Research Topics

Genomes and Genes


Gad Frankel


Affiliation: Imperial College
Country: UK


  1. Ale A, Crepin V, Collins J, Constantinou N, Habibzay M, Babtie A, et al. Model of Host-Pathogen Interaction Dynamics Links In Vivo Optical Imaging and Immune Responses. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..The developed model serves as a novel tool for the identification and development of new therapeutic interventions. ..
  2. Slater S, Sagfors A, Pollard D, Ruano Gallego D, Frankel G. The Type III Secretion System of Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2018;416:51-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter summarises the current knowledge of the structure and function of the E. coli T3SSs. ..
  3. Munera D, Crepin V, Marches O, Frankel G. N-terminal type III secretion signal of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli translocator proteins. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..EspA containing the translocation signal of Map and Tir containing the secretion signal of EspA are biologically active. ..
  4. Pallett M, Berger C, Pearson J, Hartland E, Frankel G. The type III secretion effector NleF of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli activates NF-κB early during infection. Infect Immun. 2014;82:4878-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, EPEC, through the T3SS-dependent translocation of NleF, induces a proinflammatory response in an NF-κB-dependent manner in the early stages of infection. ..
  5. Pollard D, Berger C, So E, Yu L, Hadavizadeh K, Jennings P, et al. Broad-Spectrum Regulation of Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinases by the Bacterial ADP-Ribosyltransferase EspJ. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium or an espJ catalytic mutant. We show that EspJ, the only bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase that targets mammalian kinases, regulates the host immune response in vivo. ..
  6. Mousnier A, Schroeder G, Stoneham C, So E, Garnett J, Yu L, et al. A new method to determine in vivo interactomes reveals binding of the Legionella pneumophila effector PieE to multiple rab GTPases. MBio. 2014;5: pubmed publisher
  7. So E, Schroeder G, Carson D, Mattheis C, Mousnier A, Broncel M, et al. The Rab-binding Profiles of Bacterial Virulence Factors during Infection. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:5832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study illustrates the power of this approach to profile the intracellular interactomes of bacterial effectors during infection. ..
  8. Pollard D, Young J, Covarelli V, Herrera Leon S, Connor T, Fookes M, et al. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis. Infect Immun. 2016;84:3618-3628 pubmed
    ..enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae. ..
  9. Johnson R, Byrne A, Berger C, Klemm E, Crepin V, Dougan G, et al. The Type III Secretion System Effector SptP of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium. Although SptP is just one effector, our results exemplify that the behavior of these serovars is significantly different and genes identified to be important for S. Typhimurium virulence may not translate to S Typhi. ..

More Information


  1. Mullineaux Sanders C, Collins J, Ruano Gallego D, Levy M, Pevsner Fischer M, Glegola Madejska I, et al. Citrobacter rodentium Relies on Commensals for Colonization of the Colonic Mucosa. Cell Rep. 2017;21:3381-3389 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that expression of virulence genes is not sufficient for colonization of the colonic mucosa and that commensals are essential for a physiological infection course. ..
  2. Mullineaux Sanders C, Suez J, Elinav E, Frankel G. Sieving through gut models of colonization resistance. Nat Microbiol. 2018;3:132-140 pubmed publisher
  3. Witcomb L, Czupryna J, Francis K, Frankel G, Taylor P. Non-invasive three-dimensional imaging of Escherichia coli K1 infection using diffuse light imaging tomography combined with micro-computed tomography. Methods. 2017;127:62-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight technical issues associated with imaging of infections in new born rat pups and show that the whole-body and organ bioburden correlates with disease severity. ..
  4. Berger C, Crepin V, Roumeliotis T, Wright J, Carson D, Pevsner Fischer M, et al. Citrobacter rodentium Subverts ATP Flux and Cholesterol Homeostasis in Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vivo. Cell Metab. 2017;26:738-752.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that C. rodentium manipulates host metabolism to evade innate immune responses and establish a favorable gut ecosystem. ..
  5. Johnson R, Ravenhall M, Pickard D, Dougan G, Byrne A, Frankel G. Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Typhimurium Reveals Typhoidal Serovar-Specific Responses to Bile. Infect Immun. 2018;86: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we found that S Typhi exhibits a specific response to bile, especially with regard to virulence gene expression, which could impact pathogenesis and transmission. ..