploratory study of social capital and school education in rural Zimbabwe
    Simon Gregson
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3FY, UK
    Soc Sci Med 58:2119-32. 2004
    ..However, our findings suggest that promotion of and organisational development and training among community groups could well be an effective HIV control strategy...
  48. doi request reprint From affected to infected? Orphanhood and HIV risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe
    Isolde J Birdthistle
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 22:759-66. 2008
    ..Despite the 15 million children orphaned by AIDS, and fears of sexual vulnerability, little is known about the link between orphanhood and HIV risk...
  49. ncbi request reprint No difference in HIV incidence and sexual behaviour between out-migrants and residents in rural Manicaland, Zimbabwe
    Costandino Mundandi
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Trop Med Int Health 11:705-11. 2006
    ..In a prospective study, we investigated whether out-migrants are a selection of high-risk individuals and whether rural-to-urban migration results in risky sexual behaviour for HIV incidence...
  50. ncbi request reprint Changing patterns of adult mortality as the HIV epidemic matures in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe
    Jennifer Smith
    Imperial College, London, UK
    AIDS 21:S81-6. 2007
    ..During this period, adult mortality in men was stable, whereas female mortality increased to levels similar to those of men. We examine the trends in mortality from 2003 to 2005...
  51. ncbi request reprint Extended family's and women's roles in safeguarding orphans' education in AIDS-afflicted rural Zimbabwe
    Constance Nyamukapa
    Biomedical Research and Training Institute, University of Zimbabwe Campus, P O Box CY1753, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Soc Sci Med 60:2155-67. 2005
    ..These findings indicate that programmes should assist maternal orphans and support women's efforts by reinforcing the roles of extended families and local communities, and by facilitating greater self-sufficiency...
  52. pmc Seroepidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis in rural women in Zimbabwe and patterns of association with HIV infection
    Peter R Mason
    Biomedical Research and Training Institute, P O Box MP 1446, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Epidemiol Infect 133:315-23. 2005
    ..08, 95 % CI 2.95-12.53). Although a causal relationship cannot be assumed, detection and treatment of trichomoniasis may be important in strategies to reduce HIV transmission through sexually transmitted infection control...
  53. ncbi request reprint Voluntary counselling and testing: uptake, impact on sexual behaviour, and HIV incidence in a rural Zimbabwean cohort
    Lorraine Sherr
    Royal Free Hospital, University College London, UK
    AIDS 21:851-60. 2007
    ..To examine the determinants of uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services, to assess changes in sexual risk behaviour following VCT, and to compare HIV incidence amongst testers and non-testers...
  54. ncbi request reprint Patterns of movement and risk of HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe
    Megan P Coffee
    Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:S159-67. 2005
    ..High rates of population movement may have helped spread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in southern Africa, including Zimbabwe, but whether mobility continues to influence the epidemic is unclear...
  55. ncbi request reprint The contribution of HIV to fertility decline in rural Zimbabwe, 1985-2000
    Basia Zaba
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
    Popul Stud (Camb) 57:149-64. 2003
    ..Miscarriage appears to be a less important factor than elsewhere possibly because syphilis is rare...
  56. ncbi request reprint HIV-contaminated syringes are not evidence of transmission
    Ben A Lopman
    AIDS 20:1905. 2006