Stephen R Durham

Summary

Affiliation: Imperial College
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc The skin prick test - European standards
    Lucie Heinzerling
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Clin Transl Allergy 3:3. 2013
  2. doi request reprint SQ-standardized sublingual grass immunotherapy: confirmation of disease modification 2 years after 3 years of treatment in a randomized trial
    Stephen R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:717-725.e5. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Update on mechanisms of allergen injection immunotherapy
    L K James
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Faculty of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:1074-88. 2008
  4. doi request reprint Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT
    S R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College School of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK
    Allergy 66:50-2. 2011
  5. doi request reprint Long-term clinical efficacy in grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis after treatment with SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet
    Stephen R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, Guy Scadding Building, Royal Brompton Campus, Dovehouse St, SW3 6LY London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:131-8.e1-7. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Allergen immunotherapy (desensitisation) for allergic diseases
    Stephen R Durham
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London
    Clin Med 6:348-51. 2006
  7. doi request reprint Sublingual immunotherapy: what have we learnt from the 'big trials'?
    Stephen R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:577-84. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Sublingual immunotherapy with once-daily grass allergen tablets: a randomized controlled trial in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
    Stephen R Durham
    Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals National Health Service Trust and Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:802-9. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy induces an allergen-specific IgA2 antibody response associated with mucosal TGF-beta expression
    Charles Pilette
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London, U K
    J Immunol 178:4658-66. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity
    Kayhan T Nouri-Aria
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 172:3252-9. 2004

Detail Information

Publications89

  1. pmc The skin prick test - European standards
    Lucie Heinzerling
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Clin Transl Allergy 3:3. 2013
    ..Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes...
  2. doi request reprint SQ-standardized sublingual grass immunotherapy: confirmation of disease modification 2 years after 3 years of treatment in a randomized trial
    Stephen R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:717-725.e5. 2012
    ..The main aim of specific immunotherapy is sustained effect due to changes in the immune system that can be demonstrated only in long-term trials...
  3. ncbi request reprint Update on mechanisms of allergen injection immunotherapy
    L K James
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Faculty of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:1074-88. 2008
    ..This review provides a comprehensive update on the mechanisms of allergen injection immunotherapy, recent data on the mechanisms of sublingual allergen immunotherapy is also included...
  4. doi request reprint Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT
    S R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College School of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK
    Allergy 66:50-2. 2011
    ..No safety issues were identified during follow-up...
  5. doi request reprint Long-term clinical efficacy in grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis after treatment with SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet
    Stephen R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, Guy Scadding Building, Royal Brompton Campus, Dovehouse St, SW3 6LY London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:131-8.e1-7. 2010
    ..Sustained and disease-modifying effects of sublingual immunotherapy have never before been confirmed in a large-scale randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
  6. ncbi request reprint Allergen immunotherapy (desensitisation) for allergic diseases
    Stephen R Durham
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London
    Clin Med 6:348-51. 2006
  7. doi request reprint Sublingual immunotherapy: what have we learnt from the 'big trials'?
    Stephen R Durham
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:577-84. 2008
    ..The present review evaluates three recent 'definitive' trials in adults and one in children...
  8. ncbi request reprint Sublingual immunotherapy with once-daily grass allergen tablets: a randomized controlled trial in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
    Stephen R Durham
    Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals National Health Service Trust and Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:802-9. 2006
    ..Sublingual immunotherapy has been developed to facilitate access to this form of treatment and to minimize serious adverse events...
  9. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy induces an allergen-specific IgA2 antibody response associated with mucosal TGF-beta expression
    Charles Pilette
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London, U K
    J Immunol 178:4658-66. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity
    Kayhan T Nouri-Aria
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 172:3252-9. 2004
    ..Thus, grass pollen immunotherapy may induce allergen-specific, IL-10-dependent "protective" IgG4 responses...
  11. pmc The IgE-facilitated allergen binding (FAB) assay: validation of a novel flow-cytometric based method for the detection of inhibitory antibody responses
    Mohamed H Shamji
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London, SW3 6LY, UK
    J Immunol Methods 317:71-9. 2006
    ..In conclusion, the IgE-FAB assay is reproducible, robust, sensitive and a specific method suitable as a tool for monitoring inhibitory antibody function from patients receiving allergen immunotherapy...
  12. doi request reprint Long-term tolerance after allergen immunotherapy is accompanied by selective persistence of blocking antibodies
    Louisa K James
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, part of the Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 127:509-516.e1-5. 2011
    ..Active treatment is associated with generation of inhibitory grass pollen-specific IgG antibodies capable of blocking allergen-IgE interactions...
  13. ncbi request reprint CXCR1+CD4+ T cells in human allergic disease
    James N Francis
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 172:268-73. 2004
    ..Phenotypic analysis reveals that IFN-gamma expression was lower in the CXCR1+CD4+ cells. The identification of CXCR1 as a marker of allergic rhinitis reveals a possible target for therapeutic intervention in atopic disease...
  14. pmc Tregs and allergic disease
    Douglas S Robinson
    Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 114:1389-97. 2004
    ..Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease...
  15. doi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy: IL-10 induction and suppression of late responses precedes IgG4 inhibitory antibody activity
    James N Francis
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:1120-1125.e2. 2008
    ..Grass pollen immunotherapy is an effective treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis that provides the opportunity to study the induction and maintenance of allergen-specific immune tolerance...
  16. ncbi request reprint Is occupational asthma to diisocyanates a non-IgE-mediated disease?
    Meinir G Jones
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:663-9. 2006
    ..There has been much debate as to whether this is due to diisocyanate-induced asthma being mediated by non-IgE mechanisms or whether it is the result of using inappropriate conjugates...
  17. ncbi request reprint Allergen drives class switching to IgE in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis
    Pooja Takhar
    The Randall Division, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:5024-32. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that allergen stimulates local CSR to IgE, revealing a potential target for topical therapies in allergic rhinitis...
  18. ncbi request reprint Induction of IL-10+CD4+CD25+ T cells by grass pollen immunotherapy
    James N Francis
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:1255-61. 2003
    ..IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have emerged as potential mediators of immune tolerance in numerous murine models of immunopathology...
  19. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of allergen-IgE binding to B cells by IgG antibodies after grass pollen immunotherapy
    Petra A Wachholz
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:915-22. 2003
    ..These observations have led to proposals that allergen-specific IgG antibodies might have protective properties in atopic individuals...
  20. pmc Grass pollen immunotherapy for hayfever is associated with increases in local nasal but not peripheral Th1:Th2 cytokine ratios
    Petra A Wachholz
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    Immunology 105:56-62. 2002
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint IL-9 and c-Kit+ mast cells in allergic rhinitis during seasonal allergen exposure: effect of immunotherapy
    Kayhan T Nouri-Aria
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 116:73-9. 2005
    ..Successful pollen immunotherapy is associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in both nasal c-Kit + mast cells and eosinophils. This effect might be explained, at least in part, by the reduced local expression of IL-9...
  22. doi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy induces Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ cells in the nasal mucosa
    Suzana Radulovic
    Department of Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital London, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:1467-72, 1472.e1. 2008
    ..Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in controlling allergic inflammation. The transcription factor Foxp3 regulates the development and function of natural and adaptive CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells...
  23. ncbi request reprint Combination treatment with omalizumab and rush immunotherapy for ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis: Inhibition of IgE-facilitated allergen binding
    Sven Klunker
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 120:688-95. 2007
    ..One proposed mechanism of immunotherapy is to induce regulatory antibodies that inhibit facilitated antigen presentation...
  24. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of immunotherapy
    Stephen J Till
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine, Doverhouse Street, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 113:1025-34; quiz 1035. 2004
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint IgE-facilitated antigen presentation: role in allergy and the influence of allergen immunotherapy
    Louisa K Wilcock
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 26:333-47, viii-ix. 2006
    ..This review summarizes the main components involved in IgE-FAP and the potential value of a validated functional assay of serum inhibitory antibodies for IgE-FAP for monitoring the clinical response to immunotherapy...
  26. doi request reprint Repeated low-dose intradermal allergen injection suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late responses
    Giuseppina Rotiroti
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 130:918-24.e1. 2012
    ..Uncontrolled reports from the early 20th century describe low-dose allergen inoculation directly into the dermis, an immunologically active area containing abundant dendritic cells and lymphatics...
  27. ncbi request reprint Allergen specificity of IgG(4)-expressing B cells in patients with grass pollen allergy undergoing immunotherapy
    Louisa K James
    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 130:663-670.e3. 2012
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Long-term clinical and immunological effects of allergen immunotherapy
    Aarif O Eifan
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 11:586-93. 2011
    ..The present review updates current findings on long-term clinical and immunological outcomes after cessation of allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory disease...
  29. doi request reprint Serum immunologic markers for monitoring allergen-specific immunotherapy
    Mohamed H Shamji
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London, SW3 6LY, UK
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 31:311-23, x. 2011
    ..This article explores the possibility that functional assays based on the ability of IgG to compete with IgE and inhibit IgE-allergen complex formation may be surrogate or predictive of the clinical response to immunotherapy...
  30. ncbi request reprint Allergen immunotherapy and tolerance
    Tomokazu Matsuoka
    Immunomodulation and Tolerance Group, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Allergol Int 62:403-13. 2013
    ..Alternative mechanisms of tolerance include apoptosis/deletion of antigen-specific memory Th2 cells and/or a failure of co-stimulation leading to T cell anergy...
  31. doi request reprint Peptide-induced immune regulation by a promiscuous and immunodominant CD4T-cell epitope of Timothy grass pollen: a role of Cbl-b and Itch in regulation
    Stephen J Till
    Department of Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Science, Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King s College London, London, UK
    Thorax 69:335-45. 2014
    ..T-cell targeted peptide epitope tolerogens from grass pollen allergens may be useful in treating seasonal allergic rhinitis, but there is urgent need for optimisation of approaches from improved understanding of mechanism...
  32. ncbi request reprint Optimisation of grass pollen nasal allergen challenge for assessment of clinical and immunological outcomes
    Guy W Scadding
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK
    J Immunol Methods 384:25-32. 2012
    ..Our model allows correlation between clinical responses and local biomarkers following nasal allergen challenge...
  33. ncbi request reprint Regulatory T cells and allergic disease
    Kayhan T Nouri-Aria
    Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, UK
    Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 7:237-52. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Local somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients
    Heather A Coker
    The Randall Centre, King s College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 171:5602-10. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint CCR4 in human allergen-induced late responses in the skin and lung
    Kayhan T Nouri-Aria
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, GB
    Eur J Immunol 32:1933-8. 2002
    ..CCR4 may be important in the recruitment of T lymphocytes at sites of allergic inflammation, in a non-organ-specific manner...
  36. pmc Perennial rhinitis
    Hesham A Saleh
    Charing Cross and Royal Brompton Hospitals, London
    BMJ 335:502-7. 2007
  37. ncbi request reprint Systematic assessment of difficult-to-treat asthma
    D S Robinson
    Dept of Allergy, Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    Eur Respir J 22:478-83. 2003
    ..Systematic evaluation of difficult asthma is useful as it can identify alternative or additional diagnoses, psychiatric illness or nonconcordance with therapy in a substantial proportion of cases (32% in the present series)...
  38. ncbi request reprint Allergen immunotherapy for house dust mite: clinical efficacy and immunological mechanisms in allergic rhinitis and asthma
    Aarif O Eifan
    Imperial College London, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, NHLI, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 13:1543-56. 2013
    ..Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use for the past century and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic respiratory disease...
  39. pmc EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy
    Moises A Calderon
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse Street, London, SW3 6LY, UK
    Clin Transl Allergy 2:20. 2012
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Postnasal drip and chronic cough: An open interventional study
    Patricia Macedo
    Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK
    Respir Med 103:1700-5. 2009
    ..The postnasal drip (PND) syndrome is often linked as a cause of chronic cough although this is disputed...
  41. doi request reprint Allergen-specific immunotherapy for respiratory allergies: from meta-analysis to registration and beyond
    Moises A Calderon
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College, NHLI, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 127:30-8. 2011
    ..In this review, the authors put into perspective current international expert recommendations on the use of SIT (in relation to levels of clinical evidence) and analyze what is needed for the future...
  42. doi request reprint Sublingual grass pollen immunotherapy is associated with increases in sublingual Foxp3-expressing cells and elevated allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4, immunoglobulin A and serum inhibitory activity for immunoglobulin E-facilitated allergen binding to B
    G W Scadding
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:598-606. 2010
    ..The mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are less well understood than those of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT)...
  43. ncbi request reprint Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy
    S R Durham
    Department of Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 341:468-75. 1999
    ..Pollen immunotherapy is effective in selected patients with IgE-mediated seasonal allergic rhinitis, although it is questionable whether there is long-term benefit after the discontinuation of treatment...
  44. pmc Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases
    Antonio Cappella
    Section Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:1499-512. 2012
    ..This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy...
  45. pmc Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodeling
    Stefanie Eyerich
    Molecular Immunology, Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 119:3573-85. 2009
    ..Future strategies directed against the Th22 subset may be of value in chronic inflammatory skin disorders...
  46. ncbi request reprint Adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy: experimental results and clinical perspectives
    James N Francis
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4:543-8. 2004
    ..Inclusion of adjuvants in immunotherapy vaccines are important to enhance immune responses to allergens. This article will cover the recent advances in adjuvant formulations described in published articles primarily over the past 2 years...
  47. ncbi request reprint Increases in allergen-specific IgE in BAL after segmental allergen challenge in atopic asthmatics
    Duncan R Wilson
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:22-6. 2002
    ..These data indicate that allergen provocation results in a selective local accumulation of isotype-specific and allergen-specific IgE antibody within the bronchi, independent of alterations in circulating IgE...
  48. pmc Elevated CCR6+ CD4+ T lymphocytes in tissue compared with blood and induction of CCL20 during the asthmatic late response
    J N Francis
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Clin Exp Immunol 152:440-7. 2008
    ..05). Thus, CCR6 may be important in the regulation of T cell recruitment to tissue and up-regulation of CCL20 expression may contribute to the recruitment and/or retention of effector T cells in allergic asthma...
  49. ncbi request reprint Prolonged preseasonal treatment phase with Grazax sublingual immunotherapy increases clinical efficacy
    M A Calderon
    Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK
    Allergy 62:958-61. 2007
    ..Aims of the study: The influence of the duration of preseasonal treatment on clinical efficacy obtained within the grass pollen season was investigated...
  50. ncbi request reprint Grass allergen tablet immunotherapy relieves individual seasonal eye and nasal symptoms, including nasal blockage
    S R Durham
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK
    Allergy 62:954-7. 2007
    ..Reported here are the effects of Grazax on individual eye and nasal symptoms...
  51. ncbi request reprint CCR4 ligands are up-regulated in the airways of atopic asthmatics after segmental allergen challenge
    C Pilette
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK
    Eur Respir J 23:876-84. 2004
    ..Thus, C-C chemokine receptor 4 ligands are up-regulated in the airways of atopic asthmatics following allergen exposure, contribute to the T-cell influx to the airways and are closely related to the Th2-cytokine response...
  52. ncbi request reprint Aluminium hydroxide down-regulates T helper 2 responses by allergen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    L K Wilcock
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 34:1373-8. 2004
    ..While alum is traditionally associated with murine Th2 sensitization, little is known about its effects on secondary allergic responses in humans...
  53. ncbi request reprint Eosinophils and eosinophil-associated cytokines in allergic inflammation
    A B Kay
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 113:196-9. 1997
    ..However, in the allergen-induced LPR, inflammation rapidly resolves, possibly through the initiation of programmed cell death and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages...
  54. ncbi request reprint Ethnic variations in UK asthma frequency, morbidity, and health-service use: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Gopalakrishnan Netuveli
    Department of Primary Care and Social Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Lancet 365:312-7. 2005
    ..We sought evidence of such ethnic variations in the UK for asthma frequency, morbidity, and health-services use, and to understand possible reasons for any differences...
  55. ncbi request reprint Seasonal changes in suppressive capacity of CD4+ CD25+ T cells from patients with hayfever are allergen-specific and may result in part from expansion of effector T cells among the CD25+ population
    A E Anderson
    Leukocyte Biology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute Division, Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:1693-9. 2009
    ....
  56. pmc T lymphocytes expressing CCR3 are increased in allergic rhinitis compared with non-allergic controls and following allergen immunotherapy
    J N Francis
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Allergy 62:59-65. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to assess differential chemokine receptor expression from symptomatic atopic grass pollen-sensitive subjects, compared with patients on high-dose allergen injection immunotherapy (IT) and healthy controls...
  57. ncbi request reprint Persistent IgE synthesis in the nasal mucosa of hay fever patients
    L Smurthwaite
    The Randall Centre, King's College London, London, UK
    Eur J Immunol 31:3422-31. 2001
    ..Our work demonstrates definitively for the first time that the local mucosa is a site of ongoing IgE synthesis...
  58. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy inhibits seasonal increases in basophils and eosinophils in the nasal epithelium
    D R Wilson
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 31:1705-13. 2001
    ..Immunotherapy may act, at least in part, by reducing seasonal recruitment of basophils and eosinophils into the epithelium...
  59. ncbi request reprint Basophil recruitment and IL-4 production during human allergen-induced late asthma
    K T Nouri-Aria
    Department of Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College at National Heart and Lung Institute and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:205-11. 2001
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Local expression of epsilon germline gene transcripts and RNA for the epsilon heavy chain of IgE in the bronchial mucosa in atopic and nonatopic asthma
    S Ying
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse St, London SW3 6LY, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:686-92. 2001
    ..These changes appear to relate to asthma rather than atopy per se and, at least in part, may be under the regulation of IL-4...
  61. ncbi request reprint Single dose topical corticosteroid inhibits IL-5 and IL-13 in nasal lavage following grass pollen challenge
    E M Erin
    National Heart and Lung Institute NHLI Clinical Studies Unit, Imperial College, London, UK
    Allergy 60:1524-9. 2005
    ..Objective: To determine the effects of a single dose of topical steroid on eosinophils and levels of chemokines and cytokines in nasal lavage fluid following NAC in patients with allergic rhinitis...
  62. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal rhinitis and asthma: a randomized, controlled trial
    S M Walker
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:87-93. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: Grass pollen immunotherapy improves quality of life in seasonal allergic rhinitis and reduces seasonal asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness...
  63. ncbi request reprint Grass pollen immunotherapy: symptomatic improvement correlates with reductions in eosinophils and IL-5 mRNA expression in the nasal mucosa during the pollen season
    D R Wilson
    Department of Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse St, London, SW3 6LY, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:971-6. 2001
    ..6, P <.02) correlated with symptoms after immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: Improvement in symptoms after grass pollen immunotherapy may result, at least in part, from inhibition of IL-5-dependent tissue eosinophilia during the pollen season...
  64. ncbi request reprint Topical corticosteroid inhibits interleukin-4, -5 and -13 in nasal secretions following allergen challenge
    E M Erin
    National Heart and Lung Institute NHLI Clinical Studies Unit, Imperial College, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 35:1608-14. 2005
    ..Cytokines and chemokines produced by allergen-reactive T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells may be pivotal to the pathophysiology of allergic disorders...
  65. ncbi request reprint Effects of a reversible beta-tryptase and trypsin inhibitor (RWJ-58643) on nasal allergic responses
    E M Erin
    Clinical Studies Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute NHLI, Imperial College, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 36:458-64. 2006
    ..beta-Tryptase is a multifunctional mast cell serine protease released during mast cell degranulation and tryptase/trypsin inhibitors are a novel potential therapeutic approach for allergic inflammatory diseases...
  66. ncbi request reprint BSACI guidelines for the management of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis
    G K Scadding
    The Royal National Throat Nose and Ear Hospital, Gray s Inn Road, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:19-42. 2008
    ..There are also special sections for children, co-morbid associations and pregnancy. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research...
  67. ncbi request reprint Germinal-centre reactions in allergic inflammation
    Hannah J Gould
    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King s College London, UK
    Trends Immunol 27:446-52. 2006
    ..Germinal-centre-like reactions are well-documented in the target organs of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review recent evidence that they also occur at sites of allergic inflammation...
  68. ncbi request reprint Immunological responses to allergen immunotherapy
    Stephen J Till
    Imperial College, London, England
    Clin Allergy Immunol 18:85-104. 2004
  69. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
    Ronald Dahl
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:434-40. 2006
    ..The sublingual route also has potential, although definitive evidence from large randomized controlled trials has been lacking...
  70. ncbi request reprint Allergen injection immunotherapy
    Eva Maria Varga
    Universitätsklinik für Kinder und Jugendheilkunde, Graz, Austria
    Clin Allergy Immunol 16:533-49. 2002
  71. ncbi request reprint Sublingual grass allergen tablet immunotherapy provides sustained clinical benefit with progressive immunologic changes over 2 years
    Ronald Dahl
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:512-518.e2. 2008
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of specific immunotherapy with SQ allergen extract in treatment-resistant seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
    Anthony J Frew
    Allergy and Inflammation Research Subdivision, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:319-25. 2006
    ..Specific immunotherapy is widely used to treat allergic rhinitis, but few large-scale clinical trials have been performed...
  73. ncbi request reprint Tradition and innovation: finding the right balance
    Stephen R Durham
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:792-5. 2007
  74. ncbi request reprint Once-daily sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy improves quality of life in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a double-blind, randomised study
    Sabina Rak
    Section of Allergy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    Qual Life Res 16:191-201. 2007
    ..These data show that sublingual immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets improves QOL in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, reduces symptoms, and that this effect is greater than rescue antihistamine alone...
  75. ncbi request reprint Class switch recombination to IgE in the bronchial mucosa of atopic and nonatopic patients with asthma
    Pooja Takhar
    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King s College London, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:213-8. 2007
    ..It is generally believed that class switch recombination occurs in lymphoid tissue, but it was recently shown that class switching to IgE occurs in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis...
  76. ncbi request reprint Immunomodulatory treatment strategies for allergic diseases
    Eva Maria Varga
    Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Graz, A 8036 Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 30, Austria
    Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2:31-46. 2003
    ..Although, immunomodulatory strategies provide a promising outlook for the treatment of allergic patients, more studies are needed in the future to address issues of efficacy, safety and long-term effects of altered immune responses...
  77. ncbi request reprint Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma update: allergen immunotherapy
    Giovanni Passalacqua
    Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:881-91. 2007
    ..Novel approaches for immunotherapy are currently under evaluation, including the use of adjuvants, peptides, and DNA-conjugated and recombinant allergens...
  78. ncbi request reprint NHS allergy services in the UK: proposals to improve allergy care
    Pamela W Ewan
    Immunology Clinic, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge
    Clin Med 2:122-7. 2002
    ..As a first step, we propose the setting up of appropriately staffed regional allergy centres. This could be achieved with a central directive and (relatively minor) pump-priming of funding...
  79. ncbi request reprint Activity of human monocytes in IgE antibody-dependent surveillance and killing of ovarian tumor cells
    Sophia N Karagiannis
    The Randall Centre, King s College London, London, GB
    Eur J Immunol 33:1030-40. 2003
    ..We observed phagocytosis of tumor cells by the monocytes in vitro. Our results suggest that tumor-specific IgE antibodies may be exploited for immunotherapy of cancer...
  80. pmc Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: desensitisation for hay fever works
    Stephen R Durham
    BMJ 327:1229. 2003
  81. ncbi request reprint Objective monitoring of nasal airway inflammation in rhinitis
    Peter H Howarth
    IIR Research Division, Mail Point 810, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD, United Kingdom
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:S414-41. 2005
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint The CX3C chemokine fractalkine in allergic asthma and rhinitis
    Anne Cécile Rimaniol
    Service de Pneumologie et Reanimation Respiratoire, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Universite Paris Sud, Clamart, France
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:1139-46. 2003
    ..Because of its dual activity, fractalkine plays a major role in the transendothelial and transepithelial migration of leukocytes during inflammation...
  83. ncbi request reprint Local IgE synthesis in allergic rhinitis and asthma
    Lyn Smurthwaite
    The Randall Centre for Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Function, King s College London, Guy s Campus, St Thomas Street, SE1 9RT, UK
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2:231-8. 2002
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of immunotherapy: IgG revisited
    Petra A Wachholz
    Immunology, HAES Research, Syngenta, CTL, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4:313-8. 2004
    ..This paper will review historical and recent evidence for the induction of 'blocking' IgG antibodies during successful specific immunotherapy...
  85. ncbi request reprint Functional endoscopic sinus surgery: 5 year follow up and results of a prospective, randomised, stratified, double-blind, placebo controlled study of postoperative fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray
    Julian M Rowe-Jones
    Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Facial Plastic Surgery Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, United Kingdom
    Rhinology 43:2-10. 2005
    ..Significantly more prednisolone rescue medication courses were prescribed in the placebo group. Of the 12 patients who failed the study, 10 were in the placebo group. This difference nearly achieved significance...
  86. ncbi request reprint Biased use of VH5 IgE-positive B cells in the nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis
    Heather A Coker
    The Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King s College London, London
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 116:445-52. 2005
    ..The expressed IgE VH genes also undergo somatic hypermutation in situ to generate clonal families. The antigenic driving force behind these events is unknown...
  87. ncbi request reprint Mucosal immunity in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a role for immunoglobulin A?
    Charles Pilette
    Unit of Microbiology, University of Louvain, 54 Avenue Hippocrate BP5490, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 1:125-35. 2004
    ..Future studies will hopefully yield better knowledge of IgA biology and lung mucosal immunity and help to use more efficiently the mucosal route for immunotherapy or target specific genes in inflamed airways...
  88. ncbi request reprint Levocetirizine improves quality of life and reduces costs in long-term management of persistent allergic rhinitis
    Claus Bachert
    Department of Oto Rhino Laryngology, University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:838-44. 2004
    ..The Xyzal in Persistent Rhinitis Trial is the first large, long-term clinical trial studying patients with persistent rhinitis as defined by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma...