Azra C Ghani

Summary

Affiliation: Imperial College
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc vCJD risk in the Republic of Ireland
    Michael S Harney
    CJD Surveillance Unit, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    BMC Infect Dis 3:28. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Risks of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases in sexual partner networks
    A C Ghani
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Sex Transm Dis 27:579-87. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Patterns of antiretroviral use in the United States of America: analysis of three observational databases
    A C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    HIV Med 4:24-32. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Viral replication under combination antiretroviral therapy: a comparison of four different regimens
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:167-76. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Europe
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK
    Microbes Infect 4:385-93. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint The transmission dynamics of BSE and vCJD
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine St Mary s, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    C R Biol 325:37-47. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Surrogate markers for disease progression in treated HIV infection
    A C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College School of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 28:226-31. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing and protease inhibitor-containing regimens using observational databases
    A C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 15:1133-42. 2001
  9. pmc Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs
    Teun Bousema
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 9:136. 2010
  10. pmc Geographical and demographic clustering of gonorrhoea in London
    Claire L Risley
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Hospital, London, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 83:481-7. 2007

Detail Information

Publications69

  1. pmc vCJD risk in the Republic of Ireland
    Michael S Harney
    CJD Surveillance Unit, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    BMC Infect Dis 3:28. 2003
    ..The Republic of Ireland has the second highest incidence of BSE worldwide. Only a single case of vCJD has been identified to date...
  2. ncbi request reprint Risks of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases in sexual partner networks
    A C Ghani
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Sex Transm Dis 27:579-87. 2000
    ..Recently, network studies have attempted to relate individual risks to position in the wider network...
  3. ncbi request reprint Patterns of antiretroviral use in the United States of America: analysis of three observational databases
    A C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    HIV Med 4:24-32. 2003
    ..To characterize patterns of antiretroviral use in HIV-infected patients and explore variation by patient characteristics and disease stage...
  4. ncbi request reprint Viral replication under combination antiretroviral therapy: a comparison of four different regimens
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:167-76. 2002
    ..04; 95% CI, 1.0-1.07). Measurement of viral load after approximately 7 days provided the most accurate measure of the degree of viral suppression induced by a given drug regimen...
  5. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Europe
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK
    Microbes Infect 4:385-93. 2002
    ..Studies are currently under way to obtain more precise estimates of the prevalence of asymptomatic infection through testing tonsil and appendix tissues for the abnormal prion protein...
  6. ncbi request reprint The transmission dynamics of BSE and vCJD
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine St Mary s, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    C R Biol 325:37-47. 2002
    ..We also consider the epidemiological determinants of the future course of the vCJD epidemic, including the age and genetic characteristics of the confirmed cases, and present predictions of future case numbers...
  7. ncbi request reprint Surrogate markers for disease progression in treated HIV infection
    A C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College School of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 28:226-31. 2001
    ..To characterize the relationships among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1 RNA levels, immune system markers, and clinical outcome in a cohort of HIV-1-infected homosexual men...
  8. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing and protease inhibitor-containing regimens using observational databases
    A C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 15:1133-42. 2001
    ..To compare the effectiveness of first protease inhibitor (PI)-containing and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimens...
  9. pmc Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs
    Teun Bousema
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 9:136. 2010
    ..Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation time and duration of gametocyte carriage in treated malaria patients...
  10. pmc Geographical and demographic clustering of gonorrhoea in London
    Claire L Risley
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Hospital, London, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 83:481-7. 2007
    ..Gonorrhoea is an important cause of sexual ill health and is concentrated in geographical areas and demographic groups. This study explores the distribution of gonorrhoea across London...
  11. pmc Epidemiology, transmission dynamics and control of SARS: the 2002-2003 epidemic
    Roy M Anderson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1091-105. 2004
    ..These lessons learnt from the SARS experience are presented in an epidemiological and public health context...
  12. pmc Estimating the public health impact of the effect of herpes simplex virus suppressive therapy on plasma HIV-1 viral load
    Rebecca F Baggaley
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    AIDS 23:1005-13. 2009
    ..Our aim was to estimate the population-level impact of suppressive therapy on female-to-male HIV-1 sexual transmission...
  13. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the risks of atherosclerotic events versus death from other causes associated with antiretroviral use
    Grace P S Kwong
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, UK
    AIDS 20:1941-50. 2006
    ..Studies considering the risk of atherosclerotic disease (AtD) associated with the use of HAART have reported inconsistent results...
  14. ncbi request reprint Short-term projections for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease onsets
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    Stat Methods Med Res 12:191-201. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate the continued uncertainty in the future scale of this disease...
  15. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong
    Christl A Donnelly
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
    Lancet 361:1761-6. 2003
    ..We assessed the epidemiology of SARS in Hong Kong...
  16. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological and genetic analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome
    Christl A Donnelly
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:672-83. 2004
    ....
  17. pmc Factors determining the occurrence of submicroscopic malaria infections and their relevance for control
    Lucy C Okell
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nat Commun 3:1237. 2012
    ..Our findings challenge the idea that individuals with little previous malaria exposure have insufficient immunity to control parasitaemia and suggest a role for molecular screening...
  18. pmc Factors determining the pattern of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) epidemic in the UK
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 270:689-98. 2003
    ....
  19. pmc Implications of BSE infection screening data for the scale of the British BSE epidemic and current European infection levels
    Christl A Donnelly
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 269:2179-90. 2002
    ..Infection incidence for cattle born after mid-1996 was highest in Greece, Italy and Belgium, with Spain and The Netherlands having intermediate levels, and estimates for Great Britain, Germany and France being comparably low...
  20. pmc Modelling the impact of artemisinin combination therapy and long-acting treatments on malaria transmission intensity
    Lucy C Okell
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    PLoS Med 5:e226; discussion e226. 2008
    ..This study estimates the reduction in transmission that may be achieved by introducing different types of treatment for symptomatic P. falciparum malaria in endemic areas...
  21. ncbi request reprint The effect on treatment comparisons of different measurement frequencies in human immunodeficiency virus observational databases
    James T Griffin
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    Am J Epidemiol 163:676-83. 2006
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Public health. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Science 304:968-9. 2004
  23. pmc Loss of population levels of immunity to malaria as a result of exposure-reducing interventions: consequences for interpretation of disease trends
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e4383. 2009
    ..The development of appropriate monitoring of these interventions requires an understanding of the timescales of their effect...
  24. pmc The potential contribution of mass treatment to the control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Lucy C Okell
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modeling, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e20179. 2011
    ..The benefits of mass treatment need to be carefully weighed against the risks of increasing drug selection pressure...
  25. pmc Efficacy model for antibody-mediated pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines
    Michael T White
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 278:1298-305. 2011
    ....
  26. pmc Protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and parasite resistance
    Jamie T Griffin
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e12618. 2010
    ..Here we examine the relationship between the protective efficacy of SP-IPTi and measures of SP resistance...
  27. ncbi request reprint Commentary: Predicting the unpredictable: the future incidence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 32:792-3. 2003
  28. doi request reprint Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in the United States
    Simon Cauchemez
    Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London
    N Engl J Med 361:2619-27. 2009
    ..Risk factors for transmission remain largely uncharacterized. We characterize the risk factors and describe the transmission of the virus within households...
  29. pmc Determination of the processes driving the acquisition of immunity to malaria using a mathematical transmission model
    Joao A N Filipe
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Comput Biol 3:e255. 2007
    ..Understanding the effector mechanisms underlying these two immune functions will assist in the design of transmission-reducing interventions against malaria...
  30. pmc Updated projections of future vCJD deaths in the UK
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 3:4. 2003
    ..However, recent vCJD case data have indicated a decrease in the annual incidence of deaths over the past two years...
  31. doi request reprint Mind the gap: the role of time between sex with two consecutive partners on the transmission dynamics of gonorrhea
    Mark I Chen
    Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Sex Transm Dis 35:435-44. 2008
    ..We use a mathematical model with multiple partnership durations and gap lengths to identify the types of relationship cycles that sustain gonorrhea transmission in the United Kingdom...
  32. ncbi request reprint Antigen-driven T-cell turnover
    Christophe Fraser
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, Paddington, London W21PG, UK
    J Theor Biol 219:177-92. 2002
    ..We show that our model can resolve the paradox of high levels of viral replication occurring while only a small fraction of cells are infected...
  33. pmc Heterogeneity in malaria exposure and vaccine response: implications for the interpretation of vaccine efficacy trials
    Michael T White
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Malar J 9:82. 2010
    ..Phase III trials of the malaria vaccine, RTS, S, are now underway across multiple sites of varying transmission intensity in Africa. Heterogeneity in exposure, vaccine response and waning of efficacy may bias estimates of vaccine efficacy...
  34. pmc Uncertainty in the tail of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic in the UK
    Tini Garske
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Medical Research Council Centre of Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15626. 2010
    ..Regardless of the numbers of future cases, even in the absence of any further control measures, we do not find any self-sustaining epidemics...
  35. doi request reprint Joint estimation of the basic reproduction number and generation time parameters for infectious disease outbreaks
    Jamie T Griffin
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Biostatistics 12:303-12. 2011
    ....
  36. pmc Estimating air temperature and its influence on malaria transmission across Africa
    Tini Garske
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e56487. 2013
    ..We present high resolution maps of the malaria transmission parameters driven by air temperature and their seasonal variation. The fitted air temperature datasets are made publicly available alongside this publication...
  37. pmc The transmissibility of highly pathogenic avian influenza in commercial poultry in industrialised countries
    Tini Garske
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e349. 2007
    ..With the increased occurrence of outbreaks of H5N1 worldwide there is concern that the virus could enter commercial poultry farms with severe economic consequences...
  38. ncbi request reprint Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions
    Steven Riley
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 300:1961-6. 2003
    ..We estimate that most currently infected persons are now hospitalized, which highlights the importance of control of nosocomial transmission...
  39. pmc Reduction of transmission from malaria patients by artemisinin combination therapies: a pooled analysis of six randomized trials
    Lucy C Okell
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 7:125. 2008
    ..The size of this effect is estimated in symptomatic P. falciparum infections...
  40. pmc A Bayesian approach to quantifying the effects of mass poultry vaccination upon the spatial and temporal dynamics of H5N1 in Northern Vietnam
    Patrick G T Walker
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000683. 2010
    ....
  41. pmc Modelling the impact of vector control interventions on Anopheles gambiae population dynamics
    Michael T White
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Parasit Vectors 4:153. 2011
    ....
  42. doi request reprint Overcoming health systems barriers to successful malaria treatment
    V Bhargavi Rao
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, UK
    Trends Parasitol 29:164-80. 2013
    ..As global health funding slows, it is critical to better understand how to deliver a proven intervention most effectively through the existing system...
  43. doi request reprint Submicroscopic infection in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lucy C Okell
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 200:1509-17. 2009
    ..Quantifying these submicroscopic infections is therefore key to understanding transmission dynamics and successfully reducing parasite transmission...
  44. ncbi request reprint A note on parameter estimation for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease epidemic models
    Paul S Clarke
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Stat Med 26:546-52. 2007
    ..We also address comments in these papers regarding the choice of incubation period distribution...
  45. ncbi request reprint Identification of individuals with gonorrhoea within sexual networks: a population-based study
    Bhudipa Choudhury
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Lancet 368:139-46. 2006
    ..Our aim was to examine the application of high-throughput molecular approaches that can identify individuals in linked sexual networks...
  46. pmc Developing a realistic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission in Britain
    Katherine M E Turner
    Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Ave, Colindale, London, NW9 5EQ, UK
    Theor Biol Med Model 3:3. 2006
    ..Mathematical models provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key epidemiological features of chlamydia: sexual behaviour, health care seeking and transmission dynamics...
  47. pmc The relationship between RTS,S vaccine-induced antibodies, CD4⁺ T cell responses and protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection
    Michael T White
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e61395. 2013
    ..falciparum infection, a small number of parasites (often the progeny of a single surviving sporozoite) are responsible for breakthrough blood-stage infections...
  48. pmc Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control
    Patrick Walker
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    J R Soc Interface 9:1836-45. 2012
    ..We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection...
  49. pmc Costs and cost-effectiveness of malaria control interventions--a systematic review
    Michael T White
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Malar J 10:337. 2011
    ..Decisions on how to scale up the coverage of these interventions need to be based on evidence of programme effectiveness, equity and cost-effectiveness...
  50. ncbi request reprint Patterns of sex worker-client contacts and their implications for the persistence of sexually transmitted infections
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 191:S34-41. 2005
    ..The size of the SW population (relative to the total population) was found to be most important in determining the overall prevalence of infection...
  51. pmc Projections of the future course of the primary vCJD epidemic in the UK: inclusion of subclinical infection and the possibility of wider genetic susceptibility
    Paul Clarke
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J R Soc Interface 2:19-31. 2005
    ..Predictions of future cases of vCJD therefore remain uncertain, particularly given the recent identification of additional cases infected via blood transfusion...
  52. pmc Interpreting tuberculin skin tests in a population with a high prevalence of HIV, tuberculosis, and nonspecific tuberculin sensitivity
    Peter J Dodd
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary s Medical School, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Am J Epidemiol 171:1037-45. 2010
    ..However, the optimal cutpoint for HIV-infected individuals was consistently 0 mm. This calibration method may provide a valuable tool for interpreting TST results in other populations...
  53. pmc Pandemic potential of a strain of influenza A (H1N1): early findings
    Christophe Fraser
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Science 324:1557-61. 2009
    ..Transmissibility is therefore substantially higher than that of seasonal flu, and comparable with lower estimates of R0 obtained from previous influenza pandemics...
  54. pmc Control of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in the GB poultry flock
    James Truscott
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, St Mary s Campus, London W2 1PG, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 274:2287-95. 2007
    ..The most effective of these contingent interventions are large radius (10 km) localized culling and national vaccination. However, the modest impact of these approaches must be balanced against their substantial inconvenience and cost...
  55. ncbi request reprint Use of observational data in evaluating treatments: antiretroviral therapy and HIV
    Azra C Ghani
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 1:551-62. 2003
    ..However, because of the nature of these data, a number of potential biases may arise which can influence interpretation...
  56. pmc The potential impact of improving appropriate treatment for Fever on malaria and non-malarial febrile illness management in under-5s: a decision-tree modelling approach
    V Bhargavi Rao
    Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e69654. 2013
    ....
  57. pmc The design and statistical power of treatment re-infection studies of the association between pre-erythrocytic immunity and infection with Plasmodium falciparum
    Michael T White
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    Malar J 12:278. 2013
    ..However, published studies have reported inconsistent results on the association between markers of pre-erythrocytic immunity and protection from malaria...
  58. pmc A model of parity-dependent immunity to placental malaria
    Patrick G T Walker
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Nat Commun 4:1609. 2013
    ....
  59. pmc Can changes in malaria transmission intensity explain prolonged protection and contribute to high protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants?
    Roly D Gosling
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Malar J 7:54. 2008
    ..Five of the six trials using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for IPTi showed protective efficacies (PEs) against clinical malaria ranging from 20.1 - 33.3% whilst one, the Ifakara study, showed a protective efficacy of 58.6%...
  60. pmc Quantifying the mosquito's sweet tooth: modelling the effectiveness of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for malaria vector control
    John M Marshall
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Malar J 12:291. 2013
    ..Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations, have been shown to significantly reduce mosquito densities in these settings...
  61. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of lymphoreticular prion protein accumulation in UK tissue samples
    David A Hilton
    Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK
    J Pathol 203:733-9. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Mortality and progression to AIDS after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Ard I van Sighem
    HIV Monitoring Foundation, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS 17:2227-36. 2003
    ..To examine survival and progression to AIDS among HIV-infected patients after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  63. ncbi request reprint CD4 cell counts of 800 cells/mm3 or greater after 7 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy are feasible in most patients starting with 350 cells/mm3 or greater
    Luuk Gras
    HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:183-92. 2007
    ..CD4 cell count changes in therapy-naive patients were investigated during 7 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in an observational cohort...
  64. ncbi request reprint The epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome in the 2003 Hong Kong epidemic: an analysis of all 1755 patients
    Gabriel M Leung
    University of Hong Kong, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and Hong Kong Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, China
    Ann Intern Med 141:662-73. 2004
    ..As yet, no one has written a comprehensive epidemiologic account of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak from an affected country...
  65. pmc Factors determining the potential for onward transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via surgical instruments
    Tini Garske
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    J R Soc Interface 3:757-66. 2006
    ..A survey into the frequency of re-use of surgical instruments would help reduce these uncertainties...
  66. ncbi request reprint Non-parametric estimation of the case fatality ratio with competing risks data: an application to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    Nicholas P Jewell
    Division of Biostatistics and Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Stat Med 26:1982-98. 2007
    ..These issues are investigated here for non-parametric estimators of F(1) and F(2). The ideas are illustrated on case fatality data for individuals infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003...
  67. ncbi request reprint Mortality in patients with successful initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy is still higher than in non-HIV-infected individuals
    Ard van Sighem
    HIV Monitoring Foundation, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:212-8. 2005
    ..08 to 1.25) and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.50) times higher for 65-year-old men and women, respectively. Hence, mortality in HIV-infected patients with a good initial response to HAART is still higher than in the general population...
  68. pmc Accumulation of prion protein in tonsil and appendix: review of tissue samples
    David A Hilton
    Department of Histopathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth PL6 8DH
    BMJ 325:633-4. 2002
  69. pmc Is there the potential for an epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via blood transfusion in the UK?
    Paul Clarke
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    J R Soc Interface 4:675-84. 2007
    ..Our results support the belief that scenarios leading to large or self-sustaining epidemics are possible but unlikely, and that public health interventions were effective...